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Gene Review

ECI1  -  enoyl-CoA delta isomerase 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: 3,2-trans-enoyl-CoA isomerase, D3,D2-enoyl-CoA isomerase, DCI, Delta(3),Delta(2)-enoyl-CoA isomerase, Dodecenoyl-CoA isomerase, ...
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Disease relevance of DCI


Psychiatry related information on DCI

  • In this article, the authors describe the refinement and preliminary evaluation of the Dimensions of Change in Therapeutic Community Treatment Instrument (DCI), a measure of treatment process [6].
  • In Study 1, a 99-item DCI, administered to a cross-sectional sample of substance abuse clients (N = 990), was shortened to 54 items on the basis of results from confirmatory factor analyses and item response theory invariance tests [6].

High impact information on DCI

  • The degradation of ET-1 by PMN microsomes was prevented by DCI, PMSF, or ONO-5046 [7].
  • Fluorescent complexes of DNA with DAPI 4',6-diamidine-2-phenyl indole.2HCl or DCI 4',6-dicarboxyamide-2-phenyl indole [8].
  • Furthermore, similar effects of DCI and metformin, an insulin-sensitizing drug, have been demonstrated in PCOS women [9].
  • Iron, to be redox cycling active, has to be released from its macromolecular complexes (ferritin, transferrin, hemoproteins, etc.). Iron is released from hemoglobin or its derivatives in a nonprotein-bound, desferrioxamine-chelatable form (DCI) in a number of conditions in which the erythrocytes are subjected to oxidative stress [10].
  • Onset of COMT inhibition is rapid, substantial, and reversible, and is not affected by the co-administration of levodopa/decarboxylase inhibitor (levodopa/DCI) [11].

Biological context of DCI


Anatomical context of DCI

  • The human DCI gene locus was assigned to chromosome 16 by use of human-rodent somatic cell hybrids and to chromosome 16p13.3 by chromosomal in situ suppression hybridization studies [12].
  • DCI-treated differentiated HFL cells cultured on permeable supports formed tight transepithelial barriers, with transepithelial resistance (TER) >1,700 ohm/cm(2) [14].
  • We examined claudin expression by human fetal lung (HFL) alveolar epithelial cells cultured in medium containing dexamethasone, 8-bromo-cAMP, and isobutylmethylxanthanine (DCI), which promotes alveolar epithelial cell differentiation to a type II phenotype [14].
  • The formation of this apoptotic nuclei promoting activity (ANPA) in JURKAT T cells after Fas antigen ligation was blocked by the serine protease inhibitors, TPCK and DCI, and by the interleukin 1-beta-converting enzyme inhibitor, VAD-FMK [15].
  • In 5 cases, fetal heart rate (FHR) was normal during labour and the DCI was on average comparable for each of the patients and the mean DCI (20.1 +/- 1%) was in close agreement with the values normally seen after 33 weeks of amenorrhoea during pregnancy [2].

Associations of DCI with chemical compounds

  • Tolcapone was well tolerated alone or in combination with levodopa/DCI, and the results indicated that the effective dose in patients with PD would be in the range of 50-400 mg tid [11].
  • In addition, chromatin degradation and morphological changes mediated by the ANPA in isolated nuclei were inhibited by TPCK, but not by DCI or VAD-FMK [15].
  • CP3 was determined to be a serine protease, since its catalytic activity was blocked by the serine protease inhibitors diisopropylfluorophosphate, phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, and 3,4-dichloroi Socoumarin (DCI) [16].
  • However, after correction for self-quenching, the quantum yield of 1O2 production (phi 50)y measured by using perinaphthenone as a standard, yielded the following values: phi s0 is about 0.07 in 0.2 N DCI solution, 0.08 at pH 7.5 and then increases smoothly to approximately 0.2 in 0.1 M NaOD solution [17].
  • Fluorescence lifetimes of compounds of photobiological interest such as phytochrome, chlorophyll a, 1,1'-diethyl-4,4' carbocyanine iodide (DCI/cryptocyanin),5,10,15,20-tetra(p-phenyl) porphyrin and stentorin I are presented using the pulsed diode-laser source [18].

Other interactions of DCI

  • The IGFBP-5 protease activity that did not bind to gelatin agarose was inhibited by serine protease inhibitors, such as 3,4 dichloroisocoumain (3,4 DCI), whereas tissue inhibitor metalloprotease-1 (TIMP-1) had minimal activity [19].
  • Duration of diabetes and DCI progressed significantly (ANOVA: F = 36.6, p < 0.001; F = 70.8, p < 0.001) with hypothetical stages [3].
  • Cathepsin A-like enzyme released from human platelets by thrombin hydrolyzed at the highest rate Cbz-Phe-Ala, Cbz-Phe-Met and Cbz-Phe-Leu, did not require activators and was inhibited by DFP, DCI and mercurial compounds (mersalyl acid, PCMS, PCMB and HgCl2) [20].
  • DCI Laboratory, Nashville TN compared INCSTAR N-tact PTH SP Kit (INCSTAR Corp., Stillwater, MN, USA) results from renal dialysis patients analyzed on frozen versus unfrozen samples; unfrozen samples were analyzed at 24, 48, and 72 hours post-collection [21].
  • Loss-free acquired images of size 512(2) x 8 bits, which had been stored digitally on tape, were reloaded into the DCI with compression factors of 2, 3, and 4; only the factor 2 is loss free [22].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of DCI

  • The study confirmed significant and independent effect of RRF, but not PD solute clearance, on actual DPI, DCI, and other nutrient intake in patients on CAPD [23].
  • In the present study performed with parkinsonian patients, we measured blood levels of bromocriptine (by radioimmunoassay) at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 240 min after the oral administration of bromocriptine alone and together with 250 mg levodopa plus 25 mg DCI [24].
  • For patients who respond poorly to recompression therapy, the next advance in the treatment of DCI-induced neural injury is likely to be due to the development of agents that reduce the effects of reperfusion injury and delayed cell death [25].
  • With the accepted use of (lossy) data compression at low compression factors (2, 3 and 4 on the Philips DCI), the question was posed whether higher lossy compression ratios can also be used without statistically affecting the results of quantitative coronary arteriography [26].
  • Using phenytoin as a model analyte, we demonstrate an electrochemical enzyme immunoassay based on flow-injection analysis and incorporating 2,6-dichloroindophenol (DCIP) as a redox coupling agent [27].


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  2. Fetal cerebral blood flow velocity during labour. Preliminary report. Cynober, E., Cabrol, D., Uzan, M. Fetal. Diagn. Ther. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Evolution of cardiac changes in young insulin-dependent (type 1) diabetic patients--one more piece of the puzzle of diabetic cardiopathy. Raev, D.C. Clinical cardiology. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Research into individual predisposition to develop acute rhabdomyolysis attributed to fenoverine. Jouglard, J., Kozak-Ribbens, G., de Haro, L., Cozzone, P.J. Human & experimental toxicology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Circadian secretion pattern of melatonin in de novo parkinsonian patients: evidence for phase-shifting properties of l-dopa. Fertl, E., Auff, E., Doppelbauer, A., Waldhauser, F. Journal of neural transmission. Parkinson's disease and dementia section. (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. The dimensions of change in therapeutic community treatment instrument. Orlando, M., Wenzel, S.L., Ebener, P., Edwards, M.C., Mandell, W., Becker, K. Psychological assessment. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. The two-step conversion of big endothelin 1 to endothelin 1 and degradation of endothelin 1 by subcellular fractions from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Kaw, S., Hecker, M., Vane, J.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Fluorescent complexes of DNA with DAPI 4',6-diamidine-2-phenyl indole.2HCl or DCI 4',6-dicarboxyamide-2-phenyl indole. Kapuściński, J., Skoczylas, B. Nucleic Acids Res. (1978) [Pubmed]
  9. Metformin therapy increases insulin-stimulated release of D-chiro-inositol-containing inositolphosphoglycan mediator in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Baillargeon, J.P., Iuorno, M.J., Jakubowicz, D.J., Apridonidze, T., He, N., Nestler, J.E. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Iron release, oxidative stress and erythrocyte ageing. Comporti, M., Signorini, C., Buonocore, G., Ciccoli, L. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tolerability of tolcapone: a review of early studies in volunteers. Jorga, K.M. Neurology (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Human mitochondrial 3,2-trans-enoyl-CoA isomerase (DCI): gene structure and localization to chromosome 16p13.3. Janssen, U., Fink, T., Lichter, P., Stoffel, W. Genomics (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. 7-Hydroxystaurosporine (UCN-01) induces apoptosis in human colon carcinoma and leukemia cells independently of p53. Shao, R.G., Shimizu, T., Pommier, Y. Exp. Cell Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Developmental regulation of claudin localization by fetal alveolar epithelial cells. Daugherty, B.L., Mateescu, M., Patel, A.S., Wade, K., Kimura, S., Gonzales, L.W., Guttentag, S., Ballard, P.L., Koval, M. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Involvement of multiple proteases during Fas-mediated apoptosis in T lymphocytes. Chow, S.C., Weis, M., Kass, G.E., Holmström, T.H., Eriksson, J.E., Orrenius, S. FEBS Lett. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. Purification and characterization of a developmentally regulated carboxypeptidase from Mucor racemosus. DiSanto, M.E., Li, Q.H., Logan, D.A. J. Bacteriol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Photosensitization by norfloxacin is a function of pH. Bilski, P., Martinez, L.J., Koker, E.B., Chignell, C.F. Photochem. Photobiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Subnanosecond single photon timing measurements using a pulsed diode-laser. Farrens, D.L., Song, P.S. Photochem. Photobiol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Characterization and determination of the relative abundance of two types of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 proteases that are secreted by human fibroblasts. Nam, T.J., Busby, W.H., Clemmons, D.R. Endocrinology (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Cathepsin A-like activity in thrombin-activated human platelets. Substrate specificity, pH dependence, and inhibitory profile. Ostrowska, H. Thromb. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Intact PTH study: shipping frozen vs. unfrozen samples. Gasser, B.L., Mcdonald, K.J., O'Kain, V.T., Ryan, C.A., Smith, S.A. Clinical laboratory science : journal of the American Society for Medical Technology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Effect of data compression on quantitative coronary measurements. Koning, G., van Meurs, B.A., Haas, H., Reiber, J.H. Catheterization and cardiovascular diagnosis. (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Independent effects of residual renal function and dialysis adequacy on actual dietary protein, calorie, and other nutrient intake in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Wang, A.Y., Sea, M.M., Ip, R., Law, M.C., Chow, K.M., Lui, S.F., Li, P.K., Woo, J. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. The influence of levodopa in the pharmacokinetics of bromocriptine in Parkinson's disease. Rabey, J.M., Oberman, Z., Scharf, M., Isakov, A., Bar, M., Graff, E. Clinical neuropharmacology. (1989) [Pubmed]
  25. Treatment of decompression illness and latrogenic gas embolism. Moon, R.E., de Lisle Dear, G., Stolp, B.W. Respiratory care clinics of North America. (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Effect of lossy data compression on quantitative coronary measurements. Koning, G., Béretta, P., Zwart, P., Hekking, E., Reiber, J.H. International journal of cardiac imaging. (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Electrochemical enzyme immunoassay for phenytoin by flow-injection analysis incorporating a redox coupling agent. Tang, H.T., Halsall, H.B., Heineman, W.R. Clin. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
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