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Gene Review

FDPS  -  farnesyl diphosphate synthase

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: (2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate synthase, Dimethylallyltranstransferase, FPP synthase, FPPS, FPS, ...
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Disease relevance of FDPS


Psychiatry related information on FDPS

  • In the first phase, the FPS was revised from its original seven faces to six, while maintaining its desirable psychometric properties, in order to make it compatible in scoring with other self-rating and observational scales which use a common metric (0-5 or 0-10) [5].
  • CONCLUSIONS: FPS holds promise for reducing child behavior problems, the most common and persistent sequelae of TBI [6].
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe a family-centered problem-solving intervention (FPS) for pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI), and to assess the efficacy of the intervention in a randomized clinical trial [6].

High impact information on FDPS


Biological context of FDPS

  • Considerable nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence homology is observed between hpt807 and previously isolated rat liver cDNAs for farnesyl pyrophosphate synthetase [9].
  • FPS gene expression is also under strict developmental control: FPS mRNA was mainly abundant in young organs and decreased as organs matured with the exception of fruits that presented a biphasic accumulation pattern [10].
  • Taken together our results suggest that several FPS isoforms are involved in tomato farnesyl pyrophosphate metabolism and that FPS genes are mostly expressed in relation to cell division and enlargement [10].
  • A system of four short tandem repeat loci (HUMVWF31A, HUMTH01, HUMF13A1, and HUMFES/FPS) has been tested in co-amplification with forensic (post-mortem and post-coital) DNA samples [11].
  • Six microsatellite - or short tandem repeat (STR) - systems with uniform repetitive sequences (HumTH01, HumCD4, HumFES/FPS, HumF13B, HumTPO, HumLPL) and three compound repeat systems (HumVWA, HumFIBRA, D21S11) were used, including data from the literature, to determine genetic distances among eight populations worldwide [12].

Anatomical context of FDPS

  • FPS is overexpressed in the corpora allata, the endocrine gland that produces the juvenile hormones [13].
  • Using an RNase protection assay, a protected fragment corresponding to the region encoding the FPS catalytic site was found in brain, ovary, fat body and corpora allata samples, but not in muscle [13].
  • The timing of FPS in either cranial base of mandible was not closely related to the onset of ossification in the ulnar sesamoid, the age at peak height velocity, or age at menarche [14].

Associations of FDPS with chemical compounds


Other interactions of FDPS

  • In support of the concept of RhoB as a negative regulator of Ras signaling pathways, the most strongly downregulated gene scored was farnesyl pyrophosphate synthetase, the enzyme that produces the substrate used by FT to farnesylate Ras proteins [16].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of FDPS

  • In this latter case in situ hybridization studies have shown that FPS mRNA is similarly abundant in all tissues of young fruit [10].
  • Furthermore, confocal microscopy showed that the subcellular localization of G4 was profoundly affected by FPPS [4].
  • Using a computer-animated version of the FPS developed by Champion and colleagues (Sydney Animated Facial Expressions Scale), psychophysical methods were applied to identify four faces representing equal intervals between the scale values representing least pain and most pain [5].
  • In this study three STR loci, HUMFES/FPS, HUMTH01, and HUMVWA31A, were selected to estimate their usefulness when applied to recent and ancient spongy bone DNA typing [17].
  • Prenyltransferase (farnesyl pyrophosphate synthetase) was purified from avian liver and characterized by Sephadex and sodium dodecyl sulfate gel chromatography, peptide mapping, and end-group analysis [18].


  1. Isolation and sequence of the human farnesyl pyrophosphate synthetase cDNA. Coordinate regulation of the mRNAs for farnesyl pyrophosphate synthetase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase by phorbol ester. Wilkin, D.J., Kutsunai, S.Y., Edwards, P.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. Tumor necrosis factor production during human renal allograft rejection is associated with depression of plasma protein C and free protein S levels and decreased intragraft thrombomodulin expression. Tsuchida, A., Salem, H., Thomson, N., Hancock, W.W. J. Exp. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Clinical outcomes with laparoscopic stage M1, unresected gastric adenocarcinoma. Sarela, A.I., Miner, T.J., Karpeh, M.S., Coit, D.G., Jaques, D.P., Brennan, M.F. Ann. Surg. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Oncoviral bovine leukemia virus G4 and human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 p13(II) accessory proteins interact with farnesyl pyrophosphate synthetase. Lefèbvre, L., Vanderplasschen, A., Ciminale, V., Heremans, H., Dangoisse, O., Jauniaux, J.C., Toussaint, J.F., Zelnik, V., Burny, A., Kettmann, R., Willems, L. J. Virol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. The Faces Pain Scale-Revised: toward a common metric in pediatric pain measurement. Hicks, C.L., von Baeyer, C.L., Spafford, P.A., van Korlaar, I., Goodenough, B. Pain (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Putting the pieces together: preliminary efficacy of a family problem-solving intervention for children with traumatic brain injury. Wade, S.L., Michaud, L., Brown, T.M. The Journal of head trauma rehabilitation. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Calcium ionophore treatment impairs the sterol-mediated suppression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase, and farnesyl diphosphate synthetase. Wilkin, D.J., Edwards, P.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Population genetic diversity in relation to microsatellite heterogeneity. Brinkmann, B., Junge, A., Meyer, E., Wiegand, P. Hum. Mutat. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Cloning, analysis, and bacterial expression of human farnesyl pyrophosphate synthetase and its regulation in Hep G2 cells. Sheares, B.T., White, S.S., Molowa, D.T., Chan, K., Ding, V.D., Kroon, P.A., Bostedor, R.G., Karkas, J.D. Biochemistry (1989) [Pubmed]
  10. LEFPS1, a tomato farnesyl pyrophosphate gene highly expressed during early fruit development. Gaffe, J., Bru, J.P., Causse, M., Vidal, A., Stamitti-Bert, L., Carde, J.P., Gallusci, P. Plant Physiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Forensic applications of a rapid, sensitive, and precise multiplex off lysis of the four short tandem repeat loci HUMVWF31/A, HUMTH01, HUMF13A1, and HUMFES/FPS. Robertson, J.M., Sgueglia, J.B., Badger, C.A., Juston, A.C., Ballantyne, J. Electrophoresis (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Microsatellite structures in the context of human evolution. Wiegand, P., Meyer, E., Brinkmann, B. Electrophoresis (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Molecular cloning and tissue expression of an insect farnesyl diphosphate synthase. Castillo-Gracia, M., Couillaud, F. Eur. J. Biochem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Pubertal spurts in cranial base and mandible. Comparisons within individuals. Lewis, A.B., Roche, A.F., Wagner, B. The Angle orthodontist. (1985) [Pubmed]
  15. The significance of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway in cell growth and carcinogenesis (review). Rao, K.N. Anticancer Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. Genetic response to farnesyltransferase inhibitors: proapoptotic targets of RhoB. Kamasani, U., Liu, A.X., Prendergast, G.C. Cancer Biol. Ther. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Genetic typing with HUMTH01, HUMVWA31A and HUMFES/FPS short tandem repeat loci, D1S80 variable number tandem repeat locus and HLA-DQ alpha of recent and from XII-XIII centuries spongy bone. de Pancorbo, M.M., Castro, A., Alonso, S., Fernández-Fernández, I., Barbero, C., García-Orad, A., Izaguirre, N., Iriondo, M., de la Rúa, C. Electrophoresis (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. Substrate Binding of avian liver prenyltransferase. Reed, B.C., Rilling, H.C. Biochemistry (1976) [Pubmed]
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