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Gene Review

Mmp2  -  matrix metallopeptidase 2

Mus musculus

Synonyms: 72 kDa gelatinase, 72 kDa type IV collagenase, 72kDa gelatinase, 72kDa type IV collagenase, Clg4a, ...
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Disease relevance of Mmp2

  • Intact vitronectin induces matrix metalloproteinase-2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 expression and enhanced cellular invasion by melanoma cells [1].
  • To clarify these roles, we investigated the development of Ab-induced arthritis, one of the murine models of rheumatoid arthritis, in MMP-2 or MMP-9 knockout (KO) mice [2].
  • These results indicated a suppressive role of MMP-2 and a pivotal role of MMP-9 in the development of inflammatory joint disease [2].
  • MMP-2 was abnormally localized to the interstitium and to foci between cysts, suggesting that MMP-2 may regulate collagen accumulation at those sites, thus allowing cyst enlargement and limiting the severity of interstitial fibrosis [3].
  • Squamous cell carcinoma growth in mice and in culture is regulated by c-Jun and its control of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 expression [4].
  • These results suggest that expression, regulation, and activity of MMP-2 can play an important role in the initial steps of fibrosis and shows that FN levels can regulate the cellular response to CTGF [5].

High impact information on Mmp2

  • Levels of PEX in these vascularized tissues suggest that it interacts with endothelial cell alphavbeta3 where it serves as a natural inhibitor of MMP-2 activity, thereby regulating the invasive behavior of new blood vessels [6].
  • PEX blocks MMP-2 activity on the chick chorioallantoic membrane where it disrupts angiogenesis and tumor growth [6].
  • Mice deficient in MMP-2, MMP-3 or MMP-9 had lower levels of apoptosis and necrosis of hepatocytes, and better survival [7].
  • Expression of the gene product on the cell surface induces specific activation of pro-gelatinase A in vitro and enhances cellular invasion of the reconstituted basement membrane [8].
  • Tumour cells of invasive lung carcinomas, which contain activated forms of gelatinase A, were found to express the transcript and the gene product [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of Mmp2


Biological context of Mmp2

  • During EMT, loss of PECAM-1 similarly promotes single cell motility and MMP-2 expression [14].
  • Our findings suggest that high glucose-induced inhibition of AV cushion morphogenesis results from decreased myocardial VEGF-A expression and is, in part, mediated by persistent endocardial cell PECAM-1 expression and failure to up-regulate MMP-2 expression [14].
  • Using a specific MMP2 and MMP9 inhibitor, Ro28-2653, GnRH-dependent EGFR transactivation was abrogated [15].
  • Finally, we analyze the modulation of MMP-2, MMP-19, and TIMP-1 during 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation, and we explore the effect of inhibition of MMP activity on in vitro adipogenesis [16].
  • At birth, MMP-2(-/-) mice had a lung phenotype characterized by abnormal lung alveolization which phenocopied that of Egfr(-/-) mice, albeit somewhat less severe [17].

Anatomical context of Mmp2


Associations of Mmp2 with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of Mmp2

  • TIMP-3 regulates MMP-2 activation to limit tumor cell extravasation and subsequent colonization of the lung, without augmenting inflammatory cell response.Oncogene (2006) 25, 6489-6496. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1209663; published online 15 May 2006 [23].
  • In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism by which TNX deficiency activates the MMP-2 gene [22].
  • In cultured stellate cells, recombinant IL-6 suppressed endogenous MMP-2 mRNA and protein expression [24].
  • In contrast, by adulthood MMP-2-/- mice had normal alveolar size and structure, indicating normal alveolar development was not dependent on the ability of MT1-MMP to activate pro-MMP-2 [25].
  • Most notably, IGF-1 can regulate MMP-2 mRNA expression in C3 cells through a mechanism involving MMP-2 message stabilization [26].

Other interactions of Mmp2


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Mmp2


  1. Intact vitronectin induces matrix metalloproteinase-2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 expression and enhanced cellular invasion by melanoma cells. Bafetti, L.M., Young, T.N., Itoh, Y., Stack, M.S. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. The role of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 in antibody-induced arthritis. Itoh, T., Matsuda, H., Tanioka, M., Kuwabara, K., Itohara, S., Suzuki, R. J. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 in a murine model of infantile-type polycystic kidney disease. Rankin, C.A., Itoh, Y., Tian, C., Ziemer, D.M., Calvet, J.P., Gattone, V.H. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Squamous cell carcinoma growth in mice and in culture is regulated by c-Jun and its control of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 expression. Zhang, G., Luo, X., Sumithran, E., Pua, V.S., Barnetson, R.S., Halliday, G.M., Khachigian, L.M. Oncogene (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Matrix metalloproteinase-2-deficient fibroblasts exhibit an alteration in the fibrotic response to connective tissue growth factor/CCN2 because of an increase in the levels of endogenous fibronectin. Droppelmann, C.A., Gutiérrez, J., Vial, C., Brandan, E. J. Biol. Chem. (2009) [Pubmed]
  6. Disruption of angiogenesis by PEX, a noncatalytic metalloproteinase fragment with integrin binding activity. Brooks, P.C., Silletti, S., von Schalscha, T.L., Friedlander, M., Cheresh, D.A. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases blocks lethal hepatitis and apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor and allows safe antitumor therapy. Wielockx, B., Lannoy, K., Shapiro, S.D., Itoh, T., Itohara, S., Vandekerckhove, J., Libert, C. Nat. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. A matrix metalloproteinase expressed on the surface of invasive tumour cells. Sato, H., Takino, T., Okada, Y., Cao, J., Shinagawa, A., Yamamoto, E., Seiki, M. Nature (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Angiotensin II-accelerated atherosclerosis and aneurysm formation is attenuated in osteopontin-deficient mice. Bruemmer, D., Collins, A.R., Noh, G., Wang, W., Territo, M., Arias-Magallona, S., Fishbein, M.C., Blaschke, F., Kintscher, U., Graf, K., Law, R.E., Hsueh, W.A. J. Clin. Invest. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Combination of systemic thioacetamide (TAA) injections and ethanol feeding accelerates hepatic fibrosis in C3H/He mice and is associated with intrahepatic up regulation of MMP-2, VEGF and ICAM-1. Kornek, M., Raskopf, E., Guetgemann, I., Ocker, M., Gerceker, S., Gonzalez-Carmona, M.A., Rabe, C., Sauerbruch, T., Schmitz, V. J. Hepatol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Effect of curcumin on gelatinase A (MMP-2) activity in B16F10 melanoma cells. Banerji, A., Chakrabarti, J., Mitra, A., Chatterjee, A. Cancer Lett. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Experimental hindlimb ischemia leads to neutrophil-mediated increases in gastrocnemius MMP-2 and -9 activity: a potential mechanism for ischemia induced MMP activation. Muhs, B.E., Gagne, P., Plitas, G., Shaw, J.P., Shamamian, P. J. Surg. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Impaired bone resorption to prostaglandin E2 in prostaglandin E receptor EP4-knockout mice. Miyaura, C., Inada, M., Suzawa, T., Sugimoto, Y., Ushikubi, F., Ichikawa, A., Narumiya, S., Suda, T. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Elevated glucose inhibits VEGF-A-mediated endocardial cushion formation: modulation by PECAM-1 and MMP-2. Enciso, J.M., Gratzinger, D., Camenisch, T.D., Canosa, S., Pinter, E., Madri, J.A. J. Cell Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 mediate epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation by gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Roelle, S., Grosse, R., Aigner, A., Krell, H.W., Czubayko, F., Gudermann, T. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Matrix metalloproteinases are differentially expressed in adipose tissue during obesity and modulate adipocyte differentiation. Chavey, C., Mari, B., Monthouel, M.N., Bonnafous, S., Anglard, P., Van Obberghen, E., Tartare-Deckert, S. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Signaling through the EGF receptor controls lung morphogenesis in part by regulating MT1-MMP-mediated activation of gelatinase A/MMP2. Kheradmand, F., Rishi, K., Werb, Z. J. Cell. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Involvement of a matrix metalloproteinase in MIS-induced cell death during urogenital development. Roberts, L.M., Visser, J.A., Ingraham, H.A. Development (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Group IB secretory phospholipase A2 promotes matrix metalloproteinase-2-mediated cell migration via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and Akt pathway. Choi, Y.A., Lim, H.K., Kim, J.R., Lee, C.H., Kim, Y.J., Kang, S.S., Baek, S.H. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Expression of the type IV collagenase system during mouse kidney development and tubule segmentation. Legallicier, B., Trugnan, G., Murphy, G., Lelongt, B., Ronco, P. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Osteopontin induces nuclear factor kappa B-mediated promatrix metalloproteinase-2 activation through I kappa B alpha /IKK signaling pathways, and curcumin (diferulolylmethane) down-regulates these pathways. Philip, S., Kundu, G.C. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Induction of matrix metalloproteinase-2 by tenascin-X deficiency is mediated through the c-Jun N-terminal kinase and protein tyrosine kinase phosphorylation pathway. Matsumoto, K., Minamitani, T., Orba, Y., Sato, M., Sawa, H., Ariga, H. Exp. Cell Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Enhanced metastatic dissemination to multiple organs by melanoma and lymphoma cells in timp-3(-/-) mice. Cruz-Munoz, W., Sanchez, O.H., Di Grappa, M., English, J.L., Hill, R.P., Khokha, R. Oncogene (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. Interleukin-6 protects hepatocytes from CCl4-mediated necrosis and apoptosis in mice by reducing MMP-2 expression. Bansal, M.B., Kovalovich, K., Gupta, R., Li, W., Agarwal, A., Radbill, B., Alvarez, C.E., Safadi, R., Fiel, M.I., Friedman, S.L., Taub, R.A. J. Hepatol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase is required for normal alveolar development. Atkinson, J.J., Holmbeck, K., Yamada, S., Birkedal-Hansen, H., Parks, W.C., Senior, R.M. Dev. Dyn. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Insulin like growth factor-1 selectively regulates the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in malignant H-ras transformed cells. Yoon, A., Hurta, R.A. Mol. Cell. Biochem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. Impaired migration and delayed differentiation of pancreatic islet cells in mice lacking EGF-receptors. Miettinen, P.J., Huotari, M., Koivisto, T., Ustinov, J., Palgi, J., Rasilainen, S., Lehtonen, E., Keski-Oja, J., Otonkoski, T. Development (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. Diminished matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) in ectomesenchyme-derived tissues of the Patch mutant mouse: regulation of MMP-2 by PDGF and effects on mesenchymal cell migration. Robbins, J.R., McGuire, P.G., Wehrle-Haller, B., Rogers, S.L. Dev. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. Regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2, -3, -9, and -13) by interleukin-1 and interleukin-6 in mouse calvaria: association of MMP induction with bone resorption. Kusano, K., Miyaura, C., Inada, M., Tamura, T., Ito, A., Nagase, H., Kamoi, K., Suda, T. Endocrinology (1998) [Pubmed]
  30. MT-MMP, the cell surface activator of proMMP-2 (pro-gelatinase A), is expressed with its substrate in mouse tissue during embryogenesis. Kinoh, H., Sato, H., Tsunezuka, Y., Takino, T., Kawashima, A., Okada, Y., Seiki, M. J. Cell. Sci. (1996) [Pubmed]
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