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Gene Review

Tmsb4x  -  thymosin, beta 4, X chromosome

Mus musculus

Synonyms: Ptmb4, T beta 4, Tb4, Thymosin beta-4, Tmsb4
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Disease relevance of Tmsb4x

  • Up-regulation of Tb4 gene expression may be responsible for the disintegration of the musculature during the development of adenomyosis [1].
  • Thymosin-beta4 regulates motility and metastasis of malignant mouse fibrosarcoma cells [2].
  • We identified a thymosin-beta4 gene overexpression in malignant mouse fibrosarcoma cells (QRsP-30) that were derived from clonal weakly tumorigenic and nonmetastatic QR-32 cells by using a differential display method [2].
  • In diabetic mice, where healing is delayed, we found that wound contracture and collagen deposition were significantly increased in the mice treated with thymosin beta 4 in either phosphate buffered saline solution or a hydrogel formulation [3].
  • B16-F10 cells infected with adenoviruses containing a thymosin beta4 expression vector or an empty vector were injected subcutaneously and intravenously into C57BL/6 mice to evaluate tumor growth and metastatic potential, respectively [4].

High impact information on Tmsb4x


Chemical compound and disease context of Tmsb4x

  • Therapeutic Potential of Thymosin-beta4 and its Derivative N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP) in Cardiac Healing After Infarction [7].

Biological context of Tmsb4x

  • To determine how T beta 4 gene expression is regulated and how the alternative transcripts are derived, we cloned the mouse T beta 4 gene [8].
  • The mouse thymosin beta 4 gene: structure, promoter identification, and chromosome localization [8].
  • The Tbeta4 lines spread more fully and adhered to the dish more strongly than vector controls; this altered phenotype correlated with a twofold increase in talin and alpha5-integrin and a nearly threefold increase in vinculin [9].
  • We previously showed that the -278 to +410 region of mouse thymosin beta4 (mT,beta4) gene supports high levels of reporter gene expression in NIH3T3 cells [10].
  • In conclusion, the results presented here demonstrate the expression of Tbeta4 gene during early embryogenesis which immediately suggests an important role for this peptide in developmental processes requiring actin-based functions such as the formation of cardiovascular system [11].

Anatomical context of Tmsb4x


Associations of Tmsb4x with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of Tmsb4x


Other interactions of Tmsb4x


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Tmsb4x


  1. Up-regulation of thymosin beta 4 gene expression in experimentally-induced uterine adenomyosis in mice. Kawahara, R., Matsuda, M., Imaoka, T., Mori, T. In Vivo (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Thymosin-beta4 regulates motility and metastasis of malignant mouse fibrosarcoma cells. Kobayashi, T., Okada, F., Fujii, N., Tomita, N., Ito, S., Tazawa, H., Aoyama, T., Choi, S.K., Shibata, T., Fujita, H., Hosokawa, M. Am. J. Pathol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Thymosin beta 4 and a synthetic peptide containing its actin-binding domain promote dermal wound repair in db/db diabetic mice and in aged mice. Philp, D., Badamchian, M., Scheremeta, B., Nguyen, M., Goldstein, A.L., Kleinman, H.K. Wound repair and regeneration : official publication of the Wound Healing Society [and] the European Tissue Repair Society. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Role of thymosin beta4 in tumor metastasis and angiogenesis. Cha, H.J., Jeong, M.J., Kleinman, H.K. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Local photorelease of caged thymosin beta4 in locomoting keratocytes causes cell turning. Roy, P., Rajfur, Z., Jones, D., Marriott, G., Loew, L., Jacobson, K. J. Cell Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. The role of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species in the acquisition of metastatic ability of tumor cells. Okada, F., Kobayashi, M., Tanaka, H., Kobayashi, T., Tazawa, H., Iuchi, Y., Onuma, K., Hosokawa, M., Dinauer, M.C., Hunt, N.H. Am. J. Pathol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Therapeutic Potential of Thymosin-beta4 and its Derivative N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP) in Cardiac Healing After Infarction. Cavasin, M.A. American journal of cardiovascular drugs : drugs, devices, and other interventions (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. The mouse thymosin beta 4 gene: structure, promoter identification, and chromosome localization. Li, X., Zimmerman, A., Copeland, N.G., Gilbert, D.J., Jenkins, N.A., Yin, H.L. Genomics (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Co-ordinate regulation of the cytoskeleton in 3T3 cells overexpressing thymosin-beta4. Golla, R., Philp, N., Safer, D., Chintapalli, J., Hoffman, R., Collins, L., Nachmias, V.T. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Identification of the positive and negative cis-elements involved in modulating the constitutive expression of mouse thymosin beta4 gene. Hsiao, H.L., Su, Y. Mol. Cell. Biochem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. High levels of mouse thymosin beta4 mRNA in differentiating P19 embryonic cells and during development of cardiovascular tissues. Gómez-Márquez, J., Franco del Amo, F., Carpintero, P., Anadón, R. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Depression of prothymosin alpha production in murine thymus correlates with staphylococcal enterotoxin-B-induced immunosuppression [corrected]. Low, T.L., Pan, T.L., Lin, Y.S. FEBS Lett. (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Differential splicing of thymosin beta 4 mRNA. Rudin, C.M., Engler, P., Storb, U. J. Immunol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. Solid-phase synthesis of thymosin beta 4: chemical and biological characterization of the synthetic peptide. Low, T.L., Wang, S.S., Goldstein, A.L. Biochemistry (1983) [Pubmed]
  15. Thymosin beta 4 promotes corneal wound healing and decreases inflammation in vivo following alkali injury. Sosne, G., Szliter, E.A., Barrett, R., Kernacki, K.A., Kleinman, H., Hazlett, L.D. Exp. Eye Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Regulation of thymosin beta 4 mRNA levels during cell proliferation. Zalvide, J.B., Alvarez, C.V., Vidal, A., Dieguez, C., Vega, F.V., Domínguez, F. Cell Prolif. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Characterization of a 5'-flanking region supporting the transcription of mouse thymosin beta-4 in mouse NIH3T3 cells. Su, Y., Chang, S.L., Hsiao, H.L. Mol. Cell. Biochem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Identification of a series of differentiation-associated gene sequences from GM-CSF stimulated bone marrow. Moscinski, L.C., Prystowsky, M.B. Oncogene (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. Identification and genetic mapping of differentially expressed genes in mice differing at the If1 interferon regulatory locus. Kozak, C.A., Su, Y., Raj, N.B., Pitha, P.M. Mamm. Genome (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Effects of thymosin beta 4 and thymosin beta 10 on actin structures in living cells. Yu, F.X., Lin, S.C., Morrison-Bogorad, M., Yin, H.L. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. The thymosin beta 4 gene is strongly activated in neural tissues during early postimplantation mouse development. Carpinterio, P., Anadón, R., del Amo, F.F., Gómez-Márquez, J. Neurosci. Lett. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Bone marrow endothelial cells secrete thymosin beta4 and AcSDKP. Huang, W.Q., Wang, Q.R. Exp. Hematol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Isolation and structural studies of porcine, ovine and murine thymosin beta 4 by high-performance liquid chromatography. Low, T.L., Mercer, R.C. J. Chromatogr. (1984) [Pubmed]
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