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Gene Review

HSP90AA1  -  heat shock protein 90kDa alpha (cytosolic)...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: EL52, FLJ31884, HSP 86, HSP86, HSP89A, ...
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Disease relevance of HSP90AA1

  • Radicicol also specifically binds to yeast Hsp90, Escherichia coli HtpG, and a newly described tumor necrosis factor receptor-interacting protein, Trap-1, with greater homology to bacterial HtpG than to Hsp90 [1].
  • Furthermore, these data draw attention to the possible adverse consequences of antitumor drugs that target Hsp90, such as antibiotics related to geldanamycin, which could disrupt LKB1 function and promote the development of polyps and carcinomatous lesions [2].
  • Furthermore, high levels of Hsp90 expression and enhanced association with IKK were observed in human colon cancer tissues [3].
  • Inhibition of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) has emerged as a novel intervention for the treatment of solid tumors and leukemias [4].
  • Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) chaperone complex inhibitor, radicicol, potentiated radiation-induced cell killing in a hormone-sensitive prostate cancer cell line through degradation of the androgen receptor [5].

High impact information on HSP90AA1

  • Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a molecular chaperone essential for activating many signaling proteins in the eukaryotic cell [6].
  • Hsp90 Cochaperone Aha1 Downregulation Rescues Misfolding of CFTR in Cystic Fibrosis [7].
  • Conversely, the chaperone Hsp90 neither participates in VHL folding nor is required to maintain misfolded VHL solubility but is essential for its degradation [8].
  • Dimeric p50(cdc37) binds to surfaces of the Hsp90 N-domain implicated in ATP-dependent N-terminal dimerization and association with the middle segment of the chaperone [9].
  • The structure of the geldanamycin-binding domain of Hsp90 (residues 9-232) reveals a pronounced pocket, 15 A deep, that is highly conserved across species [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of HSP90AA1


Biological context of HSP90AA1

  • Interactions between the protein kinase C (PKC) and Chk1 inhibitor UCN-01 and the heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) antagonist 17-AAG have been examined in human leukemia cells in relation to effects on signal transduction pathways and apoptosis [16].
  • Taxotere prevented the VEGF-induced phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase, Akt, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), all of which are Hsp90 client proteins [17].
  • RESULTS: The Hsp70 or Hsp90 DNA vaccines shifted the arthritogenic T cell response from a Th1 to a Th2/3 phenotype and inhibited AIA [18].
  • These data identify a novel role for the acetylation site as a regulator of androgen receptor subcellular distribution and folding and indicate that ligand-dependent aggregation is dependent upon intact Hsp90 function [19].
  • Previously identified Hsp90/p50(cdc37) clients include oncoprotein kinases and protein kinases that promote cellular proliferation and survival [20].

Anatomical context of HSP90AA1


Associations of HSP90AA1 with chemical compounds

  • Structure of the large FK506-binding protein FKBP51, an Hsp90-binding protein and a component of steroid receptor complexes [24].
  • Screening of drugs that could interfere with the Akt signaling pathway revealed that Hsp90 inhibitors (e.g. geldanamycin, radicicol, and its analogues) induced Akt dephosphorylation, which resulted in Akt inactivation and apoptosis of the cells [25].
  • Treatment of cells with either geldanamycin or novobiocin, two pharmacological inhibitors of Hsp90 causes the destabilization of LKB1 [2].
  • Cisplatin may also disrupt the function of some proteins, including heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) [26].
  • Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of hydroquinone derivatives of 17-amino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin as potent, water-soluble inhibitors of Hsp90 [27].

Physical interactions of HSP90AA1

  • The Hsp90-binding peptidylprolyl isomerase FKBP52 potentiates glucocorticoid signaling in vivo [28].
  • We show that endogenous MLK3 complexes with Hsp90 and p50(cdc37) [20].
  • Collectively, our results demonstrate that the Hsp90/Cdc37 complex is a major regulator of the stability of the LKB1 tumor suppressor [2].
  • Previous studies have suggested that the 90-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp90) interacts with the ER, thus stabilizing the receptor in an inactive state [29].
  • Furthermore, Hsp90 directly bound to STAT3 via its N-terminal region, which interacted with GA [30].

Enzymatic interactions of HSP90AA1

  • Besides acting as an allosteric enhancer, Hsp90 was shown to serve as a module recruiting Akt to phosphorylate the serine 1179/1177 (bovine/human) residue of eNOS [31].
  • Thus, our findings indicate that Hsp90 functions to balance the phosphorylation state of Akt by modulating the ability of Akt to be dephosphorylated by PP2Ac during C2C12 myoblast differentiation [32].

Regulatory relationships of HSP90AA1

  • These results suggest that nuclear Hsp90 regulates the nuclear retention of GR [33].
  • Here we demonstrate that IL-6-induced gene expression was suppressed by a specific heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor, geldanamycin (GA) in human hepatoma Hep3B cells [30].
  • In HeLa cells, both HP and Hsp90 inhibitor geldanamycin (GA) up-regulated Hsp70 expression through mRNA stabilisation [34].
  • Although LAQ824 may exert its effect through multiple mechanisms, several lines of evidence suggest that inactivation of the heat shock protein-90 (Hsp90) molecular chaperone is involved in LAQ824-induced androgen receptor depletion [35].
  • Aryl hydrocarbon nuclear translocator (ARNT) promotes oxygen-independent stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha by modulating an Hsp90-dependent regulatory pathway [36].

Other interactions of HSP90AA1

  • The mechanism for potentiation is an increase in GR hormone-binding affinity that requires both the Hsp90-binding ability and the prolyl isomerase activity of FKBP52 [28].
  • Together, these findings indicate that the Hsp90 antagonist 17-AAG potentiates UCN-01 cytotoxicity in a variety of human leukemia cell types and suggest that interference with both the Akt and Raf-1/MEK/MAP kinase cytoprotective signaling pathways contribute to this phenomenon [16].
  • Further experiments demonstrate that MLK3 associates with Hsp90/p50(cdc37) through its catalytic domain in an activity-independent manner [20].
  • G protein-coupled receptor kinase interaction with Hsp90 mediates kinase maturation [22].
  • Subsequent analysis by gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry revealed that GRK2 associates with heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) [22].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of HSP90AA1

  • GRK2 interaction with Hsp90 was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and was effectively disrupted by geldanamycin, an Hsp90-specific inhibitor [22].
  • 17-Allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG)1 is a semisynthetic inhibitor of the 90 kDa heat shock protein (Hsp90) currently in clinical trials for the treatment of cancer [27].
  • Upon the basis of its potent activity against Hsp90 and a significant improvement in solubility, 1a is currently under evaluation in Phase I clinical trials for cancer [27].
  • Sequence analysis revealed that three different genomic hsp86 sequences had been cloned, one of them being the 5' half of a functional gene [37].
  • Moreover, the dissection of the Hsp90 molecule allowed us to define two regions displaying nuclear localization activity (residues 1-206 and 381-581), followed by two regions having a predominantly cytoplasmic localization activity (residues 287-381 and 581-728) and counteracting the nuclear localization activities [38].


  1. Interaction of radicicol with members of the heat shock protein 90 family of molecular chaperones. Schulte, T.W., Akinaga, S., Murakata, T., Agatsuma, T., Sugimoto, S., Nakano, H., Lee, Y.S., Simen, B.B., Argon, Y., Felts, S., Toft, D.O., Neckers, L.M., Sharma, S.V. Mol. Endocrinol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Stability of the Peutz-Jeghers syndrome kinase LKB1 requires its binding to the molecular chaperones Hsp90/Cdc37. Nony, P., Gaude, H., Rossel, M., Fournier, L., Rouault, J.P., Billaud, M. Oncogene (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Sustained activation of protein kinase C downregulates nuclear factor-{kappa}B signaling by dissociation of IKK-{gamma} and Hsp90 complex in human colonic epithelial cells. Park, K.A., Byun, H.S., Won, M., Yang, K.J., Shin, S., Piao, L., Kim, J.M., Yoon, W.H., Junn, E., Park, J., Seok, J.H., Hur, G.M. Carcinogenesis (2007) [Pubmed]
  4. F1F0-ATP synthase functions as a co-chaperone of Hsp90-substrate protein complexes. Papathanassiu, A.E., MacDonald, N.J., Bencsura, A., Vu, H.A. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) chaperone complex inhibitor, radicicol, potentiated radiation-induced cell killing in a hormone-sensitive prostate cancer cell line through degradation of the androgen receptor. Harashima, K., Akimoto, T., Nonaka, T., Tsuzuki, K., Mitsuhashi, N., Nakano, T. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Structure and mechanism of the hsp90 molecular chaperone machinery. Pearl, L.H., Prodromou, C. Annu. Rev. Biochem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Hsp90 Cochaperone Aha1 Downregulation Rescues Misfolding of CFTR in Cystic Fibrosis. Wang, X., Venable, J., Lapointe, P., Hutt, D.M., Koulov, A.V., Coppinger, J., Gurkan, C., Kellner, W., Matteson, J., Plutner, H., Riordan, J.R., Kelly, J.W., Yates, J.R., Balch, W.E. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Folding and quality control of the VHL tumor suppressor proceed through distinct chaperone pathways. McClellan, A.J., Scott, M.D., Frydman, J. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. The Mechanism of Hsp90 regulation by the protein kinase-specific cochaperone p50(cdc37). Roe, S.M., Ali, M.M., Meyer, P., Vaughan, C.K., Panaretou, B., Piper, P.W., Prodromou, C., Pearl, L.H. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Crystal structure of an Hsp90-geldanamycin complex: targeting of a protein chaperone by an antitumor agent. Stebbins, C.E., Russo, A.A., Schneider, C., Rosen, N., Hartl, F.U., Pavletich, N.P. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. ZAP-70 is a novel conditional heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) client: inhibition of Hsp90 leads to ZAP-70 degradation, apoptosis, and impaired signaling in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Castro, J.E., Prada, C.E., Loria, O., Kamal, A., Chen, L., Burrows, F.J., Kipps, T.J. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Effects of HIV protease inhibitor ritonavir on Akt-regulated cell proliferation in breast cancer. Srirangam, A., Mitra, R., Wang, M., Gorski, J.C., Badve, S., Baldridge, L., Hamilton, J., Kishimoto, H., Hawes, J., Li, L., Orschell, C.M., Srour, E.F., Blum, J.S., Donner, D., Sledge, G.W., Nakshatri, H., Potter, D.A. Clin. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. FLT3 expressing leukemias are selectively sensitive to inhibitors of the molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 through destabilization of signal transduction-associated kinases. Yao, Q., Nishiuchi, R., Li, Q., Kumar, A.R., Hudson, W.A., Kersey, J.H. Clin. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. A small molecule designed to bind to the adenine nucleotide pocket of Hsp90 causes Her2 degradation and the growth arrest and differentiation of breast cancer cells. Chiosis, G., Timaul, M.N., Lucas, B., Munster, P.N., Zheng, F.F., Sepp-Lorenzino, L., Rosen, N. Chem. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Cotreatment with suberanoylanilide hydroxamic acid and 17-allylamino 17-demethoxygeldanamycin synergistically induces apoptosis in Bcr-Abl+ Cells sensitive and resistant to STI571 (imatinib mesylate) in association with down-regulation of Bcr-Abl, abrogation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 activity, and Bax conformational change. Rahmani, M., Reese, E., Dai, Y., Bauer, C., Kramer, L.B., Huang, M., Jove, R., Dent, P., Grant, S. Mol. Pharmacol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Synergistic antileukemic interactions between 17-AAG and UCN-01 involve interruption of RAF/MEK- and AKT-related pathways. Jia, W., Yu, C., Rahmani, M., Krystal, G., Sausville, E.A., Dent, P., Grant, S. Blood (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Taxotere-induced inhibition of human endothelial cell migration is a result of heat shock protein 90 degradation. Murtagh, J., Lu, H., Schwartz, E.L. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Inhibition of adjuvant-induced arthritis by DNA vaccination with the 70-kd or the 90-kd human heat-shock protein: immune cross-regulation with the 60-kd heat-shock protein. Quintana, F.J., Carmi, P., Mor, F., Cohen, I.R. Arthritis Rheum. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Androgen receptor acetylation site mutations cause trafficking defects, misfolding, and aggregation similar to expanded glutamine tracts. Thomas, M., Dadgar, N., Aphale, A., Harrell, J.M., Kunkel, R., Pratt, W.B., Lieberman, A.P. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Hsp90/p50cdc37 is required for mixed-lineage kinase (MLK) 3 signaling. Zhang, H., Wu, W., Du, Y., Santos, S.J., Conrad, S.E., Watson, J.T., Grammatikakis, N., Gallo, K.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. The Isoflavone Equol Mediates Rapid Vascular Relaxation: Ca2+-INDEPENDENT ACTIVATION OF ENDOTHELIAL NITRIC-OXIDE SYNTHASE/Hsp90 INVOLVING ERK1/2 AND Akt PHOSPHORYLATION IN HUMAN ENDOTHELIAL CELL. Joy, S., Siow, R.C., Rowlands, D.J., Becker, M., Wyatt, A.W., Aaronson, P.I., Coen, C.W., Kallo, I., Jacob, R., Mann, G.E. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. G protein-coupled receptor kinase interaction with Hsp90 mediates kinase maturation. Luo, J., Benovic, J.L. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. A central role for the Hsp90.Cdc37 molecular chaperone module in interleukin-1 receptor-associated-kinase-dependent signaling by toll-like receptors. De Nardo, D., Masendycz, P., Ho, S., Cross, M., Fleetwood, A.J., Reynolds, E.C., Hamilton, J.A., Scholz, G.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Structure of the large FK506-binding protein FKBP51, an Hsp90-binding protein and a component of steroid receptor complexes. Sinars, C.R., Cheung-Flynn, J., Rimerman, R.A., Scammell, J.G., Smith, D.F., Clardy, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Involvement of Hsp90 in signaling and stability of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1. Fujita, N., Sato, S., Ishida, A., Tsuruo, T. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. The heat shock protein 90-targeting drug cisplatin selectively inhibits steroid receptor activation. Rosenhagen, M.C., Sōti, C., Schmidt, U., Wochnik, G.M., Hartl, F.U., Holsboer, F., Young, J.C., Rein, T. Mol. Endocrinol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of hydroquinone derivatives of 17-amino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin as potent, water-soluble inhibitors of Hsp90. Ge, J., Normant, E., Porter, J.R., Ali, J.A., Dembski, M.S., Gao, Y., Georges, A.T., Grenier, L., Pak, R.H., Patterson, J., Sydor, J.R., Tibbitts, T.T., Tong, J.K., Adams, J., Palombella, V.J. J. Med. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. The Hsp90-binding peptidylprolyl isomerase FKBP52 potentiates glucocorticoid signaling in vivo. Riggs, D.L., Roberts, P.J., Chirillo, S.C., Cheung-Flynn, J., Prapapanich, V., Ratajczak, T., Gaber, R., Picard, D., Smith, D.F. EMBO J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Radicicol represses the transcriptional function of the estrogen receptor by suppressing the stabilization of the receptor by heat shock protein 90. Lee, M.O., Kim, E.O., Kwon, H.J., Kim, Y.M., Kang, H.J., Kang, H., Lee, J.E. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  30. Involvement of heat-shock protein 90 in the interleukin-6-mediated signaling pathway through STAT3. Sato, N., Yamamoto, T., Sekine, Y., Yumioka, T., Junicho, A., Fuse, H., Matsuda, T. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Roles of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 in the regulation of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase phosphorylation and function by heat shock protein 90. Wei, Q., Xia, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  32. Hsp90 functions to balance the phosphorylation state of Akt during C2C12 myoblast differentiation. Yun, B.G., Matts, R.L. Cell. Signal. (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. Regulation of nuclear retention of glucocorticoid receptor by nuclear Hsp90. Tago, K., Tsukahara, F., Naruse, M., Yoshioka, T., Takano, K. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  34. Hsp90 inhibitor geldanamycin increases hsp70 mRNA stabilisation but fails to activate HSF1 in cells exposed to hydrostatic pressure. Elo, M.A., Kaarniranta, K., Helminen, H.J., Lammi, M.J. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2005) [Pubmed]
  35. Chemical ablation of androgen receptor in prostate cancer cells by the histone deacetylase inhibitor LAQ824. Chen, L., Meng, S., Wang, H., Bali, P., Bai, W., Li, B., Atadja, P., Bhalla, K.N., Wu, J. Mol. Cancer Ther. (2005) [Pubmed]
  36. Aryl hydrocarbon nuclear translocator (ARNT) promotes oxygen-independent stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha by modulating an Hsp90-dependent regulatory pathway. Isaacs, J.S., Jung, Y.J., Neckers, L. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  37. Cloning and analysis of a human 86-kDa heat-shock-protein-encoding gene. Walter, T., Drabent, B., Krebs, H., Tomalak, M., Heiss, S., Benecke, B.J. Gene (1989) [Pubmed]
  38. Delimitation of two regions in the 90-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp90) able to interact with the glucocorticosteroid receptor (GR). Jibard, N., Meng, X., Leclerc, P., Rajkowski, K., Fortin, D., Schweizer-Groyer, G., Catelli, M.G., Baulieu, E.E., Cadepond, F. Exp. Cell Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
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