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MeSH Review

Achilles Tendon

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Disease relevance of Achilles Tendon


Psychiatry related information on Achilles Tendon


High impact information on Achilles Tendon

  • Although the cumulative exposure of the aortic root to cholesterol (the cholesterol-year score) was significantly correlated with the Achilles tendon CSA and vascular calcification, this score did not correlate with the wall thickness or aortic CSA [6].
  • OBJECTIVE: To profile the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression for the 23 known genes of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), 19 genes of ADAMTS, 4 genes of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), and ADAM genes 8, 10, 12, and 17 in normal, painful, and ruptured Achilles tendons [7].
  • METHODS: Histologic sections of rat Achilles tendons, stained with toluidine blue or Masson's trichrome, were examined in animals ranging from 2 weeks to 1 year of age [8].
  • Ultrastructural analysis of Achilles tendon from fibromodulin-null mice show collagen fibrils with irregular and rough outlines in cross-section [9].
  • Tenascin-C was expressed abundantly in the normal myotendinous and myofascial junctions, as well as around the cells and the collagen fibers of the Achilles tendon [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Achilles Tendon


Biological context of Achilles Tendon


Anatomical context of Achilles Tendon

  • In the present study, we characterized fluoroquinolone-induced Achilles tendon lesions by comparing the effects of 10 fluoroquinolones and examining the potential of one of these antimicrobial agents, pefloxacin, to induce tendon lesions when coadministered with one of nine anti-inflammatory compounds [19].
  • The inhibition of leukocyte accumulation by diclofenac did not translate into a reduction of tissue damage or a promotion of tissue healing, because the mechanical properties of injured Achilles tendons were identical in placebo and diclofenac-treated groups [20].
  • Compared with unstimulated control fibroblasts, culture media from Achilles tendon, paratenon, and shoulder capsule cells that were exposed to ciprofloxacin demonstrated statistically significant increases in matrix-degrading proteolytic activity after 72 hours in culture [21].
  • These findings suggest that, at least these five patients with lower lymphocyte LDL receptor activities, and probably another patient with both hypercholesterolaemia and xanthoma-like thickening of Achilles' tendons suffered from familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) [22].
  • Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy is a neuromuscular disorder that has three characteristics: (a) early contracture of the elbows, Achilles tendons and postcervical muscles; (b) slowly progressive wasting and weakness of skeletal muscle; and (c) cardiomyopathy with severe conduction block [23].

Associations of Achilles Tendon with chemical compounds


Gene context of Achilles Tendon


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Achilles Tendon


  1. Mutations in the gene encoding lamin A/C cause autosomal dominant Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy. Bonne, G., Di Barletta, M.R., Varnous, S., Bécane, H.M., Hammouda, E.H., Merlini, L., Muntoni, F., Greenberg, C.R., Gary, F., Urtizberea, J.A., Duboc, D., Fardeau, M., Toniolo, D., Schwartz, K. Nat. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy: linkage to markers in distal Xq28. Yates, J.R., Warner, J.P., Smith, J.A., Deymeer, F., Azulay, J.P., Hausmanowa-Petrusewicz, I., Zaremba, J., Borkowska, J., Affara, N.A., Ferguson-Smith, M.A. J. Med. Genet. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Emery-Dreifuss syndrome. Emery, A.E. J. Med. Genet. (1989) [Pubmed]
  4. Pefloxacin-induced achilles tendon toxicity in rodents: biochemical changes in proteoglycan synthesis and oxidative damage to collagen. Simonin, M.A., Gegout-Pottie, P., Minn, A., Gillet, P., Netter, P., Terlain, B. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Substantial elevation of interleukin-6 concentration in peritendinous tissue, in contrast to muscle, following prolonged exercise in humans. Langberg, H., Olesen, J.L., Gemmer, C., Kjaer, M. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Evaluation of the aortic root by MRI: insights from patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. Summers, R.M., Andrasko-Bourgeois, J., Feuerstein, I.M., Hill, S.C., Jones, E.C., Busse, M.K., Wise, B., Bove, K.E., Rishforth, B.A., Tucker, E., Spray, T.L., Hoeg, J.M. Circulation (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Expression profiling of metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases in normal and degenerate human achilles tendon. Jones, G.C., Corps, A.N., Pennington, C.J., Clark, I.M., Edwards, D.R., Bradley, M.M., Hazleman, B.L., Riley, G.P. Arthritis Rheum. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. The mechanism of formation of bony spurs (enthesophytes) in the achilles tendon. Benjamin, M., Rufai, A., Ralphs, J.R. Arthritis Rheum. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Fibromodulin-null mice have abnormal collagen fibrils, tissue organization, and altered lumican deposition in tendon. Svensson, L., Aszódi, A., Reinholt, F.P., Fässler, R., Heinegård, D., Oldberg, A. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Mechanical loading regulates the expression of tenascin-C in the myotendinous junction and tendon but does not induce de novo synthesis in the skeletal muscle. Järvinen, T.A., Józsa, L., Kannus, P., Järvinen, T.L., Hurme, T., Kvist, M., Pelto-Huikko, M., Kalimo, H., Järvinen, M. J. Cell. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Bilateral rupture of the Achilles tendon in patients on steroid therapy. Haines, J.F. Ann. Rheum. Dis. (1983) [Pubmed]
  12. Opposite effects on serum cholesteryl ester transfer protein levels between long-term treatments with pravastatin and probucol in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia and xanthoma. Inazu, A., Koizumi, J., Kajinami, K., Kiyohar, T., Chichibu, K., Mabuchi, H. Atherosclerosis (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Intrinsic risk factors for the development of achilles tendon overuse injury: a prospective study. Mahieu, N.N., Witvrouw, E., Stevens, V., Van Tiggelen, D., Roget, P. The American journal of sports medicine. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. High intratendinous lactate levels in painful chronic Achilles tendinosis. An investigation using microdialysis technique. Alfredson, H., Bjur, D., Thorsen, K., Lorentzon, R., Sandström, P. J. Orthop. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. The guanine-thymine dinucleotide repeat polymorphism within the tenascin-C gene is associated with achilles tendon injuries. Mokone, G.G., Gajjar, M., September, A.V., Schwellnus, M.P., Greenberg, J., Noakes, T.D., Collins, M. The American journal of sports medicine. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. The effect of topical anesthetics on skin sensation and soleus motoneuron reflex excitability. Agostinucci, J. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation. (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Expression of VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 in degenerative Achilles tendons. Petersen, W., Pufe, T., Zantop, T., Tillmann, B., Tsokos, M., Mentlein, R. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. ABO blood groups and musculoskeletal injuries. Kujala, U.M., Järvinen, M., Natri, A., Lehto, M., Nelimarkka, O., Hurme, M., Virta, L., Finne, J. Injury. (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Characterization of fluoroquinolone-induced Achilles tendon toxicity in rats: comparison of toxicities of 10 fluoroquinolones and effects of anti-inflammatory compounds. Kashida, Y., Kato, M. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug reduces neutrophil and macrophage accumulation but does not improve tendon regeneration. Marsolais, D., Côté, C.H., Frenette, J. Lab. Invest. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. The effect of ciprofloxacin on tendon, paratenon, and capsular fibroblast metabolism. Williams, R.J., Attia, E., Wickiewicz, T.L., Hannafin, J.A. The American journal of sports medicine. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Inheritable abnormal lipoprotein metabolism in Werner's syndrome similar to familial hypercholesterolaemia. Mori, S., Yokote, K., Morisaki, N., Saito, Y., Yoshida, S. Eur. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. Distinct regions specify the nuclear membrane targeting of emerin, the responsible protein for Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy. Tsuchiya, Y., Hase, A., Ogawa, M., Yorifuji, H., Arahata, K. Eur. J. Biochem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Amelioration of vincristine neurotoxicity by glutamic acid. Jackson, D.V., Wells, H.B., Atkins, J.N., Zekan, P.J., White, D.R., Richards, F., Cruz, J.M., Muss, H.B. Am. J. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  25. Metabolism and inflammatory mediators in the peritendinous space measured by microdialysis during intermittent isometric exercise in humans. Langberg, H., Skovgaard, D., Karamouzis, M., Bülow, J., Kjaer, M. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Collagenolytic serine-carboxyl proteinase from Alicyclobacillus sendaiensis strain NTAP-1: purification, characterization, gene cloning, and heterologous expression. Tsuruoka, N., Nakayama, T., Ashida, M., Hemmi, H., Nakao, M., Minakata, H., Oyama, H., Oda, K., Nishino, T. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Achilles tendon characterization in GDF-7 deficient mice. Mikic, B., Bierwert, L., Tsou, D. J. Orthop. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. The angiogenic peptide vascular endothelial growth factor is expressed in foetal and ruptured tendons. Pufe, T., Petersen, W., Tillmann, B., Mentlein, R. Virchows Arch. (2001) [Pubmed]
  29. Expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator and its receptor is up-regulated during tendon healing. Xia, W., de Bock, C., Murrell, G.A., Wang, Y. J. Orthop. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. Familial hypercholesterolaemia commonly presents with Achilles tenosynovitis. Beeharry, D., Coupe, B., Benbow, E.W., Morgan, J., Kwok, S., Charlton-Menys, V., France, M., Durrington, P.N. Ann. Rheum. Dis. (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. Achilles tendon disease in lung transplant recipients: association with ciprofloxacin. Chhajed, P.N., Plit, M.L., Hopkins, P.M., Malouf, M.A., Glanville, A.R. Eur. Respir. J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. Biochemistry and biomechanics of healing tendon: Part I. Effects of rigid plaster casts and functional casts. Stehno-Bittel, L., Reddy, G.K., Gum, S., Enwemeka, C.S. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. (1998) [Pubmed]
  33. Effects of probucol on xanthomata regression in familial hypercholesterolemia. Yamamoto, A., Matsuzawa, Y., Yokoyama, S., Funahashi, T., Yamamura, T., Kishino, B. Am. J. Cardiol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  34. The innervation pattern of the human Achilles tendon: studies of the normal and tendinosis tendon with markers for general and sensory innervation. Bjur, D., Alfredson, H., Forsgren, S. Cell Tissue Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
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