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Gene Review

S100A12  -  S100 calcium binding protein A12

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CAAF1, CAGC, CGRP, Calcium-binding protein in amniotic fluid 1, Calgranulin-C, ...
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Disease relevance of S100A12


Psychiatry related information on S100A12

  • S100A12 is a member of the S100 subfamily of EF-hand calcium-binding proteins; it has been shown to be one of the ligands of the 'receptor for advanced glycation end products' (RAGE) that belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily and is involved in diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, inflammation and tumour invasion [6].
  • CGRP has been reported to be elevated in neonatal blood of children with autism or mental retardation as compared with normal subjects by recycling immuno-affinity chromatography (RIC) [7].

High impact information on S100A12

  • Here we show that the intron enhancer activated in vitro polyadenylation cleavage of precursor RNAs containing the CT/CGRP exon 4 poly(A) site or heterologous poly(A) sites [8].
  • We investigated 31 individuals with Kawasaki disease, and recorded an association between expression of S100A12 and activity of Kawasaki disease [1].
  • Expression of nerve fibres positive for GDNF (p=0.001) and tyrosine kinase A (p=0.002) was also increased, as were cell bodies of the submucosal ganglia immunoreactive to CGRP (p=0.0009) [9].
  • Macroscopic and microscopic lesions were exacerbated by human CGRP-(8-37) (a CGRP-1 receptor antagonist; intra-arterially) and glibenclamide but were ameliorated by exogenous CGRP (intra-arterially) [10].
  • The antitransit effect of calcitonin and CGRP is limited to the stomach and small intestine [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of S100A12


Biological context of S100A12


Anatomical context of S100A12


Associations of S100A12 with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of S100A12


Other interactions of S100A12


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of S100A12


  1. S100A12 (EN-RAGE) in monitoring Kawasaki disease. Foell, D., Ichida, F., Vogl, T., Yu, X., Chen, R., Miyawaki, T., Sorg, C., Roth, J. Lancet (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Monitoring neutrophil activation in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis by S100A12 serum concentrations. Foell, D., Wittkowski, H., Hammerschmidt, I., Wulffraat, N., Schmeling, H., Frosch, M., Horneff, G., Kuis, W., Sorg, C., Roth, J. Arthritis Rheum. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Neutrophil derived human S100A12 (EN-RAGE) is strongly expressed during chronic active inflammatory bowel disease. Foell, D., Kucharzik, T., Kraft, M., Vogl, T., Sorg, C., Domschke, W., Roth, J. Gut (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Early recruitment of phagocytes contributes to the vascular inflammation of giant cell arteritis. Foell, D., Hernández-Rodríguez, J., Sánchez, M., Vogl, T., Cid, M.C., Roth, J. J. Pathol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Mast cell and monocyte recruitment by S100A12 and its hinge domain. Yan, W.X., Armishaw, C., Goyette, J., Yang, Z., Cai, H., Alewood, P., Geczy, C.L. J. Biol. Chem. (2008) [Pubmed]
  6. The structure of S100A12 in a hexameric form and its proposed role in receptor signalling. Moroz, O.V., Antson, A.A., Dodson, E.J., Burrell, H.J., Grist, S.J., Lloyd, R.M., Maitland, N.J., Dodson, G.G., Wilson, K.S., Lukanidin, E., Bronstein, I.B. Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Measurement of CGRP in dried blood spots using a modified sandwich enzyme immunoassay. Song, E.Y., Vandunk, C., Kuddo, T., Nelson, P.G. J. Neurosci. Methods (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. An intron enhancer recognized by splicing factors activates polyadenylation. Lou, H., Gagel, R.F., Berget, S.M. Genes Dev. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Sensory fibres expressing capsaicin receptor TRPV1 in patients with rectal hypersensitivity and faecal urgency. Chan, C.L., Facer, P., Davis, J.B., Smith, G.D., Egerton, J., Bountra, C., Williams, N.S., Anand, P. Lancet (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Calcitonin gene-related peptide affords gastric mucosal protection by activating potassium channel in Wistar rat. Doi, K., Nagao, T., Kawakubo, K., Ibayashi, S., Aoyagi, K., Yano, Y., Yamamoto, C., Kanamoto, K., Iida, M., Sadoshima, S., Fujishima, M. Gastroenterology (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Central nervous system action of peptides to influence gastrointestinal motor function. Taché, Y., Garrick, T., Raybould, H. Gastroenterology (1990) [Pubmed]
  12. Neuropeptidergic innervation of intramuscular hemangiomas. Robinson, D., Segal, M., Halperin, N., Nevo, Z. Exp. Mol. Pathol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. Calcitonin gene-related peptide and substance P regulate the intestinal radiation response. Wang, J., Qiu, X., Kulkarni, A., Hauer-Jensen, M. Clin. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Calcitonin and calcitonin gene-related peptide are chemotactic for F9 embryonal carcinoma cells. Gerbaud, P., Segond, N., Moukhtar, M.M., Evain-Brion, D. Endocrinology (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. Donitriptan, but not sumatriptan, inhibits capsaicin-induced canine external carotid vasodilatation via 5-HT1B rather than 5-HT1D receptors. Muñoz-Islas, E., Gupta, S., Jiménez-Mena, L.R., Lozano-Cuenca, J., Sánchez-López, A., Centurión, D., Mehrotra, S., MaassenVanDenBrink, A., Villalón, C.M. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Pulmonary endocrine cells in infancy and childhood. Nakatani, Y. Pediatric pathology / affiliated with the International Paediatric Pathology Association. (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. Three distinct anti-allergic drugs, amlexanox, cromolyn and tranilast, bind to S100A12 and S100A13 of the S100 protein family. Shishibori, T., Oyama, Y., Matsushita, O., Yamashita, K., Furuichi, H., Okabe, A., Maeta, H., Hata, Y., Kobayashi, R. Biochem. J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Probing the S100 protein family through genomic and functional analysis. Ravasi, T., Hsu, K., Goyette, J., Schroder, K., Yang, Z., Rahimi, F., Miranda, L.P., Alewood, P.F., Hume, D.A., Geczy, C. Genomics (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Multiple structural states of S100A12: A key to its functional diversity. Moroz, O.V., Dodson, G.G., Wilson, K.S., Lukanidin, E., Bronstein, I.B. Microsc. Res. Tech. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. S100A12 is expressed exclusively by granulocytes and acts independently from MRP8 and MRP14. Vogl, T., Pröpper, C., Hartmann, M., Strey, A., Strupat, K., van den Bos, C., Sorg, C., Roth, J. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. HIV-1 transcription and virus production are both accentuated by the proinflammatory myeloid-related proteins in human CD4+ T lymphocytes. Ryckman, C., Robichaud, G.A., Roy, J., Cantin, R., Tremblay, M.J., Tessier, P.A. J. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Hexameric Calgranulin C (S100A12) Binds to the Receptor for Advanced Glycated End Products (RAGE) Using Symmetric Hydrophobic Target-binding Patches. Xie, J., Burz, D.S., He, W., Bronstein, I.B., Lednev, I., Shekhtman, A. J. Biol. Chem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  23. Effects of neuropeptide Y, calcitonin gene-related peptide, substance P, and capsaicin on cerebral arteries in man and animals. Mejia, J.A., Pernow, J., von Holst, H., Rudehill, A., Lundberg, J.M. J. Neurosurg. (1988) [Pubmed]
  24. Neuroendocrine mechanisms during reversible hypovolaemic shock in humans with emphasis on the histaminergic and serotonergic system. Matzen, S.H. Acta physiologica Scandinavica. Supplementum. (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Carboxylated glycans mediate colitis through activation of NF-kappa B. Srikrishna, G., Turovskaya, O., Shaikh, R., Newlin, R., Foell, D., Murch, S., Kronenberg, M., Freeze, H.H. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Up-regulation of metastasis-promoting S100A4 (Mts-1) in rheumatoid arthritis: putative involvement in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Klingelhöfer, J., Senolt, L., Baslund, B., Nielsen, G.H., Skibshøj, I., Pavelka, K., Neidhart, M., Gay, S., Ambartsumian, N., Hansen, B.S., Petersen, J., Lukanidin, E., Grigorian, M. Arthritis Rheum. (2007) [Pubmed]
  27. The myeloid expressed EF-hand proteins display a diverse pattern of lipid raft association. Nacken, W., Sorg, C., Kerkhoff, C. FEBS Lett. (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Computational searches for missing orthologs: the case of S100A12 in mice. Fuellen, G., Nacken, W., Sorg, C., Kerkhoff, C. OMICS (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Human CAAF1 gene--molecular cloning, gene structure, and chromosome mapping. Yamamura, T., Hitomi, J., Nagasaki, K., Suzuki, M., Takahashi, E., Saito, S., Tsukada, T., Yamaguchi, K. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1996) [Pubmed]
  30. Calcitonin gene related peptide in familial dysautonomia. Maayan, C., Becker, Y., Gesundheit, B., Girgis, S.I. Neuropeptides (2001) [Pubmed]
  31. S100A12 provokes mast cell activation: A potential amplification pathway in asthma and innate immunity. Yang, Z., Yan, W.X., Cai, H., Tedla, N., Armishaw, C., Di Girolamo, N., Wang, H.W., Hampartzoumian, T., Simpson, J.L., Gibson, P.G., Hunt, J., Hart, P., Hughes, J.M., Perry, M.A., Alewood, P.F., Geczy, C.L. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2007) [Pubmed]
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