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Gene Review

GH1  -  growth hormone 1

Sus scrofa

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Disease relevance of GH

  • The effects of insulin on basal and hydrocortisone-induced growth hormone (GH) secretion were studied in rat pituitary tumor cells (GH3) [1].
  • BACKGROUND: Exogenous administration of growth hormone (GH) and subsequently increased production of insulin-like growth factor-1 can influence left ventricular (LV) myocardial growth and geometry in the setting of congestive heart failure (CHF) [2].
  • RESULTS: After sepsis, both GH and IGF-1 treatment increased GI GLN uptake compared with controls and induced hepatic release of GLN [3].
  • Growth hormone is an important regulator of metabolism; both acromegaly and GH therapy in GH-deficiency are associated with a tendency towards insulin-resistance and loss of adiposity [4].
  • These results indicate that FFA are more effective modulators of GH secretion than acute hyperglycemia, while metabolic status can alter pituitary responsiveness to gonadotropin-releasing hormone [5].

Psychiatry related information on GH

  • Significant elevation of GH mRNA level was observed after 2 weeks of food deprivation, and increased further after 3 and 4 weeks of starvation [6].

High impact information on GH

  • Small synthetic molecules termed growth hormone secretagogues (GHSs) act on the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus to stimulate and amplify pulsatile growth hormone (GH) release [7].
  • The results show that insulin exerts a direct, specific inhibitory effect on basal and hydrocortisone-induced GH secretion by GH3 cells unrelated to glucose utilization by the cells [1].
  • Insulin (7 nM) significantly suppressed the fivefold hydrocortisone-induced GH stimulation during 5 d of incubation with up to 1,000 nM of the steroid (P less than 0.001) [1].
  • Ghrelin is an acyl-peptide gastric hormone acting on the pituitary and hypothalamus to stimulate growth hormone (GH) release, adiposity, and appetite [8].
  • This study determined the effects of an orally active GH secretagogue (GHS) treatment that causes a release of endogenous GH on LV function and myocyte contractility in a model of developing CHF [2].

Chemical compound and disease context of GH

  • The single intravenous (i. v.) injection of GHRP-2 at doses of 2, 10, 30 and 100 microg/kg body weight (BW) to cross-bred castrated male swine stimulated GH release in a dose-dependent manner, with a return to the baseline by 120 min [9].
  • Their release from splenocytes activated by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 0.5 microg/ml was increased by c. 65% in the presence of GH 100 pg/ml [10].
  • We have studied the long-lasting effects on rat weight gain of an active immunization with a peptide construction consisting of the covalent linkage of the 104-113 GH sequence to the 323-339 sequence of ovalbumin and to adjuvant muramyl dipeptide (MDP) [11].
  • In a septic porcine model receiving total parenteral nutrition, pretreatment with GH or IGF-1 (or no treatment in controls) was followed by an infusion of live Escherichia coli bacteria [12].
  • Growth hormone and insulinlike growth factor 1 promote intestinal uptake and hepatic release of glutamine in sepsis [3].

Biological context of GH

  • The gene encoding the porcine growth hormone (GH) has been localized to the q-arm of chromosome 12 using high-resolution R-banded chromosomes for in situ hybridization [13].
  • Further, using a genomic cosmid clone, the GH gene was mapped to band 12p14 [14].
  • Phosphorylation of pp95 was found to be a rapid event that could be observed 60 sec after GH treatment [15].
  • It was further demonstrated that GH needed to be present during the first 2 days of the culture system, presumably before the entry of the precursor CTL into cell division [16].
  • Inasmuch as GH and IGF-I have recently been demonstrated to be synthesized by leukocytes, these data support the possibility that both of these proteins could act in a paracrine fashion as cytokines to prime PMN for an enhanced respiratory burst [17].

Anatomical context of GH

  • Expression of the GHR cDNAs resulted in specific binding of 125I-labeled GH by these cell lines [15].
  • The presence of insulin but not GH, enables the generation of a successful mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) blastogenic response [16].
  • However, the presence of GH during a 5-day MLC allowed for the generation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) [16].
  • The ability of growth hormone (GH) and insulin to influence positively T lymphocytes responding to an alloantigen stimulus in vitro was analyzed through the use of a serum substitute system [16].
  • Growth hormone (GH) and the GH-dependent growth promoting peptide, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), are both potent signals for priming human and porcine polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) to secrete superoxide anion (O2-) [17].

Associations of GH with chemical compounds

  • These findings indicate that signaling by GH in 3T3-F443A cells may, at least in part, utilize a kinase cascade similar to those that have been proposed for other membrane receptors with associated tyrosine kinase activity [18].
  • However, priming PMN by both GH and IGF-I required de novo protein synthesis, because cycloheximide completely abrogated enhanced O2- secretion that was caused by these growth factors [17].
  • By varying the composition of the culture medium with different glucose concentrations and the addition to the culture medium of insulin, growth hormone (GH), amino acids, or nicotinamide, we estimated the formation of ICCs and their hormone content [19].
  • Furthermore, anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies revealed the GH-dependent appearance of two phosphotyrosine-containing proteins in cell-free lysates of GH-treated cells that co-migrate with proteins recognized by anti-MAP kinase antibodies [18].
  • To gain insight into the role of GH-dependent tyrosine kinase activity in signaling by GH, we investigated the possibility that GH might stimulate MAP kinase, a serine/threonine/tyrosine kinase thought to be a common element in tyrosine kinase-initiated response cascades [18].

Regulatory relationships of GH

  • Leptin regulates GH gene expression and secretion and nitric oxide production in pig pituitary cells [20].
  • Leptin exhibited a dose-dependent stimulatory effect on GH secretion by PBMCs and also up-regulated the GH receptor gene expression [21].
  • Relative mass of spermatocytes and spermatids in GH-treated animals exceeded that in controls by 2.5-fold and that in FSH boars by 75-fold (p = 0.05) [22].
  • GH for either 20 days or 40 days increased serum IGBP-3 to 140% and 250% of control values while decreasing serum IGFBP-2 by 46% and 31%, respectively (p < 0.001) [23].
  • Conversely, two NO pathway inhibitors, NAME (10(-5) M) or haemoglobin (20 microg/ml) similarly blocked GHRH- or 10(-15) M somatostatin-stimulated GH release [24].

Other interactions of GH


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GH

  • We report here the localization of GH on the p-arm of this chromosome when using in situ hybridization on high-resolution G-banded chromosomes [13].
  • Based on gel permeation chromatography, the molecular mass of the GH-stimulated MAP kinase is approximately kDa [18].
  • METHODS: Piglets were randomized to a GH + GLN group (n = 8), a GLN group (n = 8), a GH group (n = 8), and a control group (CON; n = 8) [27].
  • Total RNA was collected from cells, and GH gene expression was measured by RT-PCR [20].
  • In addition, to test for the existence of functional differences, cultures of separated HD and LD subpopulations were treated for 4 h with or without 10 microM GRF-(1-29) and/or 100 microM somatostatin (SRIF), and porcine GH release and intracellular content were evaluated using a homologous enzyme immunoassay [28].


  1. Insulin suppresses growth hormone secretion by rat pituitary cells. Melmed, S. J. Clin. Invest. (1984) [Pubmed]
  2. Treatment with a growth hormone secretagogue in a model of developing heart failure: effects on ventricular and myocyte function. King, M.K., Gay, D.M., Pan, L.C., McElmurray, J.H., Hendrick, J.W., Pirie, C., Morrison, A., Ding, C., Mukherjee, R., Spinale, F.G. Circulation (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Growth hormone and insulinlike growth factor 1 promote intestinal uptake and hepatic release of glutamine in sepsis. Balteskard, L., Unneberg, K., Mjaaland, M., Jenssen, T.G., Revhaug, A. Ann. Surg. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Growth hormone rapidly induces resistin gene expression in white adipose tissue of spontaneous dwarf (SDR) rats. Delhanty, P.J., Mesotten, D., McDougall, F., Baxter, R.C. Endocrinology (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Serum glucose and free fatty acids modulate growth hormone and luteinizing hormone secretion in the pig. Barb, C.R., Kraeling, R.R., Barrett, J.B., Rampacek, G.B., Campbell, R.M., Mowles, T.F. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Changes in mRNA expression of grouper (Epinephelus coioides) growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I in response to nutritional status. Pedroso, F.L., de Jesus-Ayson, E.G., Cortado, H.H., Hyodo, S., Ayson, F.G. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. A receptor in pituitary and hypothalamus that functions in growth hormone release. Howard, A.D., Feighner, S.D., Cully, D.F., Arena, J.P., Liberator, P.A., Rosenblum, C.I., Hamelin, M., Hreniuk, D.L., Palyha, O.C., Anderson, J., Paress, P.S., Diaz, C., Chou, M., Liu, K.K., McKee, K.K., Pong, S.S., Chaung, L.Y., Elbrecht, A., Dashkevicz, M., Heavens, R., Rigby, M., Sirinathsinghji, D.J., Dean, D.C., Melillo, D.G., Patchett, A.A., Nargund, R., Griffin, P.R., DeMartino, J.A., Gupta, S.K., Schaeffer, J.M., Smith, R.G., Van der Ploeg, L.H. Science (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin inhibit cell death in cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells through ERK1/2 and PI 3-kinase/AKT. Baldanzi, G., Filigheddu, N., Cutrupi, S., Catapano, F., Bonissoni, S., Fubini, A., Malan, D., Baj, G., Granata, R., Broglio, F., Papotti, M., Surico, N., Bussolino, F., Isgaard, J., Deghenghi, R., Sinigaglia, F., Prat, M., Muccioli, G., Ghigo, E., Graziani, A. J. Cell Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. The effects of growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2) on the release of growth hormone and growth performance in swine. Phung, L.T., Inoue, H., Nou, V., Lee, H.G., Vega, R.A., Matsunaga, N., Hidaka, S., Kuwayama, H., Hidari, H. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Growth hormone modulates IL-alpha and IFN-gamma release by murine splenocytes activated by LPS or porins of Salmonella typhimurium. Sommese, L., Donnarumma, G., de l'Ero, C., Marcatili, A., Vitiello, M., Galdiero, M. J. Med. Microbiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Long-lasting rat growth enhancement by an immunoregulating synthetic peptide. Carelli, C., Guillon, C., Gobert, M.G. Biomed. Pharmacother. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Treatment with growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 in septicemia: effects on carbohydrate metabolism. Balteskard, L., Unneberg, K., Mjaaland, M., Sager, G., Jenssen, T.G., Revhaug, A. European surgical research. Europäische chirurgische Forschung. Recherches chirurgicales européennes. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Localization of the porcine growth hormone gene to chromosome 12p1.2-->p1.5. Yerle, M., Lahbib-Mansais, Y., Thomsen, P.D., Gellin, J. Anim. Genet. (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Precise localization of the genes for glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI), calcium release channel (CRC), hormone-sensitive lipase (LIPE), and growth hormone (GH) in pigs, using nonradioactive in situ hybridization. Chowdhary, B.P., Thomsen, P.D., Harbitz, I., Landset, M., Gustavsson, I. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Growth hormone (GH) induces tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins in mouse L cells that express recombinant GH receptors. Wang, X., Xu, B., Souza, S.C., Kopchick, J.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. The effect of growth hormone and insulin upon MLC responses and the generation of cytotoxic lymphocytes. Snow, E.C., Feldbush, T.L., Oaks, J.A. J. Immunol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  17. A novel role of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I. Priming neutrophils for superoxide anion secretion. Fu, Y.K., Arkins, S., Wang, B.S., Kelley, K.W. J. Immunol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Stimulation by growth hormone of MAP kinase activity in 3T3-F442A fibroblasts. Campbell, G.S., Pang, L., Miyasaka, T., Saltiel, A.R., Carter-Su, C. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Effects of culture conditions on formation and hormone content of fetal porcine isletlike cell clusters. Korsgren, O., Sandler, S., Jansson, L., Groth, C.G., Hellerström, C., Andersson, A. Diabetes (1989) [Pubmed]
  20. Leptin regulates GH gene expression and secretion and nitric oxide production in pig pituitary cells. Baratta, M., Saleri, R., Mainardi, G.L., Valle, D., Giustina, A., Tamanini, C. Endocrinology (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Leptin induces growth hormone secretion from peripheral blood mononuclear cells via a protein kinase C- and nitric oxide-dependent mechanism. Dixit, V.D., Mielenz, M., Taub, D.D., Parvizi, N. Endocrinology (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Diverse testicular responses to exogenous growth hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone in prepubertal boars. Swanlund, D.J., N'Diaye, M.R., Loseth, K.J., Pryor, J.L., Crabo, B.G. Biol. Reprod. (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Effects of growth hormone and gonadotropin on the insulin-like growth factor system in the porcine ovary. Samaras, S.E., Hagen, D.R., Bryan, K.A., Mondschein, J.S., Canning, S.F., Hammond, J.M. Biol. Reprod. (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. Differential contribution of nitric oxide and cGMP to the stimulatory effects of growth hormone-releasing hormone and low-concentration somatostatin on growth hormone release from somatotrophs. Luque, R.M., Rodríguez-Pacheco, F., Tena-Sempere, M., Gracia-Navarro, F., Malagón, M.M., Castaño, J.P. J. Neuroendocrinol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Effect of growth hormone (GH) on in vitro nuclear and cytoplasmic oocyte maturation, cumulus expansion, hyaluronan synthases, and connexins 32 and 43 expression, and GH receptor messenger RNA expression in equine and porcine species. Marchal, R., Caillaud, M., Martoriati, A., Gérard, N., Mermillod, P., Goudet, G. Biol. Reprod. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Effects of fish oil supplementation on the performance and the immunological, adrenal, and somatotropic responses of weaned pigs after an Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide challenge. Liu, Y.L., Li, D.F., Gong, L.M., Yi, G.F., Gaines, A.M., Carroll, J.A. J. Anim. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Both growth hormone and exogenous glutamine increase gastrointestinal glutamine uptake in trauma. Unneberg, K., Mjaaland, M., Balteskard, L., Jenssen, T.G., Bjøro, T., Revhaug, A. Ann. Surg. (1997) [Pubmed]
  28. Somatostatin increases growth hormone (GH) secretion in a subpopulation of porcine somatotropes: evidence for functional and morphological heterogeneity among porcine GH-producing cells. Castaño, J.P., Torronteras, R., Ramirez, J.L., Gribouval, A., Sanchez-Hormigo, A., Ruiz-Navarro, A., Gracia-Navarro, F. Endocrinology (1996) [Pubmed]
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