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Gene Review

TEF  -  thyrotrophic embryonic factor

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: KIAA1655, Thyrotroph embryonic factor
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Disease relevance of TEF

  • We demonstrate that in human choriocarcinoma BeWo cells, the PKC activator 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate and PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide reciprocally down- and up-regulate, respectively, TEF-mediated GGAATG core enhancer activity [1].
  • A biological activity which enhances cell transformation (TEF) in Rous sarcoma virus temperature-sensitive mutant-infected cultures has been evidenced in the plasma cryoprecipitate from patients affected with different types of neoplastic disease [2].
  • Esophageal atresia with or without tracheoesophageal fistula (EA +/- TEF) usually occurs sporadically either as an isolated malformation or in conjunction with other congenital anomalies [3].
  • Haematological and gastrointestinal toxicity defined the maximum tolerated doses, at T-80/E-90 mg/m(2) with TEF, T-70/A50/X-2,000 mg/m(2) with TAX and T-70/E-80/X-1,650 mg/m(2) with TEX [4].
  • Eleven patients with previous esophageal atresia repair (TEF) underwent esophageal motility studies and were compared to 10 normal patients [5].

Psychiatry related information on TEF

  • Evidence has been provided suggesting that physical activity influences RMR and TEF in younger and older individuals [6].

High impact information on TEF


Chemical compound and disease context of TEF


Biological context of TEF

  • This promoter is particularly responsive to TEF activation and is silenced by NFIL3, a repressor that shares the consensus binding site with PAR bZIP proteins [12].
  • A naturally occurring variant of DBP (tDBP), lacking the transactivation domain, has been identified and shown to impede the formation of active TEF dimers in a competitive manner and to reduce the TEF-dependent induction of bcl-gS [12].
  • Furthermore, blockade of bcl-gS or TEF expression by a small interfering RNA strategy or transfection with tDBP significantly reduces the etoposide-mediated apoptotic cell death [12].
  • Using a fluorescence in situ hybridization technique, the DBP locus was assigned to chromosome 19q13, and TEF to chromosome 22q13 [13].
  • TEF and HLF activated transcription of consensus site-containing reporter genes in several different cell types with similar potencies [14].

Anatomical context of TEF

  • DBP and TEF mRNAs were expressed in all tissues and cell lines examined, including brain, lung, liver, spleen, and kidney [13].
  • Both TEF and DPB accumulate in a circadian way in insulin-secreting cells after a serum shock known to restore circadian rhythms in cultured cells [15].
  • TEF and DBP transcripts are expressed at extremely high levels in human pancreatic islets compared to other tissues, suggesting a potentially important circadian regulation of these cells [15].
  • Both transcription factors albumin site d-binding protein (DBP) and thyrotroph embryonic factor (TEF) are elements of the "cell-clock". Their circadian accumulation in suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and peripheral tissues such as liver, kidney and lung is thought to participate in controlling circadian regulation of downstream genes [15].
  • These novel findings suggest that in addition to exerting a regulatory effect by binding MCAT elements, TEF proteins likely contribute to regulation of skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle gene networks by binding select A/T-rich and MEF2 elements under basal and hypertrophic conditions [16].

Associations of TEF with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of TEF

  • We show that TONDU specifically interacts with a domain conserved in all the mammalian TEF factors [21].

Other interactions of TEF

  • To address these questions, we cloned the human homologue of TEF/VBP, a bZIP protein closely related to HLF [14].
  • In liver nuclei, the amplitude of daily oscillation has been estimated to be 50-fold and 160-fold for TEF and DBP, respectively [8].
  • The two PAR leucine zipper proteins, TEF and DBP, display similar circadian and tissue-specific expression, but have different target promoter preferences [8].
  • In the EA/TEF specimens, all BMP ligands were present in the proximal esophageal pouch but absent in the fistula tract [22].
  • We report the cloning of a cDNA encoding the human transcription factor hTEF-5, containing the TEA/ATTS DNA binding domain and related to the TEF family of transcription factors. hTEF-5 is expressed in skeletal and cardiac muscle, but the strongest expression is observed in the placenta and in placenta-derived JEG-3 choriocarcinoma cells [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TEF


  1. DNA binding of TEA/ATTS domain factors is regulated by protein kinase C phosphorylation in human choriocarcinoma cells. Jiang, S.W., Dong, M., Trujillo, M.A., Miller, L.J., Eberhardt, N.L. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Potential diagnostic and prognostic significance of the transformation-enhancing factor(s) in the plasma cryoprecipitate of tumor patients. Mignatti, P., Ascari, E., Barlati, S. Int. J. Cancer (1980) [Pubmed]
  3. Familial congenital esophageal atresia. Personal case report and review of the literature. Van Staey, M., De Bie, S., Matton, M.T., De Roose, J. Hum. Genet. (1984) [Pubmed]
  4. Dose-finding study of weekly docetaxel, anthracyclines plus fluoropyrimidines as first-line treatment in advanced breast cancer. Pagani, O., Sessa, C., Nolè, F., Munzone, E., Crivellari, D., Lombardi, D., Thürlimann, B., Hess, D., Graffeo, R., Ruggeri, M., Longhi, S., Goldhirsch, A. Ann. Oncol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Motor function of the esophagus after repair of esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula. Duranceau, A., Fisher, S.R., Flye, M., Jones, R.S., Postlethwait, R.W., Sealy, W.C. Surgery (1977) [Pubmed]
  6. Regulation of energy expenditure in aging humans. Poehlman, E.T., Horton, E.S. Annu. Rev. Nutr. (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. TEF, a transcription factor expressed specifically in the anterior pituitary during embryogenesis, defines a new class of leucine zipper proteins. Drolet, D.W., Scully, K.M., Simmons, D.M., Wegner, M., Chu, K.T., Swanson, L.W., Rosenfeld, M.G. Genes Dev. (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. The two PAR leucine zipper proteins, TEF and DBP, display similar circadian and tissue-specific expression, but have different target promoter preferences. Fonjallaz, P., Ossipow, V., Wanner, G., Schibler, U. EMBO J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula in two infants born to hyperthyroid women receiving methimazole (Tapazol) during pregnancy. Ramírez, A., Espinosa de los Monteros, A., Parra, A., De León, B. Am. J. Med. Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Toxicity to Microtox, micro-algae and duckweed of effluents from the Bai Bang paper company (BAPACO), a Vietnamese bleached kraft pulp and paper mill. Oanh, N.T., Bengtsson, B.E. Environ. Pollut. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Thyroid transcription factor-1 expression in the human neonatal tracheoesophageal fistula. Spilde, T.L., Bhatia, A.M., Miller, K.A., Ostlie, D.J., Chaignaud, B.E., Holcomb, G.W., Snyder, C.L., Gittes, G.K. J. Pediatr. Surg. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. A Novel Role for Proline- and Acid-rich Basic Region Leucine Zipper (PAR bZIP) Proteins in the Transcriptional Regulation of a BH3-only Proapoptotic Gene. Benito, A., Gutierrez, O., Pipaon, C., Real, P.J., Gachon, F., Ritchie, A.E., Fernandez-Luna, J.L. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Chromosomal localization and cDNA cloning of the human DBP and TEF genes. Khatib, Z.A., Inaba, T., Valentine, M., Look, A.T. Genomics (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. The proto-oncogene HLF and the related basic leucine zipper protein TEF display highly similar DNA-binding and transcriptional regulatory properties. Hunger, S.P., Li, S., Fall, M.Z., Naumovski, L., Cleary, M.L. Blood (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Circadian regulation of islet genes involved in insulin production and secretion. Allaman-Pillet, N., Roduit, R., Oberson, A., Abdelli, S., Ruiz, J., Beckmann, J.S., Schorderet, D.F., Bonny, C. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Transcription enhancer factor 1 binds multiple muscle MEF2 and A/T-rich elements during fast-to-slow skeletal muscle fiber type transitions. Karasseva, N., Tsika, G., Ji, J., Zhang, A., Mao, X., Tsika, R. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Health effects of hexachlorobenzene and the TEF approach. Vos, J.G. Environ. Health Perspect. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Recommended relative potency factors for 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran: the impact of different dose metrics. Budinsky, R.A., Paustenbach, D., Fontaine, D., Landenberger, B., Starr, T.B. Toxicol. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Defective sonic hedgehog signaling in esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula. Spilde, T.L., Bhatia, A.M., Mehta, S., Ostlie, D.J., Hembree, M.J., Preuett, B.L., Prasadan, K., Li, Z., Snyder, C.L., Gittes, G.K. Surgery (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/polychlorinated dibenzofuran releases into the atmosphere from the use of secondary fuels in cement kilns during clinker formation. Abad, E., Martínez, K., Caixach, J., Rivera, J. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. TONDU (TDU), a novel human protein related to the product of vestigial (vg) gene of Drosophila melanogaster interacts with vertebrate TEF factors and substitutes for Vg function in wing formation. Vaudin, P., Delanoue, R., Davidson, I., Silber, J., Zider, A. Development (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. Bone morphogenetic protein expression patterns in human esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula. Crowley, A.R., Mehta, S.S., Hembree, M.J., Preuett, B.L., Prasadan, K.L., Sharp, S.W., Yew, H., McFall, C.R., Benjes, C.L., Tulachan, S.S., Gittes, G.K., Snyder, C.L. Pediatr. Surg. Int. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Human TEF-5 is preferentially expressed in placenta and binds to multiple functional elements of the human chorionic somatomammotropin-B gene enhancer. Jacquemin, P., Martial, J.A., Davidson, I. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. Human placental TEF-5 transactivates the human chorionic somatomammotropin gene enhancer. Jiang, S.W., Wu, K., Eberhardt, N.L. Mol. Endocrinol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Successful thoracoscopic repair of esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula in a newborn with single ventricle physiology. Mariano, E.R., Chu, L.F., Albanese, C.T., Ramamoorthy, C. Anesth. Analg. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Tracheoesophageal anomalies in oculoauriculovertebral (Goldenhar) spectrum. Sutphen, R., Galan-Gomez, E., Cortada, X., Newkirk, P.N., Kousseff, B.G. Clin. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  27. Effects of increased energy intake and/or physical activity on energy expenditure in young healthy men. Goran, M.I., Calles-Escandon, J., Poehlman, E.T., O'Connell, M., Danforth, E. J. Appl. Physiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
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