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Gene Review

ADA  -  adenosine deaminase

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Disease relevance of ADA


High impact information on ADA

  • In comparison, ATP and the stable analogue of AMP, adenosine monophosphorothioate (AMPS), were significantly less potent and efficacious than adenosine and AMP, and adenosine receptor antagonist 8-(p-sulfophenyl)theophylline and abolished in the presence of adenosine deaminase and alpha, beta-methylene-ADP (APCP, an inhibitor of AMP degradation) [5].
  • Binding of the A1-adenosine antagonist [3H]8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX) to guinea pig atrial membranes treated with adenosine deaminase and APCP was reduced up to 60% by 100 microM concentrations of AMP, AMPS, and adenosine [5].
  • In six other dogs, ADA plus theophylline did not reduce RH flow debt repayment below that produced by ADA alone [2].
  • Intracoronary infusions of [131]ADA in seven dogs produced interstitial ADA concentrations between 1.2 and 13.1 U/ml in perfused myocardium and, in five of these dogs, 131I activity in the cardiac node was 1.8-35 times that of contiguous mediastinal tissue [2].
  • The purified enzyme was not inhibited by 2'-deoxycoformycin, a transition state analog inhibitor of adenosine deaminase and AMP deaminase, suggesting that the catalytic mechanism of DRADA might be different from that of other deaminases [6].

Chemical compound and disease context of ADA


Biological context of ADA

  • Docking simulations of aminopyrazolopyrimidines into the ADA binding site were also performed, to rationalize the structure-activity relationships of this class of inhibitors [8].
  • To define more specific structural details of substrate preferences for binding and catalysis, we have studied the ADA binding efficiencies and deamination kinetics of several synthetic adenosine analogues in which the furanosyl ring is biased toward a particular conformation [9].
  • In addition, the substrate specificities (Km and Vmax) of purified calf spleen PNP for inosine and 2',3'-dideoxyinosine (ddI) and of purified calf intestinal ADA for 2',3'-dideoxyadenosine (ddA), 6-chloro-2',3'-dideoxypurine (6-Cl-ddP), and 2'-beta-fluoro-2', 3'-dideoxyadenosine (F-ddA) have been explored [10].
  • The aqueous extraction of dried garlic powder showed also an inhibition if ADA activity, but the IC50 value was in the range of 2.5 mg per ml indicating that parts of the active principle were lost during the preparation of the garlic powder [11].
  • The experimental evidence allows us to hypothesise some similarity in the three dimensional structures of the binding site of the two proteins, ADA and A1 adenosine receptor, in spite of lacking any homologies in the amino acid sequences [12].

Anatomical context of ADA


Associations of ADA with chemical compounds

  • Theophylline, a specific adenosine antagonist, reduced repayment of flow debt by 27-36% (P less than 0.02) in eight dogs, an effect similar to that of ADA [2].
  • The latter value was confirmed (22 s-1) by spectrofluorometrically monitoring the trapping of ADA by excess erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine as aMDAP.ADA dissociated [14].
  • Similarly, purine riboside inhibitors of ADA that prefer the N hemisphere were more potent inhibitors than S analogues [9].
  • A series of erythro-1-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)imidazole derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for adenosine deaminase (ADA) inhibitory activity, in order to introduce simplifications in the ADA inhibitors erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenine (EHNA, 1a) and 3-deaza-EHNA (1c) [15].
  • Opening the pyrimidine or pyridine ring of EHNA or 3-deaza-EHNA respectively led to compounds which are still ADA inhibitors [15].

Physical interactions of ADA


Other interactions of ADA


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ADA


  1. Primary structure of bovine adenosine deaminase. Kelly, M.A., Vestling, M.M., Murphy, C.M., Hua, S., Sumpter, T., Fenselau, C. Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Intracoronary adenosine deaminase reduces canine myocardial reactive hyperemia. Saito, D., Steinhart, C.R., Nixon, D.G., Olsson, R.A. Circ. Res. (1981) [Pubmed]
  3. Serum adenosine deaminase activity in bovine liver diseases. Abd Ellah, M.R., Nishimori, K., Goryo, M., Okada, K., Yasuda, J. J. Vet. Med. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Evaluation of adenosine deaminase seric activity in the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis. Silva, M.R., Mota, P.M., Leite, R.d.e. .M., Lobato, F.C., Leite, R.C., Lage, A.P. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Electrophysiological and receptor binding studies to assess activation of the cardiac adenosine receptor by adenine nucleotides. Ragazzi, E., Wu, S.N., Shryock, J., Belardinelli, L. Circ. Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Purification and characterization of double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase from bovine nuclear extracts. Kim, U., Garner, T.L., Sanford, T., Speicher, D., Murray, J.M., Nishikura, K. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. Enzymatic synthesis of purine 2'-deoxyriboside and its properties as an inhibitor of adenosine deaminases from calf intestinal mucosa and Bacillus cereus. Caffaz, S., Allegrini, S., Cercignani, G. Ital. J. Biochem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. Novel, highly potent adenosine deaminase inhibitors containing the pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine ring system. Synthesis, structure-activity relationships, and molecular modeling studies. Da Settimo, F., Primofiore, G., La Motta, C., Taliani, S., Simorini, F., Marini, A.M., Mugnaini, L., Lavecchia, A., Novellino, E., Tuscano, D., Martini, C. J. Med. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Adenosine deaminase prefers a distinct sugar ring conformation for binding and catalysis: kinetic and structural studies. Ford, H., Dai, F., Mu, L., Siddiqui, M.A., Nicklaus, M.C., Anderson, L., Marquez, V.E., Barchi, J.J. Biochemistry (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Localization of purine metabolizing enzymes in bovine brain microvessel endothelial cells: an enzymatic blood-brain barrier for dideoxynucleosides? Johnson, M.D., Anderson, B.D. Pharm. Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Inhibition of adenosine deaminase activity of aortic endothelial cells by extracts of garlic (Allium sativum L.). Melzig, M.F., Krause, E., Franke, S. Die Pharmazie. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Erythro- and threo-2-hydroxynonyl substituted 2-phenyladenines and 2-phenyl-8-azaadenines: ligands for A1 adenosine receptors and adenosine deaminase. Biagi, G., Giorgi, I., Livi, O., Pacchini, F., Rum, P., Scartoni, V., Costa, B., Mazzoni, M.R., Giusti, L. Farmaco (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Binding specificities of adenosine aminohydrolase from calf intestinal mucosa with dialdehydes derived from hexofuranosyladenine nucleosides. Grant, A.J., Lerner, L.M. J. Med. Chem. (1980) [Pubmed]
  14. Alternative substrates for calf intestinal adenosine deaminase. A pre-steady-state kinetic analysis. Porter, D.J., Spector, T. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Adenosine deaminase inhibitors: synthesis and structure-activity relationships of imidazole analogues of erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenine. Cristalli, G., Eleuteri, A., Franchetti, P., Grifantini, M., Vittori, S., Lupidi, G. J. Med. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  16. On the regulatory role of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (=CD=adenosine deaminase complexing protein) on adenosine deaminase activity. Ben-Shooshan, I., Kessel, A., Ben-Tal, N., Cohen-Luria, R., Parola, A.H. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Adenosine mediates hypoxic induction of vascular endothelial growth factor in retinal pericytes and endothelial cells. Takagi, H., King, G.L., Robinson, G.S., Ferrara, N., Aiello, L.P. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Characterization of membrane-bound and solubilized high-affinity binding sites for 5'-N-ethylcarboxamido[3H]adenosine from bovine cerebral cortex. Lorenzen, A., Nitsch-Kirsch, M., Vogt, H., Schwabe, U. J. Neurochem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  19. Evidence for receptor-mediated uptake of adenosine deaminase in rabbit kidney. Schrader, W.P., Miczek, A.D., West, C.A., Samsonoff, W.A. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  20. Solution stirring initiates nucleation and improves the quality of adenosine deaminase crystals. Adachi, H., Takano, K., Niino, A., Matsumura, H., Kinoshita, T., Warizaya, M., Inoue, T., Mori, Y., Sasaki, T. Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Determination of the kinetic parameters of adenosine deaminase by electrophoretically mediated microanalysis. Saevels, J., Van Schepdael, A., Hoogmartens, J. Electrophoresis (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. A product inhibition study on adenosine deaminase by spectroscopy and calorimetry. Saboury, A.A., Divsalar, A., Jafari, G.A., Moosavi-Movahedi, A.A., Housaindokht, M.R., Hakimelahi, G.H. J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Immobilization of adenosine deaminase onto agarose and casein. Dessouki, A.M., Atia, K.S. Biomacromolecules (2002) [Pubmed]
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