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Gene Review

SLC12A1  -  solute carrier family 12...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: BSC1, Bumetanide-sensitive sodium-(potassium)-chloride cotransporter 2, Kidney-specific Na-K-Cl symporter, NKCC2, Solute carrier family 12 member 1
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Disease relevance of SLC12A1


Psychiatry related information on SLC12A1

  • The protein abundance of mTAL BSC1, NHE3, and Na+ pump increased significantly in young but remained unchanged in 7-month-old rats subjected to water deprivation [6].

High impact information on SLC12A1

  • These findings demonstrate the molecular basis of Bartter's syndrome, provide the basis for molecular classification of patients with inherited hypokalaemic alkalosis, and suggest potential phenotypes in heterozygous carriers of NKCC2 mutations [7].
  • We demonstrate linkage of Bartter's syndrome to the renal Na-K-2Cl cotransporter gene NKCC2, and identify frameshift or non-conservative missense mutations for this gene that co-segregate with the disease [7].
  • In contrast with this, and with similar findings using related late promoter-containing plasmids, expression from this promoter was absolutely dependent on DNA replication when it was inserted in the region of SV40 DNA encoding the late mRNA 5' ends and expression was assayed in human HeLa cells and BSC-1 and COS-7 monkey cells [8].
  • To date, two Na-K-Cl cotransporter isoforms have been identified: NKCC1, which is present in a wide variety of secretory epithelia and non-epithelial cells; and NKCC2, which is present exclusively in the kidney, in the epithelial cells of the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop and of the macula densa [9].
  • We show here that selective blockade of the NKCC2 and KCC2 cotransporters located on starburst dendrites consistently hyperpolarized and depolarized the starburst cells, respectively, and greatly reduced or eliminated their directionally selective light responses [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of SLC12A1


Biological context of SLC12A1

  • Genetic heterogeneity of hyperprostaglandin E syndrome has been demonstrated by identification of mutations in the SLC12A1 gene as well as in the KCNJ1 gene [15].
  • Two of the genes in this branch ( SLC12A1 and SLC12A3), exhibit kidney-specific expression and function in renal salt reabsorption, whereas the third gene ( SLC12A2) is expressed ubiquitously and plays a key role in epithelial salt secretion and cell volume regulation [2].
  • Substitution of the same residues with corresponding residues from NKCC2 or the Na-Cl cotransporter resulted in cation affinity changes, consistent with the hypothesis that alternative splicing of transmembrane domain 2 endows different versions of NKCC2 with unique kinetic behaviors [16].
  • Under isotonic and hypotonic conditions, NKCC2 retains 50% of its activity in the absence of phosphorylation of the threonine-regulatory domain [17].
  • Because MAb T4 recognizes both the basolateral secretory (NKCC1) and the apical absorptive (NKCC2) isoforms of the co-transporter, we employed reverse transcription and the polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to explore isoform diversity in inner ear tissues [18].

Anatomical context of SLC12A1

  • By contrast, NKCC2 (CCC2, BSC1) is found only in the kidney, localized to the apical membrane of the epithelial cells of the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop and of the macula densa [3].
  • The transport activity of NKCC2, exogenously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, is shown to be stimulated by hypertonicity [17].
  • NKCC1 mRNA was demonstrated in rat palmar tissue, including sweat glands, using RT-PCR, whereas NKCC2 mRNA was absent [19].
  • Immunocytochemical analysis showed immunopositive staining of hNKCC2 at the plasma membrane for wild-type and all studied mutants [20].
  • A cell growth inhibitor (GI), purified from BSC-1 cell-conditioned medium, has little if any effect on DNA synthesis when added alone to monolayer cultures of quiescent Swiss mouse 3T3 cells in serum-free medium [21].

Associations of SLC12A1 with chemical compounds

  • The high conservation of the regulatory threonine residues among NKCC1, NKCC2, and NCC family members, together with the fact that tissues from divergent vertebrate species exhibit similar R5-binding profiles, lends further support to the role of this regulatory locus in vivo [22].
  • Regulatory phosphorylation sites in the NH2 terminus of the renal Na-K-Cl cotransporter (NKCC2) [17].
  • Selective deletions of peptide segments revealed only a minor role for the NH(2)-terminal cytosolic domain of NKCC2 upstream of the threonine regulatory domain, including the recently identified proline alanine-rich Ste-20-related kinase-binding motif [17].
  • Mutations in SLC12A1 coding for the bumetanide-sensitive sodium potassium 2 chloride cotransporter (NKCC2) cause defective reabsorption of sodium chloride in the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop [15].
  • Infusion of vasopressin restored the expression of NKCC2 in the outer medulla as well as the expression and the activity of TonEBP [23].

Other interactions of SLC12A1

  • GSTM3 and SLC12A1 seem to be promising candidate genes for hypertension in women [1].
  • In conclusion, hyperosmolality, secondary to either glucose or NaCl, upregulated renal AQP2 and NKCC2 in vivo in BB rats [24].
  • Furthermore, interaction with either ATP1A1 or NKCC2 was not detected in both the rat F2 intercross and human hypertension cohorts [25].
  • Regulation of the sodium transporters NHE3, NKCC2 and NCC in the kidney [26].
  • Despite the fact that all of these Bartter's patients had significant hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis was not found in any of the 17 subjects with CLCKB mutations, compared to 19 of 20 patients with NKCC2 or ROMK1 mutations [27].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of SLC12A1


  1. Genetic analysis of 22 candidate genes for hypertension in the Japanese population. Iwai, N., Tago, N., Yasui, N., Kokubo, Y., Inamoto, N., Tomoike, H., Shioji, K. J. Hypertens. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Molecular physiology of cation-coupled Cl- cotransport: the SLC12 family. Hebert, S.C., Mount, D.B., Gamba, G. Pflugers Arch. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. The Na-K-Cl cotransporters. Haas, M., Forbush, B. J. Bioenerg. Biomembr. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. SLC12A3 (solute carrier family 12 member [sodium/chloride] 3) polymorphisms are associated with end-stage renal disease in diabetic nephropathy. Kim, J.H., Shin, H.D., Park, B.L., Moon, M.K., Cho, Y.M., Hwang, Y.H., Oh, K.W., Kim, S.Y., Lee, H.K., Ahn, C., Park, K.S. Diabetes (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Clinical presentation of genetically defined patients with hypokalemic salt-losing tubulopathies. Peters, M., Jeck, N., Reinalter, S., Leonhardt, A., Tönshoff, B., Klaus G, G., Konrad, M., Seyberth, H.W. Am. J. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Resistance of mTAL Na+-dependent transporters and collecting duct aquaporins to dehydration in 7-month-old rats. Amlal, H., Wilke, C. Kidney Int. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Bartter's syndrome, hypokalaemic alkalosis with hypercalciuria, is caused by mutations in the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter NKCC2. Simon, D.B., Karet, F.E., Hamdan, J.M., DiPietro, A., Sanjad, S.A., Lifton, R.P. Nat. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Cell- and promoter-specific activation of transcription by DNA replication. Grass, D.S., Read, D., Lewis, E.D., Manley, J.L. Genes Dev. (1987) [Pubmed]
  9. The Na-K-Cl cotransporter of secretory epithelia. Haas, M., Forbush, B. Annu. Rev. Physiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. From the Cover: Dendritic compartmentalization of chloride cotransporters underlies directional responses of starburst amacrine cells in retina. Gavrikov, K.E., Nilson, J.E., Dmitriev, A.V., Zucker, C.L., Mangel, S.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Uncompensated polyuria in a mouse model of Bartter's syndrome. Takahashi, N., Chernavvsky, D.R., Gomez, R.A., Igarashi, P., Gitelman, H.J., Smithies, O. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Late-onset manifestation of antenatal bartter syndrome as a result of residual function of the mutated renal Na+-K+-2Cl- Co-transporter. Pressler, C.A., Heinzinger, J., Jeck, N., Waldegger, P., Pechmann, U., Reinalter, S., Konrad, M., Beetz, R., Seyberth, H.W., Waldegger, S. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Heterozygous mutations of the gene for Kir 1.1 (ROMK) in antenatal Bartter syndrome presenting with transient hyperkalemia, evolving to a benign course. Cho, J.T., Guay-Woodford, L.M. J. Korean Med. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Transient body fluid accumulation and enhanced NKCC2 expression in gerbils with brain infarction. Ejima, Y., Nakamura, Y., Michimata, M., Hatano, R., Kazama, I., Sanada, S., Arata, T., Suzuki, M., Miyama, N., Sato, A., Satomi, S., Fushiya, S., Sasaki, S., Matsubara, M. Nephron. Physiology [electronic resource]. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. The molecular genetic approach to "Bartter's syndrome". Károlyi, L., Koch, M.C., Grzeschik, K.H., Seyberth, H.W. J. Mol. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. The role of transmembrane domain 2 in cation transport by the Na-K-Cl cotransporter. Isenring, P., Jacoby, S.C., Forbush, B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Regulatory phosphorylation sites in the NH2 terminus of the renal Na-K-Cl cotransporter (NKCC2). Giménez, I., Forbush, B. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Immunohistochemical localization of the Na-K-Cl co-transporter (NKCC1) in the gerbil inner ear. Crouch, J.J., Sakaguchi, N., Lytle, C., Schulte, B.A. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. NKCC1 and NHE1 are abundantly expressed in the basolateral plasma membrane of secretory coil cells in rat, mouse, and human sweat glands. Nejsum, L.N., Praetorius, J., Nielsen, S. Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Mutations in the human Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2) identified in Bartter syndrome type I consistently result in nonfunctional transporters. Starremans, P.G., Kersten, F.F., Knoers, N.V., van den Heuvel, L.P., Bindels, R.J. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Insulin-like synergistic stimulation of DNA synthesis in Swiss 3T3 cells by the BSC-1 cell-derived growth inhibitor related to transforming growth factor type beta. Brown, K.D., Holley, R.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  22. Activation of the Na-K-Cl otransporter NKCC1 detected with a phospho-specific antibody. Flemmer, A.W., Gimenez, I., Dowd, B.F., Darman, R.B., Forbush, B. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Downregulation of renal sodium transporters and tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein by long-term treatment with cyclosporin a. Lim, S.W., Ahn, K.O., Sheen, M.R., Jeon, U.S., Kim, J., Yang, C.W., Kwon, H.M. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  24. Hyperosmolality in vivo upregulates aquaporin 2 water channel and Na-K-2Cl co-transporter in Brattleboro rats. Li, C., Wang, W., Summer, S.N., Cadnapaphornchai, M.A., Falk, S., Umenishi, F., Schrier, R.W. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Non-association of the thiazide-sensitive Na,Cl-cotransporter gene with polygenic hypertension in both rats and humans. Song, Y., Herrera, V.L., Filigheddu, F., Troffa, C., Lopez, L.V., Glorioso, N., Ruiz-Opazo, N. J. Hypertens. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Regulation of the sodium transporters NHE3, NKCC2 and NCC in the kidney. Knepper, M.A., Brooks, H.L. Curr. Opin. Nephrol. Hypertens. (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. Straightening out the renal tubule: advances in the molecular basis of the inherited tubulopathies. Pearce, S.H. QJM : monthly journal of the Association of Physicians. (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Comparison of Na-K-Cl cotransporters. NKCC1, NKCC2, and the HEK cell Na-L-Cl cotransporter. Isenring, P., Jacoby, S.C., Payne, J.A., Forbush, B. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  29. Density-dependent regulation of growth of BSC-1 cells in cell culture: growth inhibitors formed by the cells. Holley, R.W., Armour, R., Baldwin, J.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1978) [Pubmed]
  30. Isolation and characterization of an intracellular serine proteinase inhibitor from a monkey kidney epithelial cell line. Morgenstern, K.A., Henzel, W.J., Baker, J.B., Wong, S., Pastuszyn, A., Kisiel, W. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  31. Dimeric architecture of the human bumetanide-sensitive Na-K-Cl Co-transporter. Starremans, P.G., Kersten, F.F., Van Den Heuvel, L.P., Knoers, N.V., Bindels, R.J. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2003) [Pubmed]
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