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Gene Review

ILF3  -  interleukin enhancer binding factor 3, 90kDa

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CBTF, DRBF, DRBP76, Double-stranded RNA-binding protein 76, Interleukin enhancer-binding factor 3, ...
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Disease relevance of ILF3


Psychiatry related information on ILF3

  • Because NFAR proteins are presumed components of the antiviral response, we suspect that viral recruitment may also serve to weaken cellular defense mechanisms [5].

High impact information on ILF3

  • The nuclear export of NF90 is required for IL-2 mRNA stabilization [6].
  • In nonstimulated cells, NF90 is mostly nuclear, but T cell activation results in its accumulation in the cytoplasm [6].
  • NF90, a previously described RNA binding protein, binds to a subregion of the 3'UTR that contains several AREs and slows down the degradation of IL-2 mRNA [6].
  • Further experimental data suggest that NFAR proteins mediate a circular conformation of the viral genome that may be important for the coordination of translation and replication [5].
  • Members of the NF90/NFAR protein group are involved in the life cycle of a positive-strand RNA virus [5].

Biological context of ILF3


Anatomical context of ILF3


Associations of ILF3 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of ILF3


Enzymatic interactions of ILF3

  • NF90 is phosphorylated by PKR in its RNA-binding domain, and this reaction is partially blocked by the NF90 N-terminal region [20].

Regulatory relationships of ILF3


Other interactions of ILF3

  • Using an immunofluorescence analysis, we determined that ILF3 and PRMT1 co-localize in the nucleus [9].
  • Formation of this complex is facilitated by the ability of both exportin-5 and ILF3 to mutually increase their apparent affinity for VA1 RNA [8].
  • We have recently assigned the gene encoding the small NFAT subunit, NF45 (ILF3) to human chromosome 1 (1q11-qter and 1p11-p12) [12].
  • This study indicates that the multiple cellular functions, i.e., translation control, interleukin-2 enhancer binding, or cell division, of TCP/ILF3 are fulfilled by alternatively spliced isoforms [10].
  • It can also export the RNA binding proteins ILF3 and elongation factor EF1A [19].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ILF3

  • Moreover, PRMT1 and ILF3 co-precipitate in immunoprecipitation assays and can be isolated together in "pull-down" experiments using recombinant fusion proteins [9].
  • To resolve the genetic identity of NFAR-1 and -2, we carried out sequence analysis of genomic and cDNA NFAR clones and determined that the coding region of this gene spans 16.2 kb and comprises 21 exons [23].
  • Cell fractionation studies showed that NF90 and its heteromeric partner, NF45, are predominantly nuclear and largely chromatin-associated [21].
  • The DHS-22 binding protein(s) in THP-1 cells is (are) further confirmed by reactivity to an antibody against NF90, and we have demonstrated that the GST fusion protein of NF90 interacts with DHS-22 by electrophoretic gel mobility shift assay (EMSA) [24].
  • These proteins were identified as the human proliferation associated protein, Ebp1, and human DRBP76 (double stranded RNA-binding protein 76) respectively, by MALDI (matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization)-MS [25].


  1. The RNA binding protein nuclear factor 90 functions as both a positive and negative regulator of gene expression in mammalian cells. Reichman, T.W., Muñiz, L.C., Mathews, M.B. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. The double-stranded RNA binding protein 76:NF45 heterodimer inhibits translation initiation at the rhinovirus type 2 internal ribosome entry site. Merrill, M.K., Gromeier, M. J. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Alternative splicing in the human interleukin enhancer binding factor 3 (ILF3) gene. Duchange, N., Pidoux, J., Camus, E., Sauvaget, D. Gene (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Reconstitution of TCP80/NF90 translation inhibition activity in insect cells. Xu, Y.H., Busald, C., Grabowski, G.A. Mol. Genet. Metab. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Members of the NF90/NFAR protein group are involved in the life cycle of a positive-strand RNA virus. Isken, O., Grassmann, C.W., Sarisky, R.T., Kann, M., Zhang, S., Grosse, F., Kao, P.N., Behrens, S.E. EMBO J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Nuclear export of NF90 is required for interleukin-2 mRNA stabilization. Shim, J., Lim, H., R Yates, J., Karin, M. Mol. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Exportin-5, a novel karyopherin, mediates nuclear export of double-stranded RNA binding proteins. Brownawell, A.M., Macara, I.G. J. Cell Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Minihelix-containing RNAs mediate exportin-5-dependent nuclear export of the double-stranded RNA-binding protein ILF3. Gwizdek, C., Ossareh-Nazari, B., Brownawell, A.M., Evers, S., Macara, I.G., Dargemont, C. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Protein-arginine methyltransferase I, the predominant protein-arginine methyltransferase in cells, interacts with and is regulated by interleukin enhancer-binding factor 3. Tang, J., Kao, P.N., Herschman, H.R. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Cell cycle dependent intracellular distribution of two spliced isoforms of TCP/ILF3 proteins. Xu, Y.H., Leonova, T., Grabowski, G.A. Mol. Genet. Metab. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Nuclear factor-90 of activated T-cells: A double-stranded RNA-binding protein and substrate for the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase, PKR. Langland, J.O., Kao, P.N., Jacobs, B.L. Biochemistry (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Mapping interleukin enhancer binding factor 3 gene (ILF3) to human chromosome 19 (19q11-qter and 19p11-p13.1) by polymerase chain reaction amplification of human-rodent somatic cell hybrid DNA templates. Marcoulatos, P., Avgerinos, E., Tsantzalos, D.V., Vamvakopoulos, N.C. J. Interferon Cytokine Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Molecular cloning and characterization of a translational inhibitory protein that binds to coding sequences of human acid beta-glucosidase and other mRNAs. Xu, Y.H., Grabowski, G.A. Mol. Genet. Metab. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Regulation of IL-2 gene expression and nuclear factor-90 translocation in vaccinia virus-infected cells. Langland, J.O., Kao, P., Jacobs, B.L. J. Interferon Cytokine Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. CsA-sensitive purine-box transcriptional regulator in bronchial epithelial cells contains NF45, NF90, and Ku. Aoki, Y., Zhao, G., Qiu, D., Shi, L., Kao, P.N. Am. J. Physiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Translation modulation of acid beta-glucosidase in HepG2 cells: participation of the PKC pathway. Xu, Y.H., Grabowski, G.A. Mol. Genet. Metab. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Rejection of trace organic compounds by high-pressure membranes. Kim, T.U., Amy, G., Drewes, J.E. Water Sci. Technol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Activation of synoviolin promoter in rheumatoid synovial cells by a novel transcription complex of interleukin enhancer binding factor 3 and GA binding protein alpha. Izumi, T., Fujii, R., Izumi, T., Nakazawa, M., Yagishita, N., Tsuchimochi, K., Yamano, Y., Sato, T., Fujita, H., Aratani, S., Araya, N., Azakami, K., Hasegawa, D., Kasaoka, S., Tsuruta, R., Yokouti, M., Ijiri, K., Beppu, M., Maruyama, I., Nishioka, K., Maekawa, T., Komiya, S., Nakajima, T. Arthritis Rheum. (2009) [Pubmed]
  19. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of JAZ, a new cargo protein for exportin-5. Chen, T., Brownawell, A.M., Macara, I.G. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Nuclear factor 90 is a substrate and regulator of the eukaryotic initiation factor 2 kinase double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase. Parker, L.M., Fierro-Monti, I., Mathews, M.B. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Selective regulation of gene expression by nuclear factor 110, a member of the NF90 family of double-stranded RNA-binding proteins. Reichman, T.W., Parrott, A.M., Fierro-Monti, I., Caron, D.J., Kao, P.N., Lee, C.G., Li, H., Mathews, M.B. J. Mol. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Nuclear export of NF90 to stabilize IL-2 mRNA is mediated by AKT-dependent phosphorylation at Ser647 in response to CD28 costimulation. Pei, Y., Zhu, P., Dang, Y., Wu, J., Yang, X., Wan, B., Liu, J.O., Yi, Q., Yu, L. J. Immunol. (2008) [Pubmed]
  23. The 90- and 110-kDa human NFAR proteins are translated from two differentially spliced mRNAs encoded on chromosome 19p13. Saunders, L.R., Jurecic, V., Barber, G.N. Genomics (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. A binding protein to the DNase I hypersensitive site II in HLA-DR alpha gene was identified as NF90. Sakamoto, S., Morisawa, K., Ota, K., Nie, J., Taniguchi, T. Biochemistry (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Identification of Ebp1 as a component of cytoplasmic bcl-2 mRNP (messenger ribonucleoprotein particle) complexes. Bose, S.K., Sengupta, T.K., Bandyopadhyay, S., Spicer, E.K. Biochem. J. (2006) [Pubmed]
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