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Gene Review

Eno1  -  enolase 1, alpha non-neuron

Mus musculus

Synonyms: 0610008I15, 2-phospho-D-glycerate hydro-lyase, 2-phospho-D-glycerate hydrolase, AL022784, Alpha-enolase, ...
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Disease relevance of Eno1

  • Furthermore, cells grown under conditions of increasing hypoxia exhibited increased enolase expression relative to those grown under oxygenated conditions [1].
  • The spectrum of enolase enzyme forms has been examined in several lines of neuroblastoma cells and compared to those present in whole brain [2].
  • Enolase and glucose transporter mRNA levels were also increased in HPAF cells and nude mouse tumor, suggesting a general increase in expression of genes associated with glycolysis in pancreatic adenocarcinoma [3].
  • Enolase isoenzymes as markers of differentiation in teratocarcinoma cells and normal tissues of mouse [4].
  • Enolase from Streptococcus sobrinus is an immunosuppressive protein [5].

High impact information on Eno1

  • Furthermore, immune precipitates of p59fyn had tyrosine kinase activity in vitro, as measured by autophosphorylation and by phosphorylation of substrates such as enolase [6].
  • Using the rabbit reticulocyte cell-free translation system we have estimated during ontogenesis the proportions of in vitro translatable alpha and gamma brain enolase mRNAs, which are two minor mRNA species [7].
  • This effect was not observed for GAD65 or neuronal-specific enolase and was not replicated by glycine doses 2-fold greater than those of l-methionine [8].
  • By contrast, enolase or its homologue is relatively abundant in both the mammalian and chicken corneal epithelial cells [9].
  • One monoclonal antibody to 14-3-2 (E8.F9) has been found to react strongly with bovine 14-3-2 and with rat neuron-specific enolase in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and to react weakly with rat nonneuronal enolase [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Eno1


Biological context of Eno1

  • These results support the idea that specific interactions with macromolecules will address muscle enolase isoforms at the subcellular site where ATP, produced through glycolysis, is most needed for contraction [12].
  • TPI and enolase are key enzymes in the glycolytic pathway, and ETF-QO serves as the transporter for electrons derived from a variety of oxidative processes to the mitochondria respiratory chain [13].
  • In particular, alpha-enolase nitration at Tyr(43), target also of phosphorylation, brings additional evidence on the possible interference of nitration with phosphorylation [14].
  • However, a role for a -enolase-type plasminogen receptor (PlgR) in myogenesis has never been demonstrated [15].
  • cDNA clones corresponding to subunits of neuron-specific (gamma gamma and alpha gamma) and non-neuronal (alpha alpha) enolase isozymes were characterized from two mouse brain cDNA libraries [16].

Anatomical context of Eno1

  • We approached this problem by the purification of native betabeta-enolase from mouse hindlimb muscles and by raising specific antibodies of high titre against this protein [12].
  • All cell lines tested were found to possess the enolase which contains gamma subunit (a neuron-specific protein), although the alpha alpha enolase (non-neuronal enolase) was the dominant from in these cells [17].
  • Enolase exists as multiple isoforms and in the course of cardiac and skeletal muscle development the beta isoform progressively replaces the alpha isoform [18].
  • Whereas myoblasts from fetal tissues express alpha-enolase mRNA, beta-enolase is the predominant mRNA expressed by myoblasts from postnatal tissues [18].
  • Double labeling experiments with anti-gamma enolase and FITC-alpha bungarotoxin allowed us to follow the neuromuscular junction remodeling that occurs during muscle regeneration despite the absence of nerve injury [19].

Associations of Eno1 with chemical compounds

  • Oxidation of purified enolase or TPI via Fenton chemistry led to a 17 or 23% loss of activity, respectively, confirming that a loss of activity was the consequence of oxidation [13].
  • 2. The extent of morphological differentiation obtained with dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dbc-AMP), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), retinoic acid (RA), and serum-free medium was correlated to the expression of the mRNA for the gamma isoform of the glycolytic enzyme enolase, a recognized neuron-specific marker [20].
  • The recombinant full-length TsENO protein had no activity in the conversion of 2PGA to PEP, but gained enolase activity after cutting off the signal peptide from the full-length protein [21].
  • In higher vertebrates, the glycolytic enzyme enolase (2-phospho-D-glycerate hydrolyase; EC is active as a dimeric protein formed from three subunits--alpha: ubiquitous, beta: muscle specific, and gamma: neuron specific--encoded by different genes [22].
  • The addition of the cellular b enolase or the creatine kinase enhancer improves the specificity of the skeletal a-actin promoter in vitro as well as in vivo [23].

Physical interactions of Eno1


Regulatory relationships of Eno1

  • Furthermore, the S. sobrinus recombinant enolase stimulates an early production of interleukin-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, and not the pro-inflammatory cytokine IFN-gamma [5].
  • Immunocytochemical analysis and single-cell RT-PCR analysis of primary cultures of cortical neuronal cells confirmed expression of TNF alpha in cells that also express neuronal-specific enolase RNA [25].

Other interactions of Eno1

  • Some of these binding properties are shared by the alphaalpha-isoenolase, which is also expressed in striated muscle, but not by the neuron-specific gammagamma-enolase [12].
  • The enolase beta subunit (beta-enolase) and the M subunit of CK (CK-M) were present in the RFM at levels increased several-fold compared to levels in the SOL of the same mice [26].
  • However, several autosomal synteny groups 10 to 20 cM apart, including the Pgd, Eno-1, Pgm-1 group on human chromosome arm 1p, are conserved in mice and man [27].
  • Conversely, almost no parvalbumin- and enolase-positive cells were present in cultures derived from newborn mice [28].
  • The increased expression of this alpha-enolase isoform, which was seen as early as day 2 of acetyl-LDL incubation of the macrophages, was diminished by including an inhibitor of cholesterol esterification during the acetyl-LDL incubation period [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Eno1


  1. Neuron specific enolase expression in carcinoma of the lung. Reeve, J.G., Stewart, J., Watson, J.V., Wulfrank, D., Twentyman, P.R., Bleehen, N.M. Br. J. Cancer (1986) [Pubmed]
  2. Neuron specific protein (NSP) in neuroblastoma cells: relation to differentiation. Marangos, P.J., Goodwin, F.K., Parma, A., Lauter, C., Trams, E. Brain Res. (1978) [Pubmed]
  3. Increased glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene expression in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Schek, N., Hall, B.L., Finn, O.J. Cancer Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  4. Enolase isoenzymes as markers of differentiation in teratocarcinoma cells and normal tissues of mouse. Fletcher, L., Rider, C.C., Taylor, C.B., Adamson, E.D., Luke, B.M., Graham, C.F. Dev. Biol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  5. Enolase from Streptococcus sobrinus is an immunosuppressive protein. Veiga-Malta, I., Duarte, M., Dinis, M., Tavares, D., Videira, A., Ferreira, P. Cell. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Identification and characterization of p59fyn (a src-like protein tyrosine kinase) in normal and polyoma virus transformed cells. Kypta, R.M., Hemming, A., Courtneidge, S.A. EMBO J. (1988) [Pubmed]
  7. Developmental changes in translatable mRNAs for the cerebral enolase isozymes alphaalpha and gammagamma. Zeitoun, Y., Lamandé, N., Keller, A., Gros, F., Legault-Demare, L. EMBO J. (1983) [Pubmed]
  8. An epigenetic mouse model for molecular and behavioral neuropathologies related to schizophrenia vulnerability. Tremolizzo, L., Carboni, G., Ruzicka, W.B., Mitchell, C.P., Sugaya, I., Tueting, P., Sharma, R., Grayson, D.R., Costa, E., Guidotti, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Taxon-specific recruitment of enzymes as major soluble proteins in the corneal epithelium of three mammals, chicken, and squid. Cuthbertson, R.A., Tomarev, S.I., Piatigorsky, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against the "brain-specific" proteins 14-3-2 and S-100. Haan, E.A., Boss, B.D., Cowan, W.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1982) [Pubmed]
  11. Albumin possesses intrinsic enolase activity towards dihydrotestosterone which can differentiate benign from malignant breast tumors. Drmanovic, Z., Voyatzi, S., Kouretas, D., Sahpazidou, D., Papageorgiou, A., Antonoglou, O. Anticancer Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Biochemical characterization of the mouse muscle-specific enolase: developmental changes in electrophoretic variants and selective binding to other proteins. Merkulova, T., Lucas, M., Jabet, C., Lamandé, N., Rouzeau, J.D., Gros, F., Lazar, M., Keller, A. Biochem. J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Redox proteomic identification of oxidized cardiac proteins in Adriamycin-treated mice. Chen, Y., Daosukho, C., Opii, W.O., Turner, D.M., Pierce, W.M., Klein, J.B., Vore, M., Butterfield, D.A., St Clair, D.K. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Protein nitration in a mouse model of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: possible multifunctional role in the pathogenesis. Casoni, F., Basso, M., Massignan, T., Gianazza, E., Cheroni, C., Salmona, M., Bendotti, C., Bonetto, V. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Plasmin generation dependent on alpha-enolase-type plasminogen receptor is required for myogenesis. López-Alemany, R., Suelves, M., Muñoz-Cánoves, P. Thromb. Haemost. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Isolation of murine neuron-specific and non-neuronal enolase cDNA clones. Lazar, M., Lucas, M., Lamandé, N., Bishop, J.G., Gros, F., Legault-Demare, L. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1986) [Pubmed]
  17. Regulation of neuron-specific enolase in NG108-15 hybrid cells and C6BU-1 glioma cells. Kato, K., Higashida, H., Umeda, Y., Suzuki, F., Tanaka, T. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1981) [Pubmed]
  18. Beta-enolase is a marker of human myoblast heterogeneity prior to differentiation. Peterson, C.A., Cho, M., Rastinejad, F., Blau, H.M. Dev. Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Differential modulation of alpha, beta and gamma enolase isoforms in regenerating mouse skeletal muscle. Merkulova, T., Dehaupas, M., Nevers, M.C., Créminon, C., Alameddine, H., Keller, A. Eur. J. Biochem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. Differential expression of neuron-specific enolase mRNA in mouse neuroblastoma cells in response to differentiation inducing agents. Matranga, V., Oliva, D., Sciarrino, S., D'Amelio, L., Giallongo, A. Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. Molecular cloning and functional expression of enolase from Trichinella spiralis. Nakada, T., Nagano, I., Wu, Z., Takahashi, Y. Parasitol. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. The beta enolase subunit displays three different patterns of microheterogeneity in human striated muscle. Merkulova, T., Thornell, L.E., Butler-Browne, G., Oberlin, C., Lucas, M., Lamandé, N., Lazar, M., Keller, A. J. Muscle Res. Cell. Motil. (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. Adenoviral-mediated skeletal muscle transcriptional targeting using chimeric tissue-specific promoters. Frauli, M., Ribault, S., Neuville, P., Augé, F., Calenda, V. Med. Sci. Monit. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Streptococcus pneumoniae enolase is important for plasminogen binding despite low abundance of enolase protein on the bacterial cell surface. Kolberg, J., Aase, A., Bergmann, S., Herstad, T.K., Rødal, G., Frank, R., Rohde, M., Hammerschmidt, S. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Neuronal expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha in the murine brain. Gahring, L.C., Carlson, N.G., Kulmar, R.A., Rogers, S.W. Neuroimmunomodulation (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. Developmental changes in fiber type-related proteins in soleus, rectus femoris, and heart muscles of normal and dystrophic mice. Kato, K., Shimizu, A., Totsuka, T. J. Neurol. Sci. (1988) [Pubmed]
  27. Comparative mapping using somatic cell hybrids. Minna, J.D., Lalley, P.A., Francke, U. In vitro. (1976) [Pubmed]
  28. Parvalbumin, a neuronal protein in brain cell cultures. Pfyffer, G.E., Bologa, L., Herschkowitz, N., Heizmann, C.W. J. Neurochem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  29. Cholesteryl ester loading of mouse peritoneal macrophages is associated with changes in the expression or modification of specific cellular proteins, including increase in an alpha-enolase isoform. Bottalico, L.A., Kendrick, N.C., Keller, A., Li, Y., Tabas, I. Arterioscler. Thromb. (1993) [Pubmed]
  30. Modulation of embryonic and muscle-specific enolase gene products in the developing mouse hindlimb. Lucas, M., Goblet, C., Keller, A., Lamandé, N., Gros, F., Whalen, R.G., Lazar, M. Differentiation (1992) [Pubmed]
  31. Isoenzyme pattern of enolase in human lung tumor xenografts in nude mice. Batandier, C., Jacrot, M., Brambilla, E., Beriel, H., Brambilla, C., Paramelle, B. Anticancer Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
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