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Gene Review

ADH1  -  alcohol dehydrogenase 1

Arabidopsis thaliana

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Disease relevance of ADH1


High impact information on ADH1

  • This region, which contains DNA sequences I, G and GT boxes, with homology to other ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit (RBCS) gene promoter sequences, directed expression independent of orientation and relative position in the Adh promoter [5].
  • Site-specific mutagenesis of these conserved sequences and subsequent expression analysis in transgenic tobacco showed that both G box and I box mutations in the context of the full (-1700 to +21) rbcS-1A promoter substantially reduced the expression of Adh and beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter genes [5].
  • By contrast, a Ds insertion mutant of the AtMYC2 gene was less sensitive to ABA and showed significantly decreased ABA-induced gene expression of rd22 and AtADH1 [6].
  • The ABA-induced gene expression of rd22 and AtADH1 was enhanced in these transgenic plants [6].
  • ZmABI4 also binds to the promoter of the sugar-responsive ADH1 gene, demonstrating the ability of this protein to regulate both ABA- and sugar-regulated pathways [7].

Chemical compound and disease context of ADH1

  • Our results indicate that, although induction of the Adh gene by ABA, dehydration, and low temperature required the same cis-acting promoter elements, their regulatory pathways were at least partially separated in a combined dehydration/ABA pathway and an ABA-independent low-temperature pathway [8].
  • Therefore, we conclude that ethylene is needed, but not sufficient for, the induction of ADH in Arabidopsis during hypoxia [9].
  • These changes in ADH could be induced either by spaceflight hypoxia resulting from inhibition of gravity mediated O2 transport, or by a non-specific stress response due to inhibition of gravisensing [10].

Biological context of ADH1

  • The DNA sequence contains an open reading frame capable of encoding a polypeptide the same length as maize ADH1 and ADH2 (379 amino acids) and having approximately equal to 80% homology with both maize enzymes [11].
  • For mutant R002, which does not contain any detectable levels of ADH protein and mRNA, we have found that the mutation is due to a single C to T base pair substitution in the reading frame; this leads to the incorporation of a TAG stop codon (amber nonsense mutation) [12].
  • This gives rise to a Cys to Tyr amino acid substitution in the active site of the ADH enzyme [12].
  • The last, L6, is an unknown gene close to ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE on chromosome 1 [13].
  • Adh is expressed in non-green tissue, induced by anaerobiosis, and repressed in leaves [14].

Anatomical context of ADH1


Associations of ADH1 with chemical compounds

  • We found that the hypoxic induction of ADH can be partially inhibited by aminooxy acetic acid, an inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis [9].
  • Abscisic acid induces the alcohol dehydrogenase gene in Arabidopsis [8].
  • The T-DNA targeting construct contained two flanking regions of the target alcohol dehydrogenase gene as homologous sequences, and neomycin phosphotransferase and cytosine deaminase as positive and negative markers, respectively [16].
  • These results suggest that these ethanol-resistant mutants are impaired in one of the structural genes coding for alcohol dehydrogenase [17].
  • Arabidopsis formaldehyde dehydrogenase. Molecular properties of plant class III alcohol dehydrogenase provide further insights into the origins, structure and function of plant class p and liver class I alcohol dehydrogenases [18].

Physical interactions of ADH1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ADH1


  1. Evidence for a role for AtMYB2 in the induction of the Arabidopsis alcohol dehydrogenase gene (ADH1) by low oxygen. Hoeren, F.U., Dolferus, R., Wu, Y., Peacock, W.J., Dennis, E.S. Genetics (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Transcription factor veracity: is GBF3 responsible for ABA-regulated expression of Arabidopsis Adh? Lu, G., Paul, A.L., McCarty, D.R., Ferl, R.J. Plant Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Long-distance root-to-shoot transport of phytochelatins and cadmium in Arabidopsis. Gong, J.M., Lee, D.A., Schroeder, J.I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Termini and telomeres in T-DNA transformation. Chiurazzi, M., Signer, E.R. Plant Mol. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Mutation of either G box or I box sequences profoundly affects expression from the Arabidopsis rbcS-1A promoter. Donald, R.G., Cashmore, A.R. EMBO J. (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. Arabidopsis AtMYC2 (bHLH) and AtMYB2 (MYB) function as transcriptional activators in abscisic acid signaling. Abe, H., Urao, T., Ito, T., Seki, M., Shinozaki, K., Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, K. Plant Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Maize ABI4 binds coupling element1 in abscisic acid and sugar response genes. Niu, X., Helentjaris, T., Bate, N.J. Plant Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Abscisic acid induces the alcohol dehydrogenase gene in Arabidopsis. de Bruxelles, G.L., Peacock, W.J., Dennis, E.S., Dolferus, R. Plant Physiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Signaling events in the hypoxic induction of alcohol dehydrogenase gene in Arabidopsis. Peng, H.P., Chan, C.S., Shih, M.C., Yang, S.F. Plant Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Induction of hypoxic root metabolism results from physical limitations in O2 bioavailability in microgravity. Liao, J., Liu, G., Monje, O., Stutte, G.W., Porterfield, D.M. Advances in space research : the official journal of the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Molecular cloning and DNA sequence of the Arabidopsis thaliana alcohol dehydrogenase gene. Chang, C., Meyerowitz, E.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  12. Sequence analysis of two null-mutant alleles of the single Arabidopsis Adh locus. Dolferus, R., Van den Bossche, D., Jacobs, M. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Phenotypic instability and rapid gene silencing in newly formed arabidopsis allotetraploids. Comai, L., Tyagi, A.P., Winter, K., Holmes-Davis, R., Reynolds, S.H., Stevens, Y., Byers, B. Plant Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. In vivo and in vitro characterization of protein interactions with the dyad G-box of the Arabidopsis Adh gene. McKendree, W.L., Paul, A.L., DeLisle, A.J., Ferl, R.J. Plant Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. The 5'-untranslated region of the tobacco alcohol dehydrogenase gene functions as an effective translational enhancer in plant. Satoh, J., Kato, K., Shinmyo, A. J. Biosci. Bioeng. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Positive-negative selection for homologous recombination in Arabidopsis. Xiaohui Wang, H., Viret, J.F., Eldridge, A., Perera, R., Signer, E.R., Chiurazzi, M. Gene (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Ethanol-resistant mutants of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia are deficient in the expression of pollen and seed alcohol dehydrogenase activity. Rousselin, P., Lepingle, A., Faure, J.D., Bitoun, R., Caboche, M. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Arabidopsis formaldehyde dehydrogenase. Molecular properties of plant class III alcohol dehydrogenase provide further insights into the origins, structure and function of plant class p and liver class I alcohol dehydrogenases. Martínez, M.C., Achkor, H., Persson, B., Fernández, M.R., Shafqat, J., Farrés, J., Jörnvall, H., Parés, X. Eur. J. Biochem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Structure and expression of an alcohol dehydrogenase 1 gene from Pisum sativum (cv. "Greenfeast"). Llewellyn, D.J., Finnegan, E.J., Ellis, J.G., Dennis, E.S., Peacock, W.J. J. Mol. Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  20. Remote sensing of gene expression in Planta: transgenic plants as monitors of exogenous stress perception in extraterrestrial environments. Manak, M.S., Paul, A.L., Sehnke, P.C., Ferl, R.J. Life support & biosphere science : international journal of earth space. (2002) [Pubmed]
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