The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

TBCA  -  tubulin folding cofactor A

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CFA, TCP1-chaperonin cofactor A, Tubulin-folding cofactor A, Tubulin-specific chaperone A
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of TBCA

  • Administration of purified colonization factor antigens (CFA/I, CFA/II) of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli to volunteers. Response to challenge with virulent enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli [1].
  • Freund's complete adjuvant (CFA) and BCG vaccine modulate the development of type 1 diabetes in animal models [2].
  • RESULTS: Both EFA and CFA do not support the existence of functional dyspepsia as a homogeneous (unidimensional) condition [3].
  • CFA markedly decreased escape latencies to both 48 degrees and 30 degrees C stimulation, thereby demonstrating thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia [4].
  • Like native human AChR, the recombinant human alpha 1-210 protein induced AChR-binding, AChR-modulating, and AChR-blocking autoantibodies in rats when injected once intradermally as an emulsion in CFA, with Bordetella pertussis vaccine as supplementary adjuvant [5].

Psychiatry related information on TBCA

  • Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted on 1,355 reliable responders to the self-rated Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ), which covers all nine aspects of DSM-III-R schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) [6].
  • Evidence for these desirable properties of measurement instruments can be established within the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) framework; a nested hierarchy of hypotheses is tested that addresses the cross-group invariance of the instrument's psychometric properties [7].
  • CFA was applied to Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms, Bech-Rafaelsen Melancholia Scale and Simpson-Angus Scale subscores to examine differential effects of high doses of ASP and FPX on negative and depressive symptom dimensions in 126 acutely ill schizophrenic patients [8].
  • The administered questionnaire included the 25-item COHRQoL [8-10] and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory-School Form. The analytical method was based upon CFA using maximum likelihood estimation [9].
  • LDL consisted of 'daily activities', 'travel' and 'social life', and mental health included 'family life', 'depressed' and 'tired'. Based on the results from the EFA, the second-order factor structure was tested by CFA [10].

High impact information on TBCA

  • When conjugated via the cysteine residue to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), emulsified in CFA, and injected into rabbits, the synthetic hybrid evoked opsonic antibodies against types 5, 6, and 24 streptococci without stimulating tissue crossreactive immunity [11].
  • The CFA is destroyed by acid gastric contents but it induced significant antibody titer rises in 8 of 11 (73%) volunteers with preexisting serum anti-CFA IgG levels after oral administration of 1 mg of CFA/I with sodium bicarbonate [1].
  • In contrast, intraoral sucrose and suckling did not increase hindpaw withdrawal latencies in either control or CFA-inflamed rats [4].
  • When paucity of lymph node T cells (plt) mutant mice lacking expression of CCL19/CCL21 were primed with OVA/CFA, both expansion of OVA-responding CD4(+) T cells in the draining lymph nodes and an in vitro recall response were prolonged as compared with responses in wild-type (WT) mice [12].
  • Mice sensitized with bPDC and CFA developed, within 2 weeks of sensitization, high-titer antibody responses reactive with bPDC that were fully cross-reactive with the murine homologue [13].

Chemical compound and disease context of TBCA

  • Moreover, EAE could be induced actively with Hu-BP and a synthetic Hu-S110-129 peptide in CFA, but only with co-immunomodulation by pertussis toxin or cyclophosphamide [14].
  • Experimental murine autoimmune oophoritis, a model of human premature ovarian failure, is induced by immunization with a peptide of the ZP3 glycoprotein from mouse zona pellucida (ZP3(330-340)) in CFA [15].
  • To study the role of IFN-gamma in the autoantibody-mediated experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG), an animal model of myasthenia gravis in humans, IFN-gammaR-deficient (IFN-gammaR-/-) mutant C57BL/6 mice and congenic wild-type mice were immunized with Torpedo acetylcholine receptor (AChR) plus CFA [16].
  • Although mannose-resistant hemagglutination was common in non-enterotoxigenic strains of E. coli, none of the non-enterotoxigenic strains possessed CFA/I or CFA/II; these strains included fecal strains of serogroups O6, O8, O63, and O78, fecal strains of enteropathogenic serogroups, and strains from extraintestinal sources [17].
  • The vaccine consisted of formalin-killed E. coli bacteria expressing the most common colonization factor antigens (CFAs), i.e., CFA/I, -II, and -IV, and recombinantly produced cholera B subunit (CTB) [18].

Biological context of TBCA

  • TBCA is essential for cell viability and its knockdown produces a decrease in the amount of soluble tubulin, modifications in microtubules and G1 cell cycle arrest [19].
  • It has been suggested that autoimmunity to the proteoglycan (PG) component of cartilage plays a major role in the etiology of adjuvant arthritis (AA), which occurs in rats, but not in mice, after injection of CFA [20].
  • Recovery was associated with disease resistance upon rechallenge with ZP3(330-340) in CFA [15].
  • The results presented here show that, in rats, i.v. injection of PG synergizes with CFA in the induction of AA, and enhances both humoral and cellular immunity to PG [20].
  • Further recombinant viruses containing defined exchanges within the 4-kb fragment were constructed, and virulence testing of these viruses indicated that the fiber was responsible for differences in virulence for CFA 40 and CFA 3 [21].

Anatomical context of TBCA

  • We have used siRNA to silence TBCA expression in HeLa and MCF-7 mammalian cell lines [19].
  • OT-I T cells expanded equivalently upon administration of OVA in CFA to mice previously given OVA in the a.c. or subconjunctiva [22].
  • Treatment of guinea pig myelin/CFA immunized rats with sIL-1R for 13 consecutive days significantly delayed the onset of EAE, reduced the severity of paralysis and weight loss, and shortened the duration of disease [23].
  • The development of fatal CD4+ T cell-mediated experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) in susceptible female Lewis rats was optimized by immunization with 20 mg of guinea pig spinal cord homogenate in CFA on day 0 with three doses of 1 microgram pertussis toxin given i.v. on days 0, 3, and 7 [24].
  • Thus, hapten-specific cutaneous basophil reactions were present in guinea pigs immunized with CFA for classical delayed hypersensitivity, and in animals immunized with IFA for Jones-Mote reactions [25].

Associations of TBCA with chemical compounds

  • Diabetes was induced in BALB/c mice by four injections of a subdiabetogenic dose (40 mg/kg) of streptozotocin in combination with CFA [26].
  • Hapten-specific 24-hr cutaneous basophil reactions were passively transferred with immune serum from donors sensitized with conjugates of oxazolone or picryl-KLH in CFA or IFA, and with serum from oxazolone contact-sensitized animals as well [25].
  • Immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies to rCTB and CFA/I were measured in all subjects, and those against CS1, CS2, and CS4 were measured in all children plus a subset of 33 adults [27].
  • To identify CFA, in strains lacking mannose-resistant hemagglutination properties we exploited the ability of human ETEC strains to adhere to human proximal small intestinal mucosa [28].
  • Three doses of vaccine consisting of formalin-killed ETEC bacteria expressing fimbrial colonization factor antigens I and II (CFA/I and CFA/II) in combination with purified cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) were given 2 weeks apart [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TBCA

  • Two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay systems which could detect as little as several or 50 ng of CFA/III per ml were developed [30].
  • Specific antisera to the antigens colonization factor antigen (CFA)/I, CFA/II (consisting of coli surface antigens [CS] 1, 2, and 3), and putative colonization factor antigen (PCF) 8775 (consisting of CS4, 5, and 6) were used in immunodiffusion tests and ELISAs [31].
  • A high frequency of IgG autoantibodies has previously been found in the plasma of patients with CFA to an extractable 70-90 kDa lung antigen by Western blotting [32].
  • Hemagglutination and electron microscopy confirmed surface expression of CFA/I [33].
  • PURPOSE: To determine whether intraarterial digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is as accurate as cut-film (film hard-copy) angiography (CFA) in the evaluation of suspected pulmonary embolus [34].


  1. Administration of purified colonization factor antigens (CFA/I, CFA/II) of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli to volunteers. Response to challenge with virulent enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Evans, D.G., Graham, D.Y., Evans, D.J. Gastroenterology (1984) [Pubmed]
  2. Effect of adjuvant therapy on development of diabetes in mouse and man. Shehadeh, N., Calcinaro, F., Bradley, B.J., Bruchim, I., Bruchlim, I., Vardi, P., Lafferty, K.J. Lancet (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Heterogeneity of symptom pattern, psychosocial factors, and pathophysiological mechanisms in severe functional dyspepsia. Fischler, B., Tack, J., De Gucht, V., Shkedy, Z.I., Persoons, P., Broekaert, D., Molenberghs, G., Janssens, J. Gastroenterology (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Suckling and sucrose ingestion suppress persistent hyperalgesia and spinal Fos expression after forepaw inflammation in infant rats. Ren, K., Blass, E.M., Zhou, Q., Dubner, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Recombinant human acetylcholine receptor alpha-subunit induces chronic experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. Lennon, V.A., Lambert, E.H., Leiby, K.R., Okarma, T.B., Talib, S. J. Immunol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Factorial composition of self-rated schizotypal traits among young males undergoing military training. Stefanis, N.C., Smyrnis, N., Avramopoulos, D., Evdokimidis, I., Ntzoufras, I., Stefanis, C.N. Schizophrenia bulletin. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Do self-report instruments allow meaningful comparisons across diverse population groups?: testing measurement invariance using the confirmatory factor analysis framework. Gregorich, S.E. Medical care. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Differential effects of high-dose amisulpride versus flupentixol on latent dimensions of depressive and negative symptomatology in acute schizophrenia: an evaluation using confirmatory factor analysis. Müller, M.J., Wetzel, H., Benkert, O. International clinical psychopharmacology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Oral health-related quality of life for 8-10-year-old children: an assessment of a new measure. Humphris, G., Freeman, R., Gibson, B., Simpson, K., Whelton, H. Community dentistry and oral epidemiology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Use of the short form of King's Health Questionnaire to measure quality of life in patients with an overactive bladder. Homma, Y., Uemura, S. BJU international. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Protective immunogenicity and T lymphocyte specificity of a trivalent hybrid peptide containing NH2-terminal sequences of types 5, 6, and 24 M proteins synthesized in tandem. Beachey, E.H., Seyer, J.M., Dale, J.B. J. Exp. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  12. Chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 promote activation-induced cell death of antigen-responding T cells. Yasuda, T., Kuwabara, T., Nakano, H., Aritomi, K., Onodera, T., Lipp, M., Takahama, Y., Kakiuchi, T. Blood (2007) [Pubmed]
  13. Breakdown of tolerance to pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in experimental autoimmune cholangitis: a mouse model of primary biliary cirrhosis. Jones, D.E., Palmer, J.M., Yeaman, S.J., Kirby, J.A., Bassendine, M.F. Hepatology (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. T cell lines specific for an immunodominant epitope of human basic protein define an encephalitogenic determinant for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis-resistant LOU/M rats. Hashim, G., Vandenbark, A.A., Gold, D.P., Diamanduros, T., Offner, H. J. Immunol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. Altered target organ. A mechanism of postrecovery resistance to murine autoimmune oophoritis. Lou, Y.H., McElveen, F., Adams, S., Tung, K.S. J. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. Mice with IFN-gamma receptor deficiency are less susceptible to experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. Zhang, G.X., Xiao, B.G., Bai, X.F., van der Meide, P.H., Orn, A., Link, H. J. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Hemagglutination activity and colonization factor antigens I and II in enterotoxigenic and non-enterotoxigenic strains of Escherichia coli isolated from humans. Cravioto, A., Scotland, S.M., Rowe, B. Infect. Immun. (1982) [Pubmed]
  18. Intestinal immune responses to an inactivated oral enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli vaccine and associated immunoglobulin A responses in blood. Ahrén, C., Jertborn, M., Svennerholm, A.M. Infect. Immun. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Tubulin cofactor A gene silencing in mammalian cells induces changes in microtubule cytoskeleton, cell cycle arrest and cell death. Nolasco, S., Bellido, J., Gonçalves, J., Zabala, J.C., Soares, H. FEBS Lett. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. The role of immunity to cartilage proteoglycan in adjuvant arthritis. Intravenous injection of bovine proteoglycan enhances adjuvant arthritis. Van Vollenhoven, R.F., Soriano, A., McCarthy, P.E., Schwartz, R.L., Garbrecht, F.C., Thorbecke, G.J., Siskind, G.W. J. Immunol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  21. A single gene encoding the fiber is responsible for variations in virulence in the fowl adenoviruses. Pallister, J., Wright, P.J., Sheppard, M. J. Virol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. Injection of soluble antigen into the anterior chamber of the eye induces expansion and functional unresponsiveness of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. McKenna, K.C., Xu, Y., Kapp, J.A. J. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis is exacerbated by IL-1 alpha and suppressed by soluble IL-1 receptor. Jacobs, C.A., Baker, P.E., Roux, E.R., Picha, K.S., Toivola, B., Waugh, S., Kennedy, M.K. J. Immunol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  24. Inhibition by CTLA4Ig of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Arima, T., Rehman, A., Hickey, W.F., Flye, M.W. J. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  25. Antibody-mediated basophil accumulations in cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions of guinea pigs. Askenase, P.W., Haynes, J.D., Hayden, B.J. J. Immunol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  26. Islet beta-cytotoxic monoclonal antibody against glycolipids in experimental diabetes induced by low dose streptozotocin and Freund's adjuvant. Ziegler, M., Teneberg, S., Witt, S., Ziegler, B., Hehmke, B., Kohnert, K.D., Egeberg, J., Karlsson, K.A., Lernmark, A. J. Immunol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  27. Induction of systemic antifimbria and antitoxin antibody responses in Egyptian children and adults by an oral, killed enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli plus cholera toxin B subunit vaccine. Hall, E.R., Wierzba, T.F., Ahrén, C., Rao, M.R., Bassily, S., Francis, W., Girgis, F.Y., Safwat, M., Lee, Y.J., Svennerholm, A.M., Clemens, J.D., Savarino, S.J. Infect. Immun. (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Identification of a new fimbrial structure in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) serotype O148:H28 which adheres to human intestinal mucosa: a potentially new human ETEC colonization factor. Knutton, S., Lloyd, D.R., McNeish, A.S. Infect. Immun. (1987) [Pubmed]
  29. Antibody-secreting cells in human peripheral blood after oral immunization with an inactivated enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli vaccine. Wennerås, C., Svennerholm, A.M., Ahrén, C., Czerkinsky, C. Infect. Immun. (1992) [Pubmed]
  30. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to a pilus colonization factor (colonization factor antigen III) of human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Honda, T., Wetprasit, N., Arita, M., Miwatani, T. Infect. Immun. (1989) [Pubmed]
  31. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the detection of adhesion factor antigens of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. McConnell, M.M., Thomas, L.V., Day, N.P., Rowe, B. J. Infect. Dis. (1985) [Pubmed]
  32. Localisation of a pulmonary autoantigen in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis. Wallace, W.A., Schofield, J.A., Lamb, D., Howie, S.E. Thorax (1994) [Pubmed]
  33. Attenuated Shigella flexneri 2a vaccine strain CVD 1204 expressing colonization factor antigen I and mutant heat-labile enterotoxin of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Koprowski, H., Levine, M.M., Anderson, R.J., Losonsky, G., Pizza, M., Barry, E.M. Infect. Immun. (2000) [Pubmed]
  34. Possible pulmonary embolus: evaluation with digital subtraction versus cut-film angiography--prospective study in 80 patients. Johnson, M.S., Stine, S.B., Shah, H., Harris, V.J., Ambrosius, W.T., Trerotola, S.O. Radiology. (1998) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities