The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

Lhx1  -  LIM homeobox protein 1

Mus musculus

Synonyms: Homeobox protein Lim-1, LIM/homeobox protein Lhx1, Lim-1, Lim1
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Lhx1


High impact information on Lhx1


Biological context of Lhx1


Anatomical context of Lhx1

  • Lhx1 and Lhx5 are co-expressed in multiple interneuron cell types in the developing spinal cord [10].
  • The loss of Pax6 altered progenitor specification, and the Lhx1 neuronal marker was lost, indicating a role for Pax6 in the specification of forebrain neuron identity [11].
  • Conversely, strong divergences in expression patterns are observed between the telencephalon of the two species for Lhx1/5 and Lhx2/9 [12].
  • The Lhx1/5 and Lhx2/9 subgroups label the pretectum/ventral thalamus/zona limitans versus the dorsal thalamus, respectively, in alternating stripes of expression in both species [12].
  • In these double-mutant embryos, the intermediate mesoderm does not undergo the mesenchymal-epithelial transitions required for nephric duct formation, fails to initiate the kidney-specific expression of Lim1 and c-Ret, and is lost by apoptosis 1 d after failed pronephric induction [13].

Associations of Lhx1 with chemical compounds

  • In the absence of FGF8 signaling, nephron formation is initiated, but the nascent nephrons do not express Wnt4 or Lim1, and nephrogenesis does not progress to the S-shaped body stage [14].
  • The expression pattern of mr-gef during early telencephalic neurogenesis is strikingly similar to that of GABA and the LIM homeobox gene Lhx6, a transcription factor expressed by GABAergic interneurons generated in the ventral telencephalon, some of which migrate into the cortex during development [15].

Physical interactions of Lhx1

  • These results suggest that Ssdp1 regulates the development of late head organizer tissues and body growth by functioning as an essential activator component of a Lim1 complex through interaction with Ldb1 [16].

Co-localisations of Lhx1

  • The expression of one novel cDNA SII6 initially colocalizes with Lim1 in the anterior mesendoderm of gastrula stage embryos [17].

Other interactions of Lhx1

  • Defects of the body plan of mutant embryos lacking Lim1, Otx2 or Hnf3beta activity [18].
  • It is characterised by the expression of anterior markers such as Hex, Cerberus-like and Lhx1 [19].
  • In mouse, the cerberus-related gene, Cerr1, is expressed in the anterior mesendoderm that underlies the presumptive anterior neural plate and its expression is downregulated in Lim1 headless embryos [20].
  • We examined the expression and possible functions of Lhx8, a member of the LIM-homeobox gene family, during tooth morphogenesis of the mouse [21].
  • Specifically, Ptf1a is required for the generation of early-born (dI4, E10.5) and late-born (dIL(A), E12.5) dorsal interneuron populations identified by homeodomain factors Lhx1/5 and Pax2 [22].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Lhx1


  1. Lim 1 is required for nephric duct extension and ureteric bud morphogenesis. Pedersen, A., Skjong, C., Shawlot, W. Dev. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Isolated cleft palate in mice with a targeted mutation of the LIM homeobox gene lhx8. Zhao, Y., Guo, Y.J., Tomac, A.C., Taylor, N.R., Grinberg, A., Lee, E.J., Huang, S., Westphal, H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Requirement for LIM homeobox gene Isl1 in motor neuron generation reveals a motor neuron-dependent step in interneuron differentiation. Pfaff, S.L., Mendelsohn, M., Stewart, C.L., Edlund, T., Jessell, T.M. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. The LIM homeobox gene Lhx9 is essential for mouse gonad formation. Birk, O.S., Casiano, D.E., Wassif, C.A., Cogliati, T., Zhao, L., Zhao, Y., Grinberg, A., Huang, S., Kreidberg, J.A., Parker, K.L., Porter, F.D., Westphal, H. Nature (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Requirement for Lim1 in head-organizer function. Shawlot, W., Behringer, R.R. Nature (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Control of hippocampal morphogenesis and neuronal differentiation by the LIM homeobox gene Lhx5. Zhao, Y., Sheng, H.Z., Amini, R., Grinberg, A., Lee, E., Huang, S., Taira, M., Westphal, H. Science (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Expression of murine Lhx5 suggests a role in specifying the forebrain. Sheng, H.Z., Bertuzzi, S., Chiang, C., Shawlot, W., Taira, M., Dawid, I., Westphal, H. Dev. Dyn. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Reduced expression of the LIM-homeobox gene Lhx3 impairs growth and differentiation of Rathke's pouch and increases cell apoptosis during mouse pituitary development. Zhao, Y., Morales, D.C., Hermesz, E., Lee, W.K., Pfaff, S.L., Westphal, H. Mech. Dev. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Lim1 is required in both primitive streak-derived tissues and visceral endoderm for head formation in the mouse. Shawlot, W., Wakamiya, M., Kwan, K.M., Kania, A., Jessell, T.M., Behringer, R.R. Development (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Lhx1 and Lhx5 maintain the inhibitory-neurotransmitter status of interneurons in the dorsal spinal cord. Pillai, A., Mansouri, A., Behringer, R., Westphal, H., Goulding, M. Development (2007) [Pubmed]
  11. Pax6 regulates the identity of embryonic diencephalic neurons. Mastick, G.S., Andrews, G.L. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. The LIM-homeodomain gene family in the developing Xenopus brain: conservation and divergences with the mouse related to the evolution of the forebrain. Bachy, I., Vernier, P., Retaux, S. J. Neurosci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Nephric lineage specification by Pax2 and Pax8. Bouchard, M., Souabni, A., Mandler, M., Neubüser, A., Busslinger, M. Genes Dev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. FGF8 is required for cell survival at distinct stages of nephrogenesis and for regulation of gene expression in nascent nephrons. Grieshammer, U., Cebrián, C., Ilagan, R., Meyers, E., Herzlinger, D., Martin, G.R. Development (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Expression of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor, mr-gef, is regulated during the differentiation of specific subsets of telencephalic neurons. Bithell, A., Alberta, J., Hornby, F., Stiles, C.D., Williams, B.P. Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Ssdp1 regulates head morphogenesis of mouse embryos by activating the Lim1-Ldb1 complex. Nishioka, N., Nagano, S., Nakayama, R., Kiyonari, H., Ijiri, T., Taniguchi, K., Shawlot, W., Hayashizaki, Y., Westphal, H., Behringer, R.R., Matsuda, Y., Sakoda, S., Kondoh, H., Sasaki, H. Development (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Isolation of novel cDNAs by subtractions between the anterior mesendoderm of single mouse gastrula stage embryos. Shimono, A., Behringer, R.R. Dev. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Defects of the body plan of mutant embryos lacking Lim1, Otx2 or Hnf3beta activity. Kinder, S.J., Tsang, T.E., Ang, S.L., Behringer, R.R., Tam, P.P. Int. J. Dev. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Active cell migration drives the unilateral movements of the anterior visceral endoderm. Srinivas, S., Rodriguez, T., Clements, M., Smith, J.C., Beddington, R.S. Development (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. The cerberus-related gene, Cerr1, is not essential for mouse head formation. Shawlot, W., Min Deng, J., Wakamiya, M., Behringer, R.R. Genesis (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Expression and role of Lhx8 in murine tooth development. Shibaguchi, T., Kato, J., Abe, M., Tamamura, Y., Tabata, M.J., Liu, J.G., Iwamoto, M., Wakisaka, S., Wanaka, A., Kurisu, K. Arch. Histol. Cytol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Ptf1a determines GABAergic over glutamatergic neuronal cell fate in the spinal cord dorsal horn. Glasgow, S.M., Henke, R.M., Macdonald, R.J., Wright, C.V., Johnson, J.E. Development (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. The homeobox gene Hesx1 is required in the anterior neural ectoderm for normal forebrain formation. Martinez-Barbera, J.P., Rodriguez, T.A., Beddington, R.S. Dev. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Specific expression of the LIM/homeodomain protein Lim-1 in horizontal cells during retinogenesis. Liu, W., Wang, J.H., Xiang, M. Dev. Dyn. (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Conserved requirement of Lim1 function for cell movements during gastrulation. Hukriede, N.A., Tsang, T.E., Habas, R., Khoo, P.L., Steiner, K., Weeks, D.L., Tam, P.P., Dawid, I.B. Dev. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities