The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

Spaca3  -  sperm acrosome associated 3

Mus musculus

Synonyms: 1700025M08Rik, ALLP17, Lyc3, Lysozyme-like protein 3, Lyzl3, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Spaca3

  • Hypoxia/reoxygenation resulted in an increase in DNA-degrading activity with an apparent molecular mass of 15 kDa on a substrate gel [1].
  • CT442, also known as CrpA, is a 15-kDa protein of undefined function that has previously been shown to be associated with the Chlamydia inclusion membrane [2].
  • Lupus sera reacted with 17- and 15-kDa peptide fragments allowing their classification into three groups [3].
  • In vitro translation of mal1 RNA yielded a polypeptide of the predicted size of 15 kDa that was immunoprecipitable with an anti-rat liver fatty acid-binding protein antiserum [4].
  • Salmonella typhimurium SL3261 was used as a live carrier of plasmid pKF1, which encodes a 15-kDa recombinant M. hyopneumoniae protein [5].

High impact information on Spaca3

  • Activation of a 15-kDa endonuclease in hypoxia/reoxygenation injury without morphologic features of apoptosis [1].
  • A 15-kDa protein detected initially in amyloidotic ileum from a transgenic mouse and subsequently in control (nontransgenic) ileum by various polyclonal rabbit antiserums applied to electroblots of extracts derived from these tissues was identified by partial sequence analysis as histone H3 [6].
  • Upon reduction and alkylation, the antigen-binding GIF dissociated into a 62- to 64-kDa protein which gave positive ELISA with antibody 110BH3 but no signal with antibody 388F1, and a 15-kDa protein, which gave ELISA signal with the 388F1 but not with 110BH3 [7].
  • Amino acid and radiochemical sequence analysis of the [32P]phosphopeptides revealed that pp15 is the phosphorylation product of 422(aP2) protein, a 15-kDa adipocyte protein previously sequenced in this laboratory from the corresponding cDNA [8].
  • Insulin stimulates phosphorylation of a tyrosine residue(s) on a 15-kDa protein (p15), and the cytosolic phosphorylated protein (pp15) accumulates only when 3T3-L1 adipocytes are treated with phenylarsine oxide [9].

Biological context of Spaca3

  • The intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) belongs to a family of 15 kDa clamshell-like proteins that are found in many different tissues [10].
  • We detected and purified the endogenous 32-kDa (mSASP32) and 15-kDa (mSASP15) forms of mSASP from mouse stratum corneum extracts and determined their amino acid sequences [11].
  • Analyses of the C-terminally truncated DnaK163 mutant protein revealed that nucleotide-dependent interdomain communication requires a 15-kDa segment assumed to constitute the substrate binding site [12].
  • N-linked glycosylation contributed about 15 kDa to its molecular mass, of which 4 kDa were attributable to sialic acid residues [13].
  • Thus, we conclude that the 15-kDa protein of mouse spermatozoa is synthesized during the elongation phase of spermiogenesis (stages 12-16) and is phosphorylated in the terminal period of that phase and/or after excursion of spermatozoa from the seminiferous tubules [14].

Anatomical context of Spaca3

  • A complete inhibition of binding and fusion of spermatozoa to the oocyte occurred at 12.5 muM concentration of recmSLLP1, while conventional chicken and human lysozymes did not block sperm-egg binding. mSLLP1 showed receptor sites in the perivitelline space as well as on the microvillar region of the egg plasma membrane [15].
  • This study demonstrates the retention of mouse sperm lysozyme-like protein (mSLLP1) in the equatorial segment of spermatozoa following the acrosome reaction and a role for mSLLP1 in sperm-egg binding and fertilization [15].
  • A prominent 75Se-labeled protein detected in human T-cells migrated as a 15-kDa band by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis [16].
  • Affinity-purified anti-MB-1 antibody coprecipitated mu chain/20-kDa/15-kDa proteins together with monomer MB-1 and Ig-alpha/Ig-beta heterodimer components from digitonin lysates of the pre-B cell line 18.81 [17].
  • 0. Cyto-immunofluorescence with an affinity-purified antibody to the 15-kDa protein localized that protein to a circumscribed region of the demembraned mouse sperm head mediad from the dorsal margin [14].

Associations of Spaca3 with chemical compounds

  • Two bands of MCGF/TCGF activity were eluted from gels after sodium dodecyl sulfate/PAGE; under nonreducing conditions, the activities corresponded to molecular masses of 20 and 15 kDa, while after reduction, the molecular masses were 21 and 16 kDa [18].
  • A tripeptide recognition sequence, Pro-Val-Lys, similar to the Pro-Leu-Arg sequence required for recognition of glycoprotein hormone alpha- and beta-subunits by the glycoprotein hormone-specific GalNAc-transferase, is present 8 residues amino-terminal to the glycosylated Asn of 15-kDa ACTH [19].
  • We show that inhibition of DNA binding activity caused by hydrogen peroxide can be accounted for entirely by the formation of disulfide bonds between cysteine residues lying within the 15-kDa tryptic fragment containing the DNA binding domain of the receptor [20].
  • Trypsin cleavage of the molybdate-stabilized untransformed receptor also yields a 15-kDa fragment that is fully competent in binding DNA [21].
  • It was established previously that the 15-kDa protein phosphorylated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with insulin and phenylarsine oxide is O-phospho-Tyr19 422(aP2) protein, a fatty acid-binding protein [22].

Enzymatic interactions of Spaca3

  • Perforin adsorbed to resistant cells was cleaved by trypsin into a 55-kDa (C-terminal) and a 10- to 15-kDa (N-terminal) fragment, whereas this cleavage was not found on tumor cell-bound perforin [23].

Other interactions of Spaca3

  • The 15-kDa truncated BAD is a more potent inducer of apoptosis than the wild-type protein, whereas a mutant BAD resistant to caspase 3 cleavage is a weak apoptosis inducer [24].
  • The Thb locus is responsible for the expression of 15-kDa phosphatidyl inositol anchored molecules (ThB) on murine thymocytes and B cells [25].
  • After CCI, truncated Bid (15 kDa) was robustly detected in cortical brain homogenates of wild-type mice [26].
  • We have determined that greater than or equal to 80% of the Asn-linked oligosaccharides on the glycosylated form of mouse adrenocorticotropin (15-kDa adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)) bear one or more branches terminating with the sequence SO4-4GalNAc beta 1,4GlcNAc beta 1,2Man alpha (S4GGnM) [19].
  • Like lutropin and thyrotropin, 15-kDa ACTH bears dibranched oligosaccharides terminating with SO4-4-GalNAc; however, at least half of the oligosaccharides on 15-kDa ACTH terminating with SO4-4-GalNAc consist of more highly branched structures that have not previously been described [19].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Spaca3

  • Fractionation of mast cell supernatant by gel filtration chromatography resulted in four peaks, ranging from > 200 to 15 kDa, all of which were biologically active on B cells [27].
  • By radioimmunoassay, the 15-kDa protein was shown to be sperm-unique and species-specific [14].
  • Western blotting showed a major band with molecular weight (MW) of approximately 97 kDa and several minor bands with MW of approximately 160 kDa, 68 kDa, 30 kDa, and 15 kDa, all specific for hNIS-transfected cells [28].
  • By employing cell culture conditions which induce BPV-1 E2 transactivator expression and viral early region transcription in virus-transformed C127 cell lines, we detected a single immunoprecipitated E6 protein species with an apparent molecular mass of 17 kDa and a single E7 protein species with an apparent molecular mass of 15 kDa [29].
  • Escherichia coli minicell analysis and Western blotting (immunoblotting) of minicell extracts containing the cloned pH 6 Ag locus revealed that a 1.7-kilobase-pair (kb) region of Y. pestis chromosomal DNA produced 16- and 15-kDa immunoreactive proteins [30].


  1. Activation of a 15-kDa endonuclease in hypoxia/reoxygenation injury without morphologic features of apoptosis. Ueda, N., Walker, P.D., Hsu, S.M., Shah, S.V. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. An inclusion membrane protein from Chlamydia trachomatis enters the MHC class I pathway and stimulates a CD8+ T cell response. Starnbach, M.N., Loomis, W.P., Ovendale, P., Regan, D., Hess, B., Alderson, M.R., Fling, S.P. J. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Epitopes on proliferating cell nuclear antigen recognized by human lupus autoantibody and murine monoclonal antibody. Ogata, K., Ogata, Y., Takasaki, Y., Tan, E.M. J. Immunol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  4. Tumor-specific overexpression of a novel keratinocyte lipid-binding protein. Identification and characterization of a cloned sequence activated during multistage carcinogenesis in mouse skin. Krieg, P., Feil, S., Fürstenberger, G., Bowden, G.T. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Oral immunization of mice with attenuated Salmonella typhimurium aroA expressing a recombinant Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae antigen (NrdF). Fagan, P.K., Djordjevic, S.P., Chin, J., Eamens, G.J., Walker, M.J. Infect. Immun. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Molecular mimicry: histone H3 and mycobacterial protein epitopes. Eriksen, N., Kumar, S.B., Fukuchi, K., Martin, G.M., Benditt, E.P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Antigen-binding glycosylation inhibiting factor from a human T-cell hybridoma specific for bee venom phospholipase A2. Gomi, H., Tagaya, Y., Nakano, T., Mikayama, T., Ishizaka, K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Identification of phosphorylated 422(aP2) protein as pp15, the 15-kilodalton target of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Hresko, R.C., Bernier, M., Hoffman, R.D., Flores-Riveros, J.R., Liao, K., Laird, D.M., Lane, M.D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. Insulin-activated tyrosine phosphorylation of a 15-kilodalton protein in intact 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Bernier, M., Laird, D.M., Lane, M.D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  10. The intestinal fatty acid binding protein is not essential for dietary fat absorption in mice. Vassileva, G., Huwyler, L., Poirier, K., Agellon, L.B., Toth, M.J. FASEB J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Mouse Homologue of Skin-specific Retroviral-like Aspartic Protease Involved in Wrinkle Formation. Matsui, T., Kinoshita-Ida, Y., Hayashi-Kisumi, F., Hata, M., Matsubara, K., Chiba, M., Katahira-Tayama, S., Morita, K., Miyachi, Y., Tsukita, S. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Nucleotide-induced conformational changes in the ATPase and substrate binding domains of the DnaK chaperone provide evidence for interdomain communication. Buchberger, A., Theyssen, H., Schröder, H., McCarty, J.S., Virgallita, G., Milkereit, P., Reinstein, J., Bukau, B. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Structure and membrane topology of the high-affinity receptor for human IFN-gamma: requirements for binding IFN-gamma. One single 90-kilodalton IFN-gamma receptor can lead to multiple cross-linked products and isolated proteins. Fountoulakis, M., Kania, M., Ozmen, L., Loetscher, H.R., Garotta, G., van Loon, A.P. J. Immunol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. Proteins of demembraned mouse sperm heads. Characterization of a major sperm-unique component. Pruslin, F.H., Rodman, T.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  15. Mouse SLLP1, a sperm lysozyme-like protein involved in sperm-egg binding and fertilization. Herrero, M.B., Mandal, A., Digilio, L.C., Coonrod, S.A., Maier, B., Herr, J.C. Dev. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. A new human selenium-containing protein. Purification, characterization, and cDNA sequence. Gladyshev, V.N., Jeang, K.T., Wootton, J.C., Hatfield, D.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Cross-linking of B cell receptor-related MB-1 molecule induces protein tyrosine phosphorylation in early B lineage cells. Matsuo, T., Nomura, J., Kuwahara, K., Igarashi, H., Inui, S., Hamaguchi, M., Kimoto, M., Sakaguchi, N. J. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. Characterization of a murine lymphokine distinct from interleukin 2 and interleukin 3 (IL-3) possessing a T-cell growth factor activity and a mast-cell growth factor activity that synergizes with IL-3. Smith, C.A., Rennick, D.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  19. Pro-opiomelanocortin synthesized by corticotrophs bears asparagine-linked oligosaccharides terminating with SO4-4GalNAc beta 1,4GlcNAc beta 1,2Man alpha. Skelton, T.P., Kumar, S., Smith, P.L., Beranek, M.C., Baenziger, J.U. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. Redox manipulation of DNA binding activity and BuGR epitope reactivity of the glucocorticoid receptor. Hutchison, K.A., Matić, G., Meshinchi, S., Bresnick, E.H., Pratt, W.B. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  21. Evidence that the hormone-binding domain of the mouse glucocorticoid receptor directly represses DNA binding activity in a major portion of receptors that are "misfolded" after removal of hsp90. Hutchison, K.A., Czar, M.J., Pratt, W.B. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Insulin receptor tyrosine kinase-catalyzed phosphorylation of 422(aP2) protein. Substrate activation by long-chain fatty acid. Hresko, R.C., Hoffman, R.D., Flores-Riveros, J.R., Lane, M.D. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. Resistance of CTL to perforin-mediated lysis. Evidence for a lymphocyte membrane protein interacting with perforin. Müller, C., Tschopp, J. J. Immunol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. Caspase cleavage enhances the apoptosis-inducing effects of BAD. Condorelli, F., Salomoni, P., Cotteret, S., Cesi, V., Srinivasula, S.M., Alnemri, E.S., Calabretta, B. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  25. Isolation and characterization of cDNA clones for the mouse thymocyte B cell antigen (ThB). Gumley, T.P., McKenzie, I.F., Kozak, C.A., Sandrin, M.S. J. Immunol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  26. Traumatic brain injury in mice deficient in Bid: effects on histopathology and functional outcome. Bermpohl, D., You, Z., Korsmeyer, S.J., Moskowitz, M.A., Whalen, M.J. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. Mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells and mast cell lines constitutively produce B cell growth and differentiation activities. Tkaczyk, C., Frandji, P., Botros, H.G., Poncet, P., Lapeyre, J., Peronet, R., David, B., Mécheri, S. J. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  28. Development of monoclonal antibodies against the human sodium iodide symporter: immunohistochemical characterization of this protein in thyroid cells. Castro, M.R., Bergert, E.R., Beito, T.G., McIver, B., Goellner, J.R., Morris, J.C. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. Identification and genetic definition of a bovine papillomavirus type 1 E7 protein and absence of a low-copy-number phenotype exhibited by E5, E6, or E7 viral mutants. Jareborg, N., Alderborn, A., Burnett, S. J. Virol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  30. Yersinia pestis pH 6 antigen: genetic, biochemical, and virulence characterization of a protein involved in the pathogenesis of bubonic plague. Lindler, L.E., Klempner, M.S., Straley, S.C. Infect. Immun. (1990) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities