The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

SLC18A3  -  solute carrier family 18 (vesicular...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Solute carrier family 18 member 3, VACHT, VAChT, Vesicular acetylcholine transporter
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of SLC18A3


Psychiatry related information on SLC18A3


High impact information on SLC18A3


Biological context of SLC18A3


Anatomical context of SLC18A3

  • The primate caudate nucleus contained numerous VAChT-positive interneurons [1].
  • VAChT immunoreactivity was localized in cell bodies of neurons in the basal forebrain and ventral horn of the spinal cord, regions in which major cholinergic projection systems to the cerebral cortex and to skeletal muscle, respectively, originate [1].
  • VAChT-positive nerve fibers were visualized in routinely immersion-fixed, paraffin-embedded human cerebral cortex, comparable to the density of fibers observed in perfusion-fixed Bouin's-postfixed monkey cerebral cortex [1].
  • VAChT-positive cell bodies, presumably corresponding to cholinergic sympathetic sudomotor neurons, were a significant fraction of the total principal cell population in monkey and human thoracic sympathetic ganglia [1].
  • Our data indicate that vesicular acetylcholine transporter expression in somatomotor neurons and in the medial habenular nucleus is uniquely specified within the cholinergic gene locus, and separable from cholinergic expression elsewhere [13].

Associations of SLC18A3 with chemical compounds

  • The distribution of the VAChT antigen in representative regions of the cholinergic nervous system was examined and compared to that of the acetylcholine biosynthetic enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), a specific marker for cholinergic neurons [1].
  • VAChT immunoreactivity was visualized in both cell bodies and extensive terminals in striatal interneurons, in contrast to formalin-fixed, deparaffinized sections stained for ChAT, in which cell bodies and fibers were stained but nerve terminals were less well visualized than with the VAChT antiserum [1].
  • The transport of [3H]ACh by human VAChT was dependent upon the addition of exogenous ATP at 37 degrees C. Uptake was abolished by low temperature (4 degrees C), the proton ionophore carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (2.5 microM) and bafilomycin A1 (1 microM), a specific inhibitor of the vesicular H+-ATPase [2].
  • Levels of the VAChT were reduced by a range of 13-31% on PND 3 through 30 in the high-dosage group, using 3H-AH5183 (vesamicol) as the ligand [15].
  • To the extent that cholinergic neuron integrity can be inferred from VAChT concentration, our data suggest that methamphetamine does not cause loss of striatal cholinergic neurons, but might damage/downregulate brain ChAT in some high-dose users [16].

Physical interactions of SLC18A3


Co-localisations of SLC18A3


Regulatory relationships of SLC18A3


Other interactions of SLC18A3


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of SLC18A3


  1. Human and monkey cholinergic neurons visualized in paraffin-embedded tissues by immunoreactivity for VAChT, the vesicular acetylcholine transporter. Schafer, M.K., Weihe, E., Erickson, J.D., Eiden, L.E. J. Mol. Neurosci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Active transport of acetylcholine by the human vesicular acetylcholine transporter. Varoqui, H., Erickson, J.D. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. In vivo mapping of cholinergic terminals in normal aging, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. Kuhl, D.E., Minoshima, S., Fessler, J.A., Frey, K.A., Foster, N.L., Ficaro, E.P., Wieland, D.M., Koeppe, R.A. Ann. Neurol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Immunohistochemical and histochemical findings favoring the occurrence of autocrine/paracrine as well as nerve-related cholinergic effects in chronic painful patellar tendon tendinosis. Danielson, P., Alfredson, H., Forsgren, S. Microsc. Res. Tech. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Loss of cholinergic synapses on the spinal motor neurons of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Nagao, M., Misawa, H., Kato, S., Hirai, S. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Preservation of nucleus basalis neurons containing choline acetyltransferase and the vesicular acetylcholine transporter in the elderly with mild cognitive impairment and early Alzheimer's disease. Gilmor, M.L., Erickson, J.D., Varoqui, H., Hersh, L.B., Bennett, D.A., Cochran, E.J., Mufson, E.J., Levey, A.I. J. Comp. Neurol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Specification of motoneurons from human embryonic stem cells. Li, X.J., Du, Z.W., Zarnowska, E.D., Pankratz, M., Hansen, L.O., Pearce, R.A., Zhang, S.C. Nat. Biotechnol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Cholinergic neuronal defect without cell loss in Huntington's disease. Smith, R., Chung, H., Rundquist, S., Maat-Schieman, M.L., Colgan, L., Englund, E., Liu, Y.J., Roos, R.A., Faull, R.L., Brundin, P., Li, J.Y. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Target-dependent specification of the neurotransmitter phenotype: cholinergic differentiation of sympathetic neurons is mediated in vivo by gp 130 signaling. Stanke, M., Duong, C.V., Pape, M., Geissen, M., Burbach, G., Deller, T., Gascan, H., Parlato, R., Schütz, G., Rohrer, H. Development (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Acetylcholine is synthesized by and acts as an autocrine growth factor for small cell lung carcinoma. Song, P., Sekhon, H.S., Jia, Y., Keller, J.A., Blusztajn, J.K., Mark, G.P., Spindel, E.R. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. In vivo imaging of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter and the vesicular monoamine transporter. Efange, S.M. FASEB J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Sequence variation in the CHAT locus shows no association with late-onset Alzheimer's disease. Harold, D., Peirce, T., Moskvina, V., Myers, A., Jones, S., Hollingworth, P., Moore, P., Lovestone, S., Powell, J., Foy, C., Archer, N., Walter, S., Edmonson, A., McIlroy, S., Craig, D., Passmore, P.A., Goate, A., Hardy, J., O'Donovan, M., Williams, J., Liddell, M., Owen, M.J., Jones, L. Hum. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Identification of a region from the human cholinergic gene locus that targets expression of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter to a subset of neurons in the medial habenular nucleus in transgenic mice. Schütz, B., Damadzic, R., Weihe, E., Eiden, L.E. J. Neurochem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. The cholinergic gene locus. Eiden, L.E. J. Neurochem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Neurochemical effects of repeated gestational exposure to chlorpyrifos in developing rats. Richardson, J.R., Chambers, J.E. Toxicol. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Brain vesicular acetylcholine transporter in human users of drugs of abuse. Siegal, D., Erickson, J., Varoqui, H., Ang, L., Kalasinsky, K.S., Peretti, F.J., Aiken, S.S., Wickham, D.J., Kish, S.J. Synapse (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Muscarinic receptor loss and preservation of presynaptic cholinergic terminals in hippocampal sclerosis. Pennell, P.B., Burdette, D.E., Ross, D.A., Henry, T.R., Albin, R.L., Sackellares, J.C., Frey, K.A. Epilepsia (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. The cytoplasmic tail of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter contains a synaptic vesicle targeting signal. Varoqui, H., Erickson, J.D. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. More than one way to toy with ChAT and VAChT. Castell, X., Diebler, M.F., Tomasi, M., Bigari, C., De Gois, S., Berrard, S., Mallet, J., Israël, M., Dolezal, V. J. Physiol. Paris (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons have a cholinergic phenotype. Meister, B., G??m????, B., Suarez, E., Ishii, Y., D??rr, K., Gillberg, L. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. SEC14-like protein 1 interacts with cholinergic transporters. Ribeiro, F.M., Ferreira, L.T., Marion, S., Fontes, S., Gomez, M., Ferguson, S.S., Prado, M.A., Prado, V.F. Neurochem. Int. (2007) [Pubmed]
  22. Cholinergic vesicular transporters in progressive supranuclear palsy. Suzuki, M., Desmond, T.J., Albin, R.L., Frey, K.A. Neurology (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Immunochemical and immunocytochemical characterization of cholinergic markers in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Tayebati, S.K., El-Assouad, D., Ricci, A., Amenta, F. J. Neuroimmunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Expression of the cholinergic gene locus in pulmonary arterial endothelial cells. Haberberger, R.V., Bodenbenner, M., Kummer, W. Histochem. Cell Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Chemical coding of the human gastrointestinal nervous system: cholinergic, VIPergic, and catecholaminergic phenotypes. Anlauf, M., Schäfer, M.K., Eiden, L., Weihe, E. J. Comp. Neurol. (2003) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities