The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

ALCAM  -  activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule, CD166, CD166 antigen, MEMD
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of ALCAM


High impact information on ALCAM


Chemical compound and disease context of ALCAM


Biological context of ALCAM


Anatomical context of ALCAM

  • Moreover, the CD6-ALCAM interaction has been shown to be critical for proper immunological synapse maturation and T cell proliferative responses [12].
  • CONCLUSION: ALCAM expression on PB and SF monocytes/macrophages is enhanced by M-CSF [15].
  • ALCAM is also expressed by activated leukocytes and neurons and may be involved in interactions between T cells and activated leukocytes and between cells of the immune and nervous systems, respectively [11].
  • ALCAM was expressed on monocyte-lineage cells in situ in inflamed synovium from patients with RA (9 of 9), but not in uninflamed synovium from patients with joint trauma (0 of 3) [15].
  • Exposure of synovial fibroblasts to other cytokines or to the superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin A also regulated binding of CD6 fusion protein and anti-ALCAM mAb in a discordant manner [16].

Associations of ALCAM with chemical compounds

  • Immunohistochemical study showed that ALCAM was expressed on endometrial luminal and glandular epithelial cells but not on the endometrial stromal cells in either the proliferative or secretory phase [14].
  • PKC inhibition by chelerythrine chloride and myristoylated PKC pseudosubstrate, as well as PKC downregulation by PMA strongly reduce cytoskeleton-dependent ALCAM-mediated adhesion [17].
  • Since serine and threonine residues are dispensable for ALCAM-mediated adhesion and ALCAM is not phosphorylated, we can rule out that ALCAM itself is a direct PKC substrate [17].
  • Previously, six ALCAM residues were identified by alanine scanning mutagenesis to contribute to the interaction with CD6 [18].
  • RESULTS: High levels of ALCAM significantly correlated with small tumor diameter (p=0.009), low tumor grade (p=0.001), and the presence of progesterone (p=0.009) and estrogen (p=0.006) receptors [19].

Physical interactions of ALCAM

  • In this study, we report that the amino-terminal Ig-like domain of human ALCAM specifically binds to the third membrane-proximal scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) domain of human CD6 [13].
  • This resulted not only in the correct assembly of E-cadherin/alpha-catenin complexes at the cell membrane but also in localization of ALCAM to cell-cell contacts, indicating that indeed alpha-catenin affects ALCAM localization [20].

Regulatory relationships of ALCAM

  • The reverse transition from mesenchymal invasive to a resident epithelial-like phenotype implicates a role for Tiam1/Rac signaling in the control of cell-cell contacts through a novel ALCAM-mediated mechanism [21].
  • Knowledge that CD166 was expressed in normal human salivary epithelium led to these studies of CD166 and CD6 in diseased mouse salivary glands, that resemble pathology seen in the human disease, Sjögren's syndrome [22].

Other interactions of ALCAM


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ALCAM


  1. MEMD, a new cell adhesion molecule in metastasizing human melanoma cell lines, is identical to ALCAM (activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule). Degen, W.G., van Kempen, L.C., Gijzen, E.G., van Groningen, J.J., van Kooyk, Y., Bloemers, H.P., Swart, G.W. Am. J. Pathol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM/CD166/MEMD), a novel actor in invasive growth, controls matrix metalloproteinase activity. Lunter, P.C., van Kilsdonk, J.W., van Beek, H., Cornelissen, I.M., Bergers, M., Willems, P.H., van Muijen, G.N., Swart, G.W. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. ALCAM/CD166 is up-regulated in low-grade prostate cancer and progressively lost in high-grade lesions. Kristiansen, G., Pilarsky, C., Wissmann, C., Stephan, C., Weissbach, L., Loy, V., Loening, S., Dietel, M., Rosenthal, A. Prostate (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. MEMD/ALCAM: a potential marker for tumor invasion and nodal metastasis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Verma, A., Shukla, N.K., Deo, S.V., Gupta, S.D., Ralhan, R. Oncology (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Cytoplasmic overexpression of ALCAM is prognostic of disease progression in breast cancer. Burkhardt, M., Mayordomo, E., Winzer, K.J., Fritzsche, F., Gansukh, T., Pahl, S., Weichert, W., Denkert, C., Guski, H., Dietel, M., Kristiansen, G. J. Clin. Pathol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Subcellular localization of activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule is a molecular predictor of survival in ovarian carcinoma patients. Mezzanzanica, D., Fabbi, M., Bagnoli, M., Staurengo, S., Losa, M., Balladore, E., Alberti, P., Lusa, L., Ditto, A., Ferrini, S., Pierotti, M.A., Barbareschi, M., Pilotti, S., Canevari, S. Clin. Cancer Res. (2008) [Pubmed]
  7. Cloning, mapping, and characterization of activated leukocyte-cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM), a CD6 ligand. Bowen, M.A., Patel, D.D., Li, X., Modrell, B., Malacko, A.R., Wang, W.C., Marquardt, H., Neubauer, M., Pesando, J.M., Francke, U. J. Exp. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Long-term engagement of CD6 and ALCAM is essential for T-cell proliferation induced by dendritic cells. Zimmerman, A.W., Joosten, B., Torensma, R., Parnes, J.R., van Leeuwen, F.N., Figdor, C.G. Blood (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. HCA, an immunoglobulin-like adhesion molecule present on the earliest human hematopoietic precursor cells, is also expressed by stromal cells in blood-forming tissues. Cortés, F., Deschaseaux, F., Uchida, N., Labastie, M.C., Friera, A.M., He, D., Charbord, P., Péault, B. Blood (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. ALCAM/CD166 protects breast cancer cells against apoptosis and autophagy. Jezierska, A., Matysiak, W., Motyl, T. Med. Sci. Monit. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. The membrane-proximal scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain of CD6 contains the activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule binding site. Whitney, G.S., Starling, G.C., Bowen, M.A., Modrell, B., Siadak, A.W., Aruffo, A. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation by the CD6 lymphocyte surface receptor. Ibáñez, A., Sarrias, M.R., Farnós, M., Gimferrer, I., Serra-Pagès, C., Vives, J., Lozano, F. J. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. The amino-terminal immunoglobulin-like domain of activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule binds specifically to the membrane-proximal scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain of CD6 with a 1:1 stoichiometry. Bowen, M.A., Bajorath, J., Siadak, A.W., Modrell, B., Malacko, A.R., Marquardt, H., Nadler, S.G., Aruffo, A. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Human blastocysts and endometrial epithelial cells express activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM/CD166). Fujiwara, H., Tatsumi, K., Kosaka, K., Sato, Y., Higuchi, T., Yoshioka, S., Maeda, M., Ueda, M., Fujii, S. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Cytokine-regulated expression of activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (CD166) on monocyte-lineage cells and in rheumatoid arthritis synovium. Levesque, M.C., Heinly, C.S., Whichard, L.P., Patel, D.D. Arthritis Rheum. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Evidence for the expression of a second CD6 ligand by synovial fibroblasts. Joo, Y.S., Singer, N.G., Endres, J.L., Sarkar, S., Kinne, R.W., Marks, R.M., Fox, D.A. Arthritis Rheum. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Cytoskeletal restraints regulate homotypic ALCAM-mediated adhesion through PKCalpha independently of Rho-like GTPases. Zimmerman, A.W., Nelissen, J.M., van Emst-de Vries, S.E., Willems, P.H., de Lange, F., Collard, J.G., van Leeuwen, F.N., Figdor, C.G. J. Cell. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Mutational analysis of the CD6 binding site in activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule. Skonier, J.E., Bowen, M.A., Emswiler, J., Aruffo, A., Bajorath, J. Biochemistry (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule (ALCAM) is associated with suppression of breast cancer cells invasion. Jezierska, A., Olszewski, W.P., Pietruszkiewicz, J., Olszewski, W., Matysiak, W., Motyl, T. Med. Sci. Monit. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Coordinate recruitment of E-cadherin and ALCAM to cell-cell contacts by alpha-catenin. Tomita, K., van Bokhoven, A., Jansen, C.F., Bussemakers, M.J., Schalken, J.A. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. The RacGEF Tiam1 inhibits migration and invasion of metastatic melanoma via a novel adhesive mechanism. Uhlenbrock, K., Eberth, A., Herbrand, U., Daryab, N., Stege, P., Meier, F., Friedl, P., Collard, J.G., Ahmadian, M.R. J. Cell. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. CD166 expression, characterization, and localization in salivary epithelium: implications for function during sialoadenitis. Abidi, S.M., Saifullah, M.K., Zafiropulos, M.D., Kaput, C., Bowen, M.A., Cotton, C., Singer, N.G. J. Clin. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Partial cDNA sequences of bovine CD72 and CD166/ALCAM, ligands for SRCR-family accessory molecules CD5 and CD6. Rogers, A.N., Welte, S., Black, S.J., Baldwin, C.L. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Characterization of mouse CD6 with novel monoclonal antibodies which enhance the allogeneic mixed leukocyte reaction. Starling, G.C., Whitney, G.S., Siadak, A.W., Llewellyn, M.B., Bowen, M.A., Farr, A.G., Aruffo, A.A. Eur. J. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities