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Gene Review

IFNA1  -  interferon, alpha 1

Sus scrofa

Synonyms: IFN-ALPHA-1, IFN1@
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Disease relevance of IFNA1


High impact information on IFNA1

  • Here we show that in addition to preventing IFN-alpha/beta protein synthesis, L(pro) reduces the level of immediate-early induction of IFN-beta mRNA and IFN-stimulated gene products such as double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase R (PKR), 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase, and Mx1 mRNAs in swine cells [5].
  • Previously, we showed that ncp BVDV inhibits the induction of apoptosis and alpha/beta interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) synthesis by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) [6].
  • The attenuated phenotype apparently is a consequence of the inability of A12-LLV2 to block the expression of type I interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) protein, resulting in IFN-induced inhibition of FMDV replication [5].
  • The absence of IFN-alpha in Pr4-infected macrophages suggests that MGF360/530 genes either directly or indirectly suppress a type I IFN response [7].
  • The antiviral activity in supernatants from A12-LLV2-infected embryonic bovine kidney cells is IFN-alpha/beta specific, as assayed with mouse embryonic fibroblast cells with or without IFN-alpha/beta receptors [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of IFNA1


Biological context of IFNA1


Anatomical context of IFNA1

  • Using as a probe pig genomic DNA, including the complete interferon alpha gene, we have mapped the leukocyte interferon gene on pig chromosome 1 by in situ hybridization [17].
  • Previous studies have shown that virus-infected fixed cells or viral suspensions were able to induce an early and strong IFN-alpha synthesis by naive lymphocytes [1].
  • Natural interferon-producing cells (NIPC), also called plasmacytoid dendritic cells, are the most potent producers of IFN-alpha in response to viral and bacterial components, serving an important function in innate immune defences [4].
  • CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide evidence that IFNalpha can directly affect barrier function in renal epithelial cells [3].
  • Using double immunohistochemical labelling for both IFN-alpha and leukocyte markers, we established that splenic NIP cells were not T or B cells [18].

Associations of IFNA1 with chemical compounds

  • Tyrphostin, an inhibitor of phosphotyrosine kinases, ameliorated the IFNalpha-induced decrease in TER [3].
  • Recombinant porcine IFN-alpha 1 (rIFN-alpha 1) was purified to homogeneity by monoclonal antibody immunoaffinity and was found to have the expected Mr (17.5K) and N-terminal sequence (except for the apparent lack of an N-terminal methionine) [14].
  • Stimulation of DCs with IFN-alpha/TNF-alpha or polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (pIC) induced phenotypic maturation with increased MHC and CD80/86 expression, both with mock-treated and infected DCs [19].
  • Interestingly, also A. pleuropneumoniae induced a substantial production of IFN-alpha when preincubated with lipofectin [20].
  • Con A pretreatment of TGEV-infected cell monolayers before fixation with glutaraldehyde and exposure to PBMC caused a dose-dependent inhibition of IFN alpha induction, implying that masking of carbohydrates at the surface of infected cells lowered IFN-alpha-induction [21].

Regulatory relationships of IFNA1


Other interactions of IFNA1

  • Interestingly, 8% of tonsil pDC and 15% of blood pDC were shown to secrete IFN-alpha, while 18-20% of cDC expressed TNF-alpha in these tissues [23].
  • Levels of serum IFN-alpha, IL-6, IL-10, and CRP were examined for a 35-day period in 10 piglets experimentally infected with PCV2 at 3 weeks of age [24].
  • A bioassay was used to detect IL-6 and ELISAs were used to detect IFN-alpha, IL-10, and CRP [24].
  • To determine if suppression was at the level of IFN-alpha transcription, quantitative RT-PCR was performed for IFN-alpha mRNA and compared to GAPDH and cyclophilin mRNA quantification [25].
  • Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy revealed a broader staining of occludin and E-cadherin following IFNalpha treatment, with prominent staining at the basal cell pole in addition to localization at the junctional region [3].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of IFNA1


  1. Single amino acid changes in the viral glycoprotein M affect induction of alpha interferon by the coronavirus transmissible gastroenteritis virus. Laude, H., Gelfi, J., Lavenant, L., Charley, B. J. Virol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Inhibition of L-deleted foot-and-mouth disease virus replication by alpha/beta interferon involves double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase. Chinsangaram, J., Koster, M., Grubman, M.J. J. Virol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Effects of interferon alpha-2b on barrier function and junctional complexes of renal proximal tubular LLC-PK1 cells. Lechner, J., Krall, M., Netzer, A., Radmayr, C., Ryan, M.P., Pfaller, W. Kidney Int. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Fc gamma RII-dependent sensitisation of natural interferon-producing cells for viral infection and interferon-alpha responses. Balmelli, C., Vincent, I.E., Rau, H., Guzylack-Piriou, L., McCullough, K., Summerfield, A. Eur. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. The leader proteinase of foot-and-mouth disease virus inhibits the induction of beta interferon mRNA and blocks the host innate immune response. de Los Santos, T., de Avila Botton, S., Weiblen, R., Grubman, M.J. J. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. "Self" and "nonself" manipulation of interferon defense during persistent infection: bovine viral diarrhea virus resists alpha/beta interferon without blocking antiviral activity against unrelated viruses replicating in its host cells. Schweizer, M., Mätzener, P., Pfaffen, G., Stalder, H., Peterhans, E. J. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. African swine fever virus multigene family 360 and 530 genes affect host interferon response. Afonso, C.L., Piccone, M.E., Zaffuto, K.M., Neilan, J., Kutish, G.F., Lu, Z., Balinsky, C.A., Gibb, T.R., Bean, T.J., Zsak, L., Rock, D.L. J. Virol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Ability of foot-and-mouth disease virus to form plaques in cell culture is associated with suppression of alpha/beta interferon. Chinsangaram, J., Piccone, M.E., Grubman, M.J. J. Virol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Characterisation of porcine monocyte-derived dendritic cells according to their cytokine profile. Johansson, E., Domeika, K., Berg, M., Alm, G.V., Fossum, C. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Appearance of interferon-alpha in serum and signs of reduced immune function in pigs after transport and installation in a fattening farm. Artursson, K., Wallgren, P., Alm, G.V. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. Arenavirus infection in the guinea pig model: antiviral therapy with recombinant interferon-alpha, the immunomodulator CL246,738 and ribavirin. Lucia, H.L., Coppenhaver, D.H., Baron, S. Antiviral Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. Mapping of the porcine alpha interferon (IFNA) gene to chromosome 1 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Sarmiento, U.M., Sarmiento, J.I., Lunney, J.K., Rishi, S.S. Mamm. Genome (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Double-stranded secondary structures on mRNA induce type I interferon (IFN alpha/beta) production and maturation of mRNA-transfected monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Ceppi, M., Ruggli, N., Tache, V., Gerber, H., McCullough, K.C., Summerfield, A. The journal of gene medicine. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Production, purification and biological properties of an Escherichia coli-derived recombinant porcine alpha interferon. Lefèvre, F., L'Haridon, R., Borras-Cuesta, F., La Bonnardière, C. J. Gen. Virol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. Cloning and expression of cDNA encoding ovine trophoblastin: its identity with a class-II alpha interferon. Charlier, M., Hue, D., Martal, J., Gaye, P. Gene (1989) [Pubmed]
  16. Identification of a sequence from the genome of porcine circovirus type 2 with an inhibitory effect on IFN-alpha production by porcine PBMCs. Hasslung, F.C., Berg, M., Allan, G.M., Meehan, B.M., McNeilly, F., Fossum, C. J. Gen. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Chromosomal localization of leukocyte interferon gene in the pig (Sus scrofa domestica L.) by in situ hybridization. Yerle, M., Gellin, J., Echard, G., Lefevre, F., Gillois, M. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (1986) [Pubmed]
  18. In vivo induction of interferon-alpha in pig by non-infectious coronavirus: tissue localization and in situ phenotypic characterization of interferon-alpha-producing cells. Riffault, S., Carrat, C., Besnardeau, L., La Bonnardière, C., Charley, B. J. Gen. Virol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Interaction of classical swine fever virus with dendritic cells. Carrasco, C.P., Rigden, R.C., Vincent, I.E., Balmelli, C., Ceppi, M., Bauhofer, O., Tâche, V., Hjertner, B., McNeilly, F., van Gennip, H.G., McCullough, K.C., Summerfield, A. J. Gen. Virol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. The plasmid pcDNA3 differentially induces production of interferon-alpha and interleukin-6 in cultures of porcine leukocytes. Magnusson, M., Johansson, E., Berg, M., Eloranta, M.L., Fuxler, L., Fossum, C. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Glycosylation is required for coronavirus TGEV to induce an efficient production of IFN alpha by blood mononuclear cells. Charley, B., Lavenant, L., Delmas, B. Scand. J. Immunol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. The mRNA regulation of porcine double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase gene. Asano, A., Kon, Y., Agui, T. J. Vet. Med. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Characterization of conventional and plasmacytoid dendritic cells in swine secondary lymphoid organs and blood. Jamin, A., Gorin, S., Le Potier, M.F., Kuntz-Simon, G. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. Cytokine and C-reactive protein profiles induced by porcine circovirus type 2 experimental infection in 3-week-old piglets. Stevenson, L.S., McCullough, K., Vincent, I., Gilpin, D.F., Summerfield, A., Nielsen, J., McNeilly, F., Adair, B.M., Allan, G.M. Viral Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus field isolates differ in in vitro interferon phenotypes. Lee, S.M., Schommer, S.K., Kleiboeker, S.B. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Plasmacytoid dendritic cell activation by foot-and-mouth disease virus requires immune complexes. Guzylack-Piriou, L., Bergamin, F., Gerber, M., McCullough, K.C., Summerfield, A. Eur. J. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. Ontogeny of interferon alpha secreting cells in the porcine fetal hematopoietic organs. Splíchal, I., Bonneau, M., Charley, B. Immunol. Lett. (1994) [Pubmed]
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