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Gene Review

Ptx3  -  pentraxin related gene

Mus musculus

Synonyms: AI607804, Pentaxin-related protein PTX3, Pentraxin-related protein PTX3, TSG-14, Tsg14, ...
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Disease relevance of Ptx3


High impact information on Ptx3


Chemical compound and disease context of Ptx3


Biological context of Ptx3

  • To define PTX3 function during ovulation, we generated knockout mice lacking the Ptx3 gene [9].
  • Our results provide evidence for a role of PTX3 as an important component of the innate-immune response and as part of the host mechanisms that control fungal recognition and phagocytosis [10].
  • Promoter structure and transcriptional activation of the murine TSG-14 gene encoding a tumor necrosis factor/interleukin-1-inducible pentraxin protein [11].
  • The promoter of the TSG-14 gene lacks consensus sequences for either a TATA box or CCAAT box [11].
  • Analysis of the coding region predicts a high degree of amino acid sequence homology between murine and human TSG-14 (88 and 75% identity in the first and second exons, respectively) [11].

Anatomical context of Ptx3

  • Recombinant (r)PTX3 protein binds to Zy particles as well as to yeast cells of P. brasiliensis and addition of rPTX3, to a culture of WT-derived macrophages containing Zy leads to an increase in the phagocytic index, which parallels that of Tg-derived macrophages, demonstrating the opsonin-like activity of PTX3 [10].
  • Here, we show that peritoneal macrophages derived from PTX3 transgenic (Tg) mice express higher levels of PTX3 mRNA than macrophages from wild-type (WT) mice, at basal level as well as upon stimulation with zymosan (Zy) [10].
  • We recently isolated a homeodomain transcription factor, named Ptx3, that is uniquely expressed in the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta and ventral tegmental area, which together form the mesencephalic dopaminergic system [12].
  • Differential expression of pentraxin 3 in fibroblasts from patients with major depression [13].
  • Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) elicited TSG-14 expression in both cell types, but induction in 3T3 cells and macrophages showed several distinct characteristics [14].

Associations of Ptx3 with chemical compounds

  • Human TNF-stimulated gene 14 (TSG-14) encodes a secreted 42-kDa glycoprotein that shows significant homology to proteins of the pentraxin family, which includes the acute phase reactants C-reactive protein and serum amyloid P component [11].
  • These include the homeobox transcription factors engrailed and Ptx-3 as well as aldehyde dehydrogenase 2, here defined as the earliest marker identified in developing DA cells, expressed already in mitotic DA progenitors [15].
  • A moderate increase in TSG-14 mRNA was observed in FS-4 cells treated with the glucocorticoid dexamethasone [16].
  • Similarly, at 19 weeks we detected no significant elevation of transcripts for the APPs serum amyloid A, complement C3, pentraxin 3, and alpha2-antiplasmin in the liver, despite CNS neurodegeneration and splenic PrPSc deposition at this time [17].
  • TNF and interleukin-1 (IL-1) potently induced TSG-14 expression in 3T3 fibroblasts but not in peritoneal macrophages [14].

Regulatory relationships of Ptx3


Other interactions of Ptx3


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ptx3


  1. Non-redundant role of the long pentraxin PTX3 in anti-fungal innate immune response. Garlanda, C., Hirsch, E., Bozza, S., Salustri, A., De Acetis, M., Nota, R., Maccagno, A., Riva, F., Bottazzi, B., Peri, G., Doni, A., Vago, L., Botto, M., De Santis, R., Carminati, P., Siracusa, G., Altruda, F., Vecchi, A., Romani, L., Mantovani, A. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. PTX3 plays a key role in the organization of the cumulus oophorus extracellular matrix and in in vivo fertilization. Salustri, A., Garlanda, C., Hirsch, E., De Acetis, M., Maccagno, A., Bottazzi, B., Doni, A., Bastone, A., Mantovani, G., Beck Peccoz, P., Salvatori, G., Mahoney, D.J., Day, A.J., Siracusa, G., Romani, L., Mantovani, A. Development (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Increased mortality and inflammation in tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene-14 transgenic mice after ischemia and reperfusion injury. Souza, D.G., Soares, A.C., Pinho, V., Torloni, H., Reis, L.F., Teixeira, M.M., Dias, A.A., Martins, M.T. Am. J. Pathol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. TSG-14 transgenic mice have improved survival to endotoxemia and to CLP-induced sepsis. Dias, A.A., Goodman, A.R., Dos Santos, J.L., Gomes, R.N., Altmeyer, A., Bozza, P.T., Horta, M.F., Vilcek, J., Reis, L.F. J. Leukoc. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Expression of pentraxin 3 (PTX3) in human atherosclerotic lesions. Savchenko, A., Imamura, M., Ohashi, R., Jiang, S., Kawasaki, T., Hasegawa, G., Emura, I., Iwanari, H., Sagara, M., Tanaka, T., Hamakubo, T., Kodama, T., Naito, M. J. Pathol. (2008) [Pubmed]
  6. Differential regulation of midbrain dopaminergic neuron development by Wnt-1, Wnt-3a, and Wnt-5a. Castelo-Branco, G., Wagner, J., Rodriguez, F.J., Kele, J., Sousa, K., Rawal, N., Pasolli, H.A., Fuchs, E., Kitajewski, J., Arenas, E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Central role for MyD88 in the responses of microglia to pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Esen, N., Kielian, T. J. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Anti-Aspergillus fumigatus efficacy of pentraxin 3 alone and in combination with antifungals. Gaziano, R., Bozza, S., Bellocchio, S., Perruccio, K., Montagnoli, C., Pitzurra, L., Salvatori, G., De Santis, R., Carminati, P., Mantovani, A., Romani, L. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Knockout of pentraxin 3, a downstream target of growth differentiation factor-9, causes female subfertility. Varani, S., Elvin, J.A., Yan, C., DeMayo, J., DeMayo, F.J., Horton, H.F., Byrne, M.C., Matzuk, M.M. Mol. Endocrinol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. PTX3 function as an opsonin for the dectin-1-dependent internalization of zymosan by macrophages. Diniz, S.N., Nomizo, R., Cisalpino, P.S., Teixeira, M.M., Brown, G.D., Mantovani, A., Gordon, S., Reis, L.F., Dias, A.A. J. Leukoc. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Promoter structure and transcriptional activation of the murine TSG-14 gene encoding a tumor necrosis factor/interleukin-1-inducible pentraxin protein. Altmeyer, A., Klampfer, L., Goodman, A.R., Vilcek, J. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. A response element for the homeodomain transcription factor Ptx3 in the tyrosine hydroxylase gene promoter. Cazorla, P., Smidt, M.P., O'Malley, K.L., Burbach, J.P. J. Neurochem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Differential expression of pentraxin 3 in fibroblasts from patients with major depression. Shelton, R.C., Liang, S., Liang, P., Chakrabarti, A., Manier, D.H., Sulser, F. Neuropsychopharmacology (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Differential regulation of TSG-14 expression in murine fibroblasts and peritoneal macrophages. Goodman, A.R., Levy, D.E., Reis, L.F., Vilcek, J. J. Leukoc. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Fate of mesencephalic AHD2-expressing dopamine progenitor cells in NURR1 mutant mice. Wallén, A., Zetterström, R.H., Solomin, L., Arvidsson, M., Olson, L., Perlmann, T. Exp. Cell Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. TSG-14, a tumor necrosis factor- and IL-1-inducible protein, is a novel member of the pentaxin family of acute phase proteins. Lee, G.W., Lee, T.H., Vilcek, J. J. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Comparison of inflammatory and acute-phase responses in the brain and peripheral organs of the ME7 model of prion disease. Cunningham, C., Wilcockson, D.C., Boche, D., Perry, V.H. J. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Gene regulation by IL-1beta independent of IL-1R1 in the mouse brain. Andre, R., Moggs, J.G., Kimber, I., Rothwell, N.J., Pinteaux, E. Glia (2006) [Pubmed]
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