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Gene Review

GCFC2  -  GC-rich sequence DNA-binding factor 2

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: C2orf3, DNABF, GC-rich sequence DNA-binding factor, GCF, TCF-9, ...
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Disease relevance of C2orf3

  • Treatment of human KB epidermoid carcinoma cells with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) lead to a rapid induction of GCF RNA after 1 h and a decline to lower than control levels after 6 h [1].
  • The 3.0-kb GCF mRNA was found to be expressed at the highest level in HUT 102 cells (derived from a T-cell lymphoma) [1].
  • Elevated levels of the GCF mRNA were also noted in KATO III and AGS (gastric carcinomas), FEM-X (melanoma), and U266B1 (myeloma) cell lines [1].
  • PURPOSE: This study was conducted to determine whether relatives of gastric cancer patients (GCF) showed greater gastric cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression or a greater incidence of precancerous lesions after Helicobacter pylori infection and whether H. pylori eradication could reduce COX-2 expression [2].
  • GCF samples were collected from each tooth of 27 periodontitis patients infected with A. actinomycetemcomitans [3].

High impact information on C2orf3


Chemical compound and disease context of C2orf3

  • These findings suggest the levels of phylloquinone in GCF differs in periodontal health and disease in subjects with adult periodontitis [6].
  • The aims of this study were: 1) to establish if Oc, Pyr and dPyr can be detected in GCF and 2) using the orthodontic tooth movement model of alveolar bone resorption to evaluate GCF levels of osteocalcin and these collagen cross-links as markers of bone breakdown [7].
  • GCF was collected on filter paper strips from healthy (H), gingivitis (G) and adult periodontitis (AP) patients, then extracted with Tris/NaCl/CaCl2 buffer, pH 7.6. alpha 1-PI concentration increased with G and was highest in AP subjects [8].
  • CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Ciprofloxacin may be useful in treating patients with periodontitis because it reaches higher concentrations in GCF than in serum [9].
  • Despite the high levels of nifedipine sequestered in the GCF, only the plasma concentration of nifedipine was identified as a risk factor for the severity of gingival overgrowth in these patients (P = 0.01) once adjusted for other known risk factors (R2 for the model = 55%) [10].

Biological context of C2orf3

  • GC factor (GCF) was reported as a transcriptional regulator that binds to a specific GC-rich sequence in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene promoter and represses its expression [11].
  • In this paper, we present the data on three revisions of the cDNA sequence that lead to significant changes of the amino acid sequences of the published GCF [11].
  • Cross-sectional studies identified a 78 to 100% agreement between the antibody specificities in GCF and those in serum [3].
  • All PDGF-Ralpha polymorphisms, except C-908A, involving a nucleotide change in a common consensus site for GCF and SP-1 transcription factors, were in nearly complete association, generating two major haplotypes [12].
  • Therefore, more precise investigation of the tissue distribution of local gingival IgG subclass producing plasma cells and their protein levels in the GCF from the same sites and in serum, was undertaken [13].

Anatomical context of C2orf3

  • Analyses were performed from simultaneously collected samples of peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), gingival crevicular fluid (GCF from diseased sites) and paraffin-stimulated whole saliva [14].
  • GCF antibodies are both serum-derived and locally produced by the abundant plasma cells of the diseased periodontal tissue [13].
  • Our results suggest that GCF cathepsin G reflects the disease process in adjacent inflamed gingiva and also increased host response to microbiota and/or dental plaque in the periodontitis lesions [15].
  • We conclude that this cutaneous GCA is a fibrohistiocytic tumor closely related to and representing a more organoid angioformative analog of GCF, with both being related histogenetically also to DFSP [16].
  • METHOD: Clinical measurements including gingival index, plaque index, bleeding on probing, probing depth, attachment loss (AL), and GCF samples were taken from four lower incisors and the upper right posterior sextant of each patient at baseline and 6-month visits by means of sterile paper strips [17].

Associations of C2orf3 with chemical compounds

  • The concentrations of tinidazole in serum and GCF were in a similar range (3.2-46.5 micrograms/mL) [18].
  • However, PGE2 levels in GCF were significantly higher in experimental sites compared with healthy untreated sites (negative controls) in both surgery only (p= 0.001) and surgery+gel (p=0.023) groups throughout the study [19].
  • When the amounts of phylloquinone in GCF were expressed as concentrations the values were 228 ng/ml and 3350 ng/ml for diseased and healthy sites respectively (p=0.084) [6].
  • None of the 16 GCF samples analysed for Pyr and dPyr gave a positive result [7].
  • Spiramycin was found at higher concentrations in GCF than in blood, although this feature was not found for metronidazole, which was administered simultaneously and showed similar concentrations in both fluid and serum [20].

Other interactions of C2orf3


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of C2orf3

  • Epidermal growth factor receptor mRNAs were not increased by PMA until 2 h after treatment and were at their highest level only after GCF mRNAs were decreased [1].
  • Levels of IgG antibody in the GCF were assessed by means of an ELISA and compared with serum for determination of local elevations [3].
  • A proportion of those GCF samples that exhibited significantly elevated antibody were examined by Western immunoblotting to outer membrane antigens from A. actinomycetemcomitans [3].
  • GCF ICTP levels were quantified using radioimmunoassay (RIA) [22].
  • GCF was sampled and the amount of phylloquinone in each sample was determined using reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrochemical detection [6].


  1. Expression and chromosomal localization of the gene for the human transcriptional repressor GCF. Johnson, A.C., Kageyama, R., Popescu, N.C., Pastan, I. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Higher gastric cycloxygenase-2 expression and precancerous change in Helicobacter pylori-infected relatives of gastric cancer patients. Sheu, B.S., Yang, H.B., Sheu, S.M., Huang, A.H., Wu, J.J. Clin. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Antigenic specificity of gingival crevicular fluid antibody to Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. Ebersole, J.L., Cappelli, D., Steffen, M.J. J. Dent. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. A tau promoter region without neuronal specificity. Andreadis, A., Wagner, B.K., Broderick, J.A., Kosik, K.S. J. Neurochem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Gene structure, tissue expression, and linkage mapping of the mouse DLC-1 gene (Arhgap7). Durkin, M.E., Yuan, B.Z., Thorgeirsson, S.S., Popescu, N.C. Gene (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Phylloquinone in gingival crevicular fluid in adult periodontitis. Rawlinson, A., Walsh, T.F., Lee, A., Hodges, S.J. Journal of clinical periodontology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Evaluation of osteocalcin and pyridinium crosslinks of bone collagen as markers of bone turnover in gingival crevicular fluid during different stages of orthodontic treatment. Griffiths, G.S., Moulson, A.M., Petrie, A., James, I.T. Journal of clinical periodontology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. alpha 1-Proteinase inhibitor in gingival crevicular fluid of humans with adult periodontitis: serpinolytic inhibition by doxycycline. Lee, H.M., Golub, L.M., Chan, D., Leung, M., Schroeder, K., Wolff, M., Simon, S., Crout, R. J. Periodont. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Serum and gingival crevicular fluid levels of ciprofloxacin in patients with periodontitis. Tözüm, T.F., Yildirim, A., Cağlayan, F., Dinçel, A., Bozkurt, A. Journal of the American Dental Association (1939) (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Nifedipine pharmacological variables as risk factors for gingival overgrowth in organ-transplant patients. Thomason, J.M., Ellis, J.S., Kelly, P.J., Seymour, R.A. Clinical oral investigations. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Molecular analysis of the GCF gene identifies revisions to the cDNA and amino acid sequences(1). Takimoto, M., Mao, P., Wei, G., Yamazaki, H., Miura, T., Johnson, A.C., Kuzumaki, N. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Polymorphisms in the genes encoding platelet-derived growth factor A and alpha receptor. Herrmann, S.M., Ricard, S., Nicaud, V., Brand, E., Behague, I., Blanc, H., Ruidavets, J.B., Evans, A., Arveiler, D., Luc, G., Poirier, O., Cambien, F. J. Mol. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Crevicular fluid and serum IgG subclasses and corresponding mRNA expressing plasma cells in periodontitis lesions. Kinane, D.F., Takahashi, K., Mooney, J. J. Periodont. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Peroxidases, lactoferrin and lysozyme in peripheral blood neutrophils, gingival crevicular fluid and whole saliva of patients with localized juvenile periodontitis. Suomalainen, K., Saxén, L., Vilja, P., Tenovuo, J. Oral diseases. (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Cathepsin G in gingival tissue and crevicular fluid in adult periodontitis. Tervahartiala, T., Konttinen, Y.T., INgman, T., Häyrinen-Immonen, R., Ding, Y., Sorsa, T. Journal of clinical periodontology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. A cutaneous case of giant cell angiofibroma occurring with dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans and showing bimodal CD34+ fibroblastic and FXIIIa+ histiocytic immunophenotype. Silverman, J.S., Tamsen, A. J. Cutan. Pathol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Longitudinal evaluation of GCF IFN-gamma levels and periodontal status in HIV+ patients. Alpagot, T., Font, K., Lee, A. Journal of clinical periodontology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Single-dose concentrations of tinidazole in gingival crevicular fluid, serum, and gingival tissue in adults with periodontitis. Liew, V., Mack, G., Tseng, P., Cvejic, M., Hayden, M., Buchanan, N. J. Dent. Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Periodontal flap surgery with 25% metronidazole gel. (2). Effect on gingival crevicular fluid PGE2. Needleman, I.G., Moles, D.R., Collins, A.M. Journal of clinical periodontology. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. Kinetics of spiramycin/metronidazole (Rodogyl) in human gingival crevicular fluid, saliva and blood. Rotzetter, P.A., Le Liboux, A., Pichard, E., Cimasoni, G. Journal of clinical periodontology. (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. Differential gene expression in neutrophils from patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis. Kubota, T., Morozumi, T., Shimizu, K., Sugita, N., Kobayashi, T., Yoshie, H. J. Periodont. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Relationship between C-telopeptide pyridinoline cross-links (ICTP) and putative periodontal pathogens in periodontitis. Palys, M.D., Haffajee, A.D., Socransky, S.S., Giannobile, W.V. Journal of clinical periodontology. (1998) [Pubmed]
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