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Chemical Compound Review

Krypton-81     krypton

Synonyms: Krypton-81m, Krypton Kr 81m, CHEMBL1201096, AC1L258U, D04656, ...
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Disease relevance of krypton

  • We conclude that different patterns of disturbed myocardial distribution of krypton-81m are present during stress-induced ischemia in patients with coronary artery disease [1].
  • The jeopardized segment at first showed no change and then a decrease in regional activity of krypton-81m (89.0 +/- 17%) accompanied by ST-segment depression and chest pain [1].
  • Clinical use of ultrashort-lived radionuclide krypton-81m for noninvasive analysis of right ventricular performance in normal subjects and patients with right ventricular dysfunction [2].
  • In 10 normal subjects, 11 patients with pulmonary hypertension, 4 patients with right ventricular outflow tract obstruction and 4 patients with right ventricular infarction, right ventricular ejection fraction determined by krypton-81m equilibrium blood pool imaging ranged from 14 to 76% [2].
  • To investigate the relative importance of size and polarizability in ligand binding within proteins, we have determined the crystal structures of pseudo wild-type and cavity-containing mutant phage T4 lysozymes in the presence of argon, krypton, and xenon [3].

Psychiatry related information on krypton

  • The krypton procedure is preferred in pulmonary embolism suspects because it requires far less patient cooperation than the xenon and aerosol methods and the lung images disclose regional ventilatory impairment quickly and accurately [4].

High impact information on krypton


Chemical compound and disease context of krypton


Biological context of krypton

  • Thus, equilibrium-gated right ventricular imaging using ultrashort-lived krypton-81m is a simple, accurate and reproducible method with potential for serial assessment of right ventricular ejection fraction in a variety of right ventricular anatomic and functional abnormalities, both at rest and during exercise [2].
  • Inhalation of 40% xenon for 1 min and of 80% krypton for 2 min had no significant effect on rCBF in most brain regions studied [13].
  • Krypton-81m, given by continuous i.v. infusion, has been successfully used for the equilibrium ECG-gated assessment of right ventricular function [14].
  • A targeted sequence was further investigated using an animal model of choroidal neovascularisation where a krypton laser was used to produce a wound healing response in the choroid and retina [15].
  • In 44 patients with angiographically confirmed PE and in 40 patients with COPD, the regional ventilation-perfusion ratios (V/Q) were therefore computed using krypton-81m for each perfusion defect, and were displayed in a functional image [16].

Anatomical context of krypton


Associations of krypton with other chemical compounds


Gene context of krypton

  • We investigated the mRNA expression of TGF-beta isoforms in a model of experimental choroidal neovascularization induced by krypton-laser photocoagulation [26].
  • METHODS: CNV was induced in wild-type and MMP-2-deficient mice by krypton laser photocoagulation of the fundus [27].
  • The authors studied the relationship of aFGF and bFGF expression to retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell and choriocapillary endothelial cell proliferation in krypton-laser-treated regions of the retina, RPE, and choroid of a model of subretinal neovascularization in the pigmented rat they developed [28].
  • The authors performed a prospective study of 36 eyes affected by pathologic myopia with macular subretinal neovascularization (SRNV) successfully treated with either argon green, dye orange (590 nm), or krypton red lasers [29].
  • During this slow deacylation it is possible to obtain a very good resonance Raman spectrum of the acyl intermediate by using the 350.7-nm line of the krypton laser [30].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of krypton

  • Regional myocardial perfusion was assessed using an atrial pacing test and a short-lived radionuclide, krypton-81m [1].
  • Eleven patients had negative exercise tests and uniform increases in myocardial activity of krypton-81m of 98 +/- 18.0% during pacing [1].
  • The methods use high-intensity krypton and argon ion lasers in the photoreactions and HPLC methods to purify the required oligonucleotides containing the photoadducts [31].
  • The laser scanning confocal microscope, when used with the krypton-argon ion laser, is well suited for the simultaneous detection of pairs of antigens by immunofluorescence [32].
  • Krypton scans were normal in the control group [33].


  1. Patterns of disturbed myocardial perfusion in patients with coronary artery disease. Regional myocardial perfusion in angina pectoris. Selwyn, A.P., Forse, G., Fox, K., Jonathan, A., Steiner, R. Circulation (1981) [Pubmed]
  2. Clinical use of ultrashort-lived radionuclide krypton-81m for noninvasive analysis of right ventricular performance in normal subjects and patients with right ventricular dysfunction. Nienaber, C.A., Spielmann, R.P., Wasmus, G., Mathey, D.G., Montz, R., Bleifeld, W.H. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  3. Size versus polarizability in protein-ligand interactions: binding of noble gases within engineered cavities in phage T4 lysozyme. Quillin, M.L., Breyer, W.A., Griswold, I.J., Matthews, B.W. J. Mol. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Inhalation lung imaging with radioactive aerosols and gases. Taplin, G.V., Chopra, S.K. Progress in nuclear medicine. (1978) [Pubmed]
  5. Targeted disruption of the FGF2 gene does not prevent choroidal neovascularization in a murine model. Tobe, T., Ortega, S., Luna, J.D., Ozaki, H., Okamoto, N., Derevjanik, N.L., Vinores, S.A., Basilico, C., Campochiaro, P.A. Am. J. Pathol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Distortion of a spherical gaseous interface accelerated by a plane shock wave. Layes, G., Jourdan, G., Houas, L. Phys. Rev. Lett. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Simplified model of krypton laser-induced thrombotic distal middle cerebral artery occlusion in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Yao, H., Ibayashi, S., Sugimori, H., Fujii, K., Fujishima, M. Stroke (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Regional comparison of technetium-99m DTPA aerosol and radioactive gas ventilation (xenon and krypton) studies in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. Ramanna, L., Alderson, P.O., Waxman, A.D., Berman, D.S., Brachman, M.B., Kroop, S.A., Goldsmith, M., Tanasescu, D.E. J. Nucl. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  9. Effect of rapid decompression and associated hypoxic phenomena in euthanasia of animals: a review. Booth, N.H. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. (1978) [Pubmed]
  10. Treatment of macular subretinal neovascularization with the red-light krypton laser in presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome. Yassur, Y., Gilad, E., Ben-Sira, I. Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  11. Krypton laser for proliferative diabetic retinopathy: the Krypton Argon Regression of Neovascularization Study. Singerman, L.J., Ferris, F.L., Mowery, R.P., Brucker, A.J., Murphy, R.P., Lerner, B.C., Mincey, G.J. The Journal of diabetic complications. (1988) [Pubmed]
  12. Continuous imaging of regional blood flow in peripheral vascular disease using Krypton-81m: effect of Ketanserin, a new selective serotonin antagonist. Gerritsen, H.A., Perquin, J.W., de Smet, H.L., Troost, F.A., Kotora, O.V. Diagnostic imaging. (1983) [Pubmed]
  13. Effects of xenon and krypton on regional cerebral blood flow in the rat. Junck, L., Dhawan, V., Thaler, H.T., Rottenberg, D.A. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1985) [Pubmed]
  14. Gated right ventricular studies using krypton-81m: comparison with first-pass studies using gold-195m. Caplin, J.L., Flatman, W.D., Dymond, D.S. J. Nucl. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  15. In vivo use of oligonucleotides to inhibit choroidal neovascularisation in the eye. Garrett, K.L., Shen, W.Y., Rakoczy, P.E. The journal of gene medicine. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Computation of ventilation-perfusion ratio with Kr-81m in pulmonary embolism. Meignan, M., Simonneau, G., Oliveira, L., Harf, A., Cinotti, L., Cavellier, J.F., Duroux, P., Ansquer, J.C., Galle, P. J. Nucl. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  17. Distribution of the blood flow supplied by the vertebral artery in humans as assessed by emission CT. Taki, W., Handa, H., Higa, T., Tanada, S., Fukuyama, H., Fujita, T., Yonekawa, Y., Kameyama, M., Torizuka, K. Stroke (1984) [Pubmed]
  18. The determination of the diffusion coefficient of krypton in rabbit ocular tissue. Strang, R. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1977) [Pubmed]
  19. Repair of retinal pigment epithelium and its relationship with capillary endothelium after krypton laser photocoagulation. Pollack, A., Korte, G.E. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1990) [Pubmed]
  20. Retinal vessel photocoagulation: a quantitative comparison of argon and krypton laser. Wieder, M., Pomerantzeff, O., Schneider, J. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1981) [Pubmed]
  21. Effects of posture on the distribution of pulmonary ventilation and perfusion in children and adults. Bhuyan, U., Peters, A.M., Gordon, I., Davies, H., Helms, P. Thorax (1989) [Pubmed]
  22. Capillary electrophoresis analysis of isomeric truxillines and other high molecular weight impurities in illicit cocaine. Lurie, I.S., Hays, P.A., Casale, J.F., Moore, J.M., Castell, D.M., Chan, K.C., Issaq, H.J. Electrophoresis (1998) [Pubmed]
  23. Tc-99m-DTPA aerosol and radioactive gases compared as adjuncts to perfusion scintigraphy in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. Alderson, P.O., Biello, D.R., Gottschalk, A., Hoffer, P.B., Kroop, S.A., Lee, M.E., Ramanna, L., Siegel, B.A., Waxman, A.D. Radiology. (1984) [Pubmed]
  24. Ventilation and perfusion scans in the preoperative assessment of bronchial carcinoma. Lipscomb, D.J., Pride, N.B. Thorax (1977) [Pubmed]
  25. Automated determination of the right ventricular ejection fraction by digital processing of 81mKr scintigrams. Elfner, R., Vaknine, R., Knapp, W.H., Tillmanns, H., Lorenz, W.J. European journal of nuclear medicine. (1986) [Pubmed]
  26. Expression of transforming growth factor-beta mRNA in experimental choroidal neovascularization. Ogata, N., Yamamoto, C., Miyashiro, M., Yamada, H., Matsushima, M., Uyama, M. Curr. Eye Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Reduced choroidal neovascular membrane formation in matrix metalloproteinase-2-deficient mice. Berglin, L., Sarman, S., van der Ploeg, I., Steen, B., Ming, Y., Itohara, S., Seregard, S., Kvanta, A. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. Mitogenesis and retinal pigment epithelial cell antigen expression in the rat after krypton laser photocoagulation. Zhang, N.L., Samadani, E.E., Frank, R.N. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1993) [Pubmed]
  29. Photocoagulation scar expansion after laser therapy for choroidal neovascularization in degenerative myopia. Brancato, R., Pece, A., Avanza, P., Radrizzani, E. Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.) (1990) [Pubmed]
  30. Chromophoric cinnamic acid substrates as resonance Raman probes of the active site environment in native and unfolded alpha-chymotrypsin. Weber, J.A., Turpin, P., Bernhard, S.A., Peticolas, W.L. Biochemistry (1986) [Pubmed]
  31. Methods for the large-scale synthesis of psoralen furan-side monoadducts and diadducts. Spielmann, H.P., Sastry, S.S., Hearst, J.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  32. Double-label immunofluorescence with the laser scanning confocal microscope using cyanine dyes. Sargent, P.B. Neuroimage (1994) [Pubmed]
  33. Abnormalities of pulmonary vascular dynamics and inflammation in early progressive systemic sclerosis. Furst, D.E., Davis, J.A., Clements, P.J., Chopra, S.K., Theofilopoulos, A.N., Chia, D. Arthritis Rheum. (1981) [Pubmed]
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