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Gene Review

Gpx3  -  glutathione peroxidase 3

Mus musculus

Synonyms: AA960521, EGPx, GPx, GPx-3, GPx-P, ...
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Disease relevance of Gpx3


High impact information on Gpx3


Biological context of Gpx3


Anatomical context of Gpx3

  • To test for the consequences of GPx deficiency in astrocytes, astrocyte-rich primary cultures from wild-type and GPx1-deficient [GPx1(-/-)] mice were exposed to H(2)O(2) [12].
  • Enhanced expression of plasma glutathione peroxidase in the thymus of mice treated with TCDD and its implication for TCDD-induced thymic atrophy [13].
  • This is the first report that a particular isotype of the glutathione peroxidase family is regulated by TCDD at both mRNA and protein levels. pGPx is expressed in various tissues in contact with body fluids, and detoxifies hydrogen peroxides and lipid hydroperoxides [13].
  • The fact that the knockout mice express normal levels of plasma GPX as well as testis and liver PHGPX activity indicates that animals are not selenium-deficient [14].
  • CONCLUSIONS: The increases in mRNA levels for CatS and GPX3 found in the aging C57BL/6 RPE/choroid appear to represent an increase in both the numbers of cells expressing these messages and an increase in the level of expression in individual cells [8].

Associations of Gpx3 with chemical compounds

  • No significant induction of cardiac GSH and GPx was observed with the above D3T treatment [15].
  • Our findings revealed that chronic oral treatment with the extract elevates enzymatic activities of SOD and GPx accompanied by a corresponding decrease in malondialdehyde [9].
  • 5 microg/ml actinomycin D, 30 microg/ml cycloheximide (de novo protein synthesis inhibitor) and 50 microg/ml acetovanilone (intracellular superoxide anion production inhibitor) had no effects in attenuating the induction of PLGPx expression by L929-CM [16].
  • An inadequate selenium supply and corresponding increase of GPx activity upon selenite supplementation was also observed with other cell lines, for instance, D10N, ECV-304, HepG2, and THP-1 [17].
  • Furthermore, we show here that androgen withdrawal by castration down regulates the expression of the GPx3 gene both in the epididymis and vas deferens while GPx3 expression in the kidney was found to be androgen-independent [18].

Other interactions of Gpx3

  • Overexpression of cellular glutathione peroxidase does not affect expression of plasma glutathione peroxidase or phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase in mice offered diets adequate or deficient in selenium [19].
  • It was found that Se exerts a statistically significant (p<0.05) effect only on GPx3 mRNA, referred to as the optical density (OD) ratio (GPx3/beta-actin) [20].
  • Similarly, ozone-induced increases in lung CuZn-SOD and MnSOD activities were not observed in Cu-deficient mice, although lung GPx activity was increased in these mice relative to their air-breathing controls [21].
  • Piperine supplementation to tumour-induced animals significantly lowered the phase-I enzymes (NADPH-C reductase, cyt-p450 and cyt-b5)) and there was a rise in glutathione-metabolizing enzymes (GPx, GR and G6PDH), which indicated an antitumour and anti-cancer effect [22].
  • In Mpv17-/- cells, enzyme activity and mRNA expression (examined by quantitative RT-PCR) of membrane-bound gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase were increased, while plasma glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase levels were lowered [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Gpx3


  1. Purification and properties of a recombinant sulfur analog of murine selenium-glutathione peroxidase. Rocher, C., Lalanne, J.L., Chaudière, J. Eur. J. Biochem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Rice bran extract prevents the elevation of plasma peroxylipid in KKAy diabetic mice. Kanaya, Y., Doi, T., Sasaki, H., Fujita, A., Matsuno, S., Okamoto, K., Nakano, Y., Tsujiwaki, S., Furuta, H., Nishi, M., Tsuno, T., Taniguchi, H., Nanjo, K. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities are partially responsible for determining the susceptibility of cells to oxidative stress. Yang, M.S., Chan, H.W., Yu, L.C. Toxicology (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Regulation of expression of the phospholipid hydroperoxide/sperm nucleus glutathione peroxidase gene. Tissue-specific expression pattern and identification of functional cis- and trans-regulatory elements. Borchert, A., Savaskan, N.E., Kuhn, H. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Mouse plasma glutathione peroxidase. cDNA sequence analysis and renal proximal tubular expression and secretion. Maser, R.L., Magenheimer, B.S., Calvet, J.P. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Tissue-specific functions of individual glutathione peroxidases. Brigelius-Flohé, R. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Cloning of the mouse gene encoding plasma glutathione peroxidase: organization, sequence and chromosomal localization. Schwaab, V., Baud, E., Ghyselinck, N., Mattei, M.G., Dufaure, J.P., Drevet, J.R. Gene (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Changes in the spatial expression of genes with aging in the mouse RPE/choroid. Ogawa, T., Boylan, S.A., Oltjen, S.L., Hjelmeland, L.M. Mol. Vis. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Protective effects of polysaccharide from Euphorbia kansui (Euphorbiaceae) on the swimming exercise-induced oxidative stress in mice. Yu, F., Lu, S., Yu, F., Feng, S., McGuire, P.M., Li, R., Wang, R. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Increased gene expression of glutathione peroxidase-3 in diabetic mouse heart. Iwata, K., Nishinaka, T., Matsuno, K., Yabe-Nishimura, C. Biol. Pharm. Bull. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Human Mpv17-like protein is localized in peroxisomes and regulates expression of antioxidant enzymes. Iida, R., Yasuda, T., Tsubota, E., Takatsuka, H., Matsuki, T., Kishi, K. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Glutathione peroxidase 1 and glutathione are required to protect mouse astrocytes from iron-mediated hydrogen peroxide toxicity. Liddell, J.R., Hoepken, H.H., Crack, P.J., Robinson, S.R., Dringen, R. J. Neurosci. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Enhanced expression of plasma glutathione peroxidase in the thymus of mice treated with TCDD and its implication for TCDD-induced thymic atrophy. Cho, H.J., Hahn, E.J., Hwang, J.A., Hong, M.S., Kim, S.K., Pak, H.R., Park, J.H. Mol. Cells (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. The Gpx1 gene encodes mitochondrial glutathione peroxidase in the mouse liver. Esworthy, R.S., Ho, Y.S., Chu, F.F. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. The chemical inducibility of mouse cardiac antioxidants and phase 2 enzymes in vivo. Cao, Z., Li, Y. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. L929 cell conditioned medium protects RAW264.7 cells from oxidative injury through inducing antioxidant enzymes. Pang, Z.J., Chen, Y., Zhou, M. Cytokine (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Conventional cell culture media do not adequately supply cells with antioxidants and thus facilitate peroxide-induced genotoxicity. Leist, M., Raab, B., Maurer, S., Rösick, U., Brigelius-Flohé, R. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. GPx3: the plasma-type glutathione peroxidase is expressed under androgenic control in the mouse epididymis and vas deferens. Schwaab, V., Faure, J., Dufaure, J.P., Drevet, J.R. Mol. Reprod. Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Overexpression of cellular glutathione peroxidase does not affect expression of plasma glutathione peroxidase or phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase in mice offered diets adequate or deficient in selenium. Cheng, W.H., Ho, Y.S., Ross, D.A., Han, Y., Combs, G.F., Lei, X.G. J. Nutr. (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Effect of selenium on expression of selenoproteins in mouse fibrosarcoma cells. Reszka, E., Gromadzinska, J., Stanczyk, M., Wasowicz, W. Biological trace element research. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Influence of dietary-induced copper and manganese deficiency on ozone-induced changes in lung and liver antioxidant systems. Zidenberg-Cherr, S., Han, B., Dubick, M.A., Keen, C.L. Toxicol. Lett. (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. Chemopreventive effect of piperine on mitochondrial TCA cycle and phase-I and glutathione-metabolizing enzymes in benzo(a)pyrene induced lung carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice. Selvendiran, K., Thirunavukkarasu, C., Singh, J.P., Padmavathi, R., Sakthisekaran, D. Mol. Cell. Biochem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Enhanced gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase expression and superoxide production in Mpv17-/- glomerulosclerosis mice. Wagner, G., Stettmaier, K., Bors, W., Sies, H., Wagner, E.M., Reuter, A., Weiher, H. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Increased expression of extracellular glutathione peroxidase in mice with dextran sodium sulfate-induced experimental colitis. Tham, D.M., Whitin, J.C., Cohen, H.J. Pediatr. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
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