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Gene Review

Ada  -  adenosine deaminase

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Adenosine aminohydrolase, Adenosine deaminase
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Disease relevance of Ada

  • BACKGROUND: CD26 is a T-cell co-stimulator, and interacts with adenosine deaminase, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Tat-1 protein and extracellular matrix [1].
  • Thus, the examination of ADA deficiency has identified the importance of purinergic signaling during lymphoid development and in the regulation of aspects of chronic lung disease [2].
  • Adenosine deaminase deficiency: metabolic basis of immune deficiency and pulmonary inflammation [2].
  • Genetic deficiencies in the purine catabolic enzyme adenosine deaminase (ADA) in humans results primarily in a severe lymphopenia and immunodeficiency that can lead to the death of affected individuals early in life [2].
  • Inhibition of adenosine deaminase during ischemia results in a injury similar to that seen after a shorter period of insult [3].

Psychiatry related information on Ada


High impact information on Ada

  • The metabolic basis of the immunodeficiency is likely related to the sensitivity of lymphocytes to the accumulation of the ADA substrates adenosine and 2'-deoxyadenosine [2].
  • ADA-deficient mice develop similar abnormalities that are dependent on the accumulation of adenosine and 2'-deoxyadenosine [2].
  • Investigations using ADA-deficient mice have provided compelling evidence to support the hypothesis that T and B cells are sensitive to increased concentrations of 2'-deoxyadenosine that kill cells through mechanisms that involve the accumulation of dATP and the induction of apoptosis [2].
  • In addition to effects on the developing immune system, ADA-deficient humans exhibit phenotypes in other physiological systems including the renal, neural, skeletal, and pulmonary systems [2].
  • A high level of human ADA expression was observed in infected endothelial cell populations both before and after selection in G418 [7].

Chemical compound and disease context of Ada


Biological context of Ada


Anatomical context of Ada


Associations of Ada with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Ada


Regulatory relationships of Ada


Other interactions of Ada


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ada


  1. CD26/dipeptidylpeptidase IV-targeted therapy of acute lung rejection in rats. Jung, F.J., Yang, L., De Meester, I., Augustyns, K., Cardell, M., Hillinger, S., Vogt, P., Lardinois, D., Scharpé, S., Weder, W., Korom, S. J. Heart Lung Transplant. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Adenosine deaminase deficiency: metabolic basis of immune deficiency and pulmonary inflammation. Blackburn, M.R., Kellems, R.E. Adv. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Metabolic and functional consequences of inhibiting adenosine deaminase during renal ischemia in rats. Stromski, M.E., van Waarde, A., Avison, M.J., Thulin, G., Gaudio, K.M., Kashgarian, M., Shulman, R.G., Siegel, N.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1988) [Pubmed]
  4. Enzymes of adenosine metabolism in the brain: diurnal rhythm and the effect of sleep deprivation. Mackiewicz, M., Nikonova, E.V., Zimmerman, J.E., Galante, R.J., Zhang, L., Cater, J.R., Geiger, J.D., Pack, A.I. J. Neurochem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Sedative and electroencephalographic actions of erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)-adenine (EHNA): relationship to inhibition of brain adenosine deaminase. Mendelson, W.B., Kuruvilla, A., Watlington, T., Goehl, K., Paul, S.M., Skolnick, P. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1983) [Pubmed]
  6. Enhanced oral bioavailability of DDI after administration of 6-Cl-ddP, an adenosine deaminase-activated prodrug, to chronically catheterized rats. Anderson, B.D., Morgan, M.E., Singhal, D. Pharm. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. High-level recombinant gene expression in rabbit endothelial cells transduced by retroviral vectors. Zwiebel, J.A., Freeman, S.M., Kantoff, P.W., Cornetta, K., Ryan, U.S., Anderson, W.F. Science (1989) [Pubmed]
  8. Editing of glutamate receptor B subunit ion channel RNAs by four alternatively spliced DRADA2 double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminases. Lai, F., Chen, C.X., Carter, K.C., Nishikura, K. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Adenosine deaminase from deoxycoformycin-sensitive and -resistant rat hepatoma cells. Purification and characterization. Hunt, S.W., Hoffee, P.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1982) [Pubmed]
  10. Adenosine deaminase inhibitors enhance cerebral anoxic hyperemia in the rat. Phillis, J.W., DeLong, R.E., Towner, J.K. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1985) [Pubmed]
  11. Effect of adenosine deaminase, N6-phenylisopropyladenosine and hypothyroidism on the responsiveness of rat brown adipocytes to noradrenaline. Woodward, J.A., Saggerson, E.D. Biochem. J. (1986) [Pubmed]
  12. Enhanced oral bioavailability of 2'- beta-fluoro-2',3'-dideoxyadenosine (F-ddA) through local inhibition of intestinal adenosine deaminase. DeGraw, R.T., Anderson, B.D. Pharm. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Expression of adenosine deaminase and 5'-nucleotidase in artificially induced deciduoma in rat and hamster. Farheen, S., Srivastava, V.M., Mehrotra, P.K. Indian J. Exp. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Hemodynamic effects of potentially useful antineoplastic agents. Spremulli, E.N., Cummings, F.J., Crabtree, G.W., LaBresh, K., Jordan, M., Calabresi, P. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1983) [Pubmed]
  15. Morphologic changes and immunohistochemical localization of adenosine deaminase in tissues of rats given injections of 2'-deoxycoformycin. Checkik, B.E., Perets, A., SenGupta, S., Fernandes, B. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1983) [Pubmed]
  16. Stomach implant for long-term erythropoietin expression in rats. Lejnieks, D.V., Ramesh, N., Lau, S., Osborne, W.R. Blood (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Activity of adenosine deaminase in the sleep regulatory areas of the rat CNS. Mackiewicz, M., Nikonova, E.V., Bell, C.C., Galante, R.J., Zhang, L., Geiger, J.D., Pack, A.I. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Immunohistochemistry of adenosine deaminase: implications for adenosine neurotransmission. Nagy, J.I., LaBella, L.A., Buss, M., Daddona, P.E. Science (1984) [Pubmed]
  19. Inhibition of lipolysis by adenosine is potentiated with age. Hoffman, B.B., Chang, H., Farahbakhsh, Z., Reaven, G. J. Clin. Invest. (1984) [Pubmed]
  20. Valerian extract Ze 911 inhibits postsynaptic potentials by activation of adenosine A1 receptors in rat cortical neurons. Vissiennon, Z., Sichardt, K., Koetter, U., Brattström, A., Nieber, K. Planta Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. A new milrinone analog: role of binding to A1 adenosine receptor in its positive inotropic effect on isolated guinea pig and rat atria. Floreani, M., Borea, P.A., Gessi, S., Mosti, L., Fossa, P., Dorigo, P. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Glucagon inhibition of insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake by rat adipocytes in the presence of adenosine deaminase. Green, A. Biochem. J. (1983) [Pubmed]
  23. Suppression of insulin-stimulated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity by the beta3-adrenoceptor agonist CL316243 in rat adipocytes. Ohsaka, Y., Tokumitsu, Y., Nomura, Y. FEBS Lett. (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. Adenosine A1-receptors inhibit cAMP and Ca2+ mediated calcitonin secretion in C-cells. Zink, A., Scherübl, H., Höflich, M., Hescheler, J., Raue, F. Horm. Metab. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Dysregulation of extracellular adenosine levels by vascular smooth muscle cells from spontaneously hypertensive rats. Dubey, R., Mi, Z., Gillespie, D.G., Jackson, E.K. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Adenosine A1 receptor-mediated inhibition of surfactant secretion in rat type II pneumocytes. Gobran, L.I., Rooney, S.A. Am. J. Physiol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  27. Insulin-induced subcellular redistribution of insulin-like growth factor II receptors in the rat adipose cell. Counterregulatory effects of isoproterenol, adenosine, and cAMP analogues. Lönnroth, P., Appell, K.C., Wesslau, C., Cushman, S.W., Simpson, I.A., Smith, U. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  28. Purinergic agonists stimulate the secretion of endothelin-1 in rat thyroid FRTL-5 cells. Vainio, M., Saijonmaa, O., Fyhrquist, F., Törnquist, K. J. Cell. Physiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  29. Characterisation of ATP-induced facilitation of transmission in rat hippocampus. O'Kane, E.M., Stone, T.W. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. Delayed enzyme expression: a defect of aging rat gut. Holt, P.R., Tierney, A.R., Kotler, D.P. Gastroenterology (1985) [Pubmed]
  31. Adenine nucleotide metabolism in hearts of diabetic rats. Comparison to diaphragm, liver, and kidney. Jenkins, R.L., McDaniel, H.G., Digerness, S., Parrish, S.W., Ong, R.L. Diabetes (1988) [Pubmed]
  32. Purification and identification of pituitary cytotropic factor. Porter, J.C., Ijames, C.F., Wang, T.C., Markey, S.P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  33. Distribution of adenosine deaminase activity in rat brain and spinal cord. Geiger, J.D., Nagy, J.I. J. Neurosci. (1986) [Pubmed]
  34. Adenosine deaminase inhibition prevents free radical-mediated injury in the postischemic heart. Xia, Y., Khatchikian, G., Zweier, J.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  35. The distribution of adenosine deaminase among lymphocyte populations in the rat. Barton, R., Martiniuk, F., Hirschhorn, R., Goldschneider, I. J. Immunol. (1979) [Pubmed]
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