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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Pelvic Floor

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Disease relevance of Pelvic Floor


High impact information on Pelvic Floor

  • Duloxetine or duloxetine plus pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) were more effective in reducing the median IEF than PFMT alone or no treatment in women with SUI [6].
  • While the entire pelvic floor was imaged, special attention was paid to the contours of the levator ani muscle group which were drawn on T1-weighted axial and coronal images [7].
  • Eliminating muscular contraction of the pelvic floor does not significantly alter VLPP results [8].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Men with CPPS have more abnormal pelvic floor muscular findings compared with a group of men without pain [9].
  • CONCLUSIONS: A combined conservative medical and computer game assisted pelvic floor muscle retraining program appears to have decreased the incidence of breakthrough urinary tract infections and facilitated reflux resolution in children with voiding dysfunction and vesicoureteral reflux [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Pelvic Floor


Biological context of Pelvic Floor

  • To resolve the lack of methodological clarity and the need for normative values for the use of pelvic floor motor evoked potentials (MEPs), 30 healthy women and 16 women with MS were studied [13].
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses recently published data concerning the anabolic effects of androgens on muscle and the mechanism by which testosterone regulates body composition with special emphasis on the anabolic effects of androgens on the muscles of the pelvic floor and lower urinary tract [14].
  • MR-CCRG was performed with the patient in a supine position using a True FISP sequence (1 image/1.2 s; in-plane resolution 1.02 mm) during pelvic floor contraction, relaxation, and straining maneuvers [15].
  • CONCLUSION: Despite the suggestion that benzodiazepines, especially diazepam, are useful for the relaxation of pelvic floor striated musculature in voiding dysfunctions, there was no effect on urodynamic variables when midazolam was used in a single dose intranasally [16].

Anatomical context of Pelvic Floor

  • Previous physiological and behavioral studies have shown that the nucleus raphe obscurus (nRO) modulates pelvic floor reflex function (Yamanouchi and Kakeyama [1992] Physiol. Behav. 51:575-579; Beattie et al. [1996] Soc. Neurosci. Abstr. 22:722.4; Holmes et al. [1997] Brain Res. 759:197-204) [17].
  • Serial macrosections of the bladder base, cervix, lower rectum and pelvic floor complex, cut in coronal (4 cases) and horizontal (10 cases) planes, were stained with azan-Mallory, and the remaining 4 were cut in the horizontal plane and plastinated using von Hagens E12 technique [18].
  • CONCLUSION: Estrogen, but not raloxifene, increases collagen gene transcription and indicates stimulation of collagen synthesis in pelvic floor connective tissues [19].
  • Immediately following injection into the subcutaneous tissues, the deeper tissues, of the pelvic floor are anesthetized by injecting 5 cm3 lidocaine solution with approximately 16 passes of a 25-gauge 1.5-inch needle entering perpendicular to the skin surface [20].
  • These physiological studies demonstrate that in patients with MS who had anorectal dysfunction, there is a marked impairment of external anal sphincter function with moderate changes in pelvic floor musculature.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)[21]

Associations of Pelvic Floor with chemical compounds


Gene context of Pelvic Floor

  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether estrogen suppresses matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 proenzyme expression by fibroblasts that are derived from the supportive connective tissue of the pelvic floor [26].
  • Future investigations are warranted to help define the role of elastin turnover in pelvic floor dysfunction [27].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate an altered metabolism of connective tissue in the periurethral region with a significant decrease of collagen and vitronectin expression in postmenopausal women with pelvic floor relaxation with and without GSI [28].
  • Expression of LHR in the pelvic floor compartments suggests that high LH levels in postmenopausal women may contribute to the pelvic floor relaxation and increased incidence of pelvic floor disorders [29].
  • These differences between normal and incontinent patients were significant (P = 0.01) using the Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test. The findings support the hypothesis that idiopathic (neurogenic) faecal incontinence is due to damage to the nerve supply of the pelvic floor musculature [30].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Pelvic Floor


  1. Estrogen enhances cystatin C expression in the macaque vagina. Slayden, O.D., Hettrich, K., Carroll, R.S., Otto, L.N., Clark, A.L., Brenner, R.M. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Emerging role of botulinum toxin in the management of voiding dysfunction. Smith, C.P., Chancellor, M.B. J. Urol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Treatment of intractable constipation in children: experience with cisapride. Nurko, S., Garcia-Aranda, J.A., Guerrero, V.Y., Worona, L.B. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. The pathophysiology of pelvic floor disorders: evidence from a histomorphologic study of the perineum and a mouse model of rectal prolapse. Yiou, R., Delmas, V., Carmeliet, P., Gherardi, R.K., Barlovatz-Meimon, G., Chopin, D.K., Abbou, C.C., Lefaucheur, J.P. J. Anat. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Vulvodynia: diagnosis and management. Reed, B.D. American family physician. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Duloxetine: in stress urinary incontinence. McCormack, P.L., Keating, G.M. Drugs (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. 3-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging modeling of the pelvic floor musculature in classic bladder exstrophy before pelvic osteotomy. Williams, A.M., Solaiyappan, M., Pannu, H.K., Bluemke, D., Shechter, G., Gearhart, J.P. J. Urol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Pelvic floor muscle behavior during Valsalva leak point pressure measurement in males and females affected by stress urinary incontinence. Giannantoni, A., Di Stasi, S.M., Cucchi, A., Mearini, E., Bini, V., Porena, M. J. Urol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Musculoskeletal dysfunction in men with chronic pelvic pain syndrome type III: a case-control study. Hetrick, D.C., Ciol, M.A., Rothman, I., Turner, J.A., Frest, M., Berger, R.E. J. Urol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Changing concepts concerning the management of vesicoureteral reflux. Herndon, C.D., DeCambre, M., McKenna, P.H. J. Urol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. The pelvic floor muscles: muscle thickness in healthy and urinary-incontinent women measured by perineal ultrasonography with reference to the effect of pelvic floor training. Estrogen receptor studies. Bernstein, I.T. Neurourology and urodynamics. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Initial management of stress urinary incontinence: pelvic floor muscle training and duloxetine. Freeman, R.M. BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Motor evoked potentials from the pelvic floor. Brostrøm, S. Neurourology and urodynamics. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Anabolic effects of androgens on muscles of female pelvic floor and lower urinary tract. Ho, M.H., Bhatia, N.N., Bhasin, S. Current opinion in obstetrics & gynecology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Dynamic MR colpocystorectography assessing pelvic-floor descent. Lienemann, A., Anthuber, C., Baron, A., Kohz, P., Reiser, M. European radiology. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. The effects of intranasal midazolam on urodynamic studies in children. Bozkurt, P., Kilic, N., Kaya, G., Yeker, Y., Elicevik, M., Söylet, Y. British journal of urology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Descending projections from the nucleus raphe obscurus to pudendal motoneurons in the male rat. Hermann, G.E., Bresnahan, J.C., Holmes, G.M., Rogers, R.C., Beattie, M.S. J. Comp. Neurol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Morphometric analysis of the fibroadipose tissue of the female pelvis. De Caro, R., Aragona, F., Herms, A., Guidolin, D., Brizzi, E., Pagano, F. J. Urol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Estrogen increases collagen I and III mRNA expression in the pelvic support tissues of the rhesus macaque. Clark, A.L., Slayden, O.D., Hettrich, K., Brenner, R.M. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. A reappraisal of local anesthesia for prostate brachytherapy. Mueller, A., Wallner, K., Corriveau, J., Arthurs, S., Gwinn, M., Sutlief, S. Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Multiple sclerosis: assessment of colonic and anorectal function in the presence of faecal incontinence. Waldron, D.J., Horgan, P.G., Patel, F.R., Maguire, R., Given, H.F. International journal of colorectal disease. (1993) [Pubmed]
  22. Pelvic floor magnetic resonance imaging after neonatal single stage reconstruction in male patients with classic bladder exstrophy. Halachmi, S., Farhat, W., Konen, O., Khan, A., Hodapp, J., Bagli, D.J., McLorie, G.A., Khoury, A.E. J. Urol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Analysis of regional norepinephrine content in the rabbit bladder after acute electrical pelvic floor stimulation. Ishigooka, M., Nakada, T. J. Urol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Raloxifene effect on frequency of surgery for pelvic floor relaxation. Goldstein, S.R., Neven, P., Zhou, L., Taylor, Y.L., Ciaccia, A.V., Plouffe, L. Obstetrics and gynecology. (2001) [Pubmed]
  25. Vicryl mesh in pelvic floor reconstruction. Buchsbaum, H.J., Christopherson, W., Lifshitz, S., Bernstein, S. Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960) (1985) [Pubmed]
  26. Regulation of matrix metalloproteinase expression by estrogen in fibroblasts that are derived from the pelvic floor. Moalli, P.A., Klingensmith, W.L., Meyn, L.A., Zyczynski, H.M. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Elastolytic activity in women with stress urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse. Chen, B., Wen, Y., Polan, M.L. Neurourology and urodynamics. (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Periurethral connective tissue status of postmenopausal women with genital prolapse with and without stress incontinence. Goepel, C., Hefler, L., Methfessel, H.D., Koelbl, H. Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Multiple luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) protein variants, interspecies reactivity of anti-LHR mAb clone 3B5, subcellular localization of LHR in human placenta, pelvic floor and brain, and possible role for LHR in the development of abnormal pregnancy, pelvic floor disorders and Alzheimer's disease. Bukovsky, A., Indrapichate, K., Fujiwara, H., Cekanova, M., Ayala, M.E., Dominguez, R., Caudle, M.R., Wimalsena, J., Elder, R.F., Copas, P., Foster, J.S., Fernando, R.I., Henley, D.C., Upadhyaya, N.B. Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. Slowed conduction in the pudendal nerves in idiopathic (neurogenic) faecal incontinence. Kiff, E.S., Swash, M. The British journal of surgery. (1984) [Pubmed]
  31. Effects of naloxone on regional norepinephrine content of the rabbit urinary bladder after electrical pelvic floor stimulation. Ishigooka, M., Hashimoto, T., Hayami, S., Suzuki, Y., Sasagawa, I., Nakada, T. Urology (1995) [Pubmed]
  32. Re: "The pelvic floor muscles: muscle thickness in healthy and urinary-incontinent women measured by perineal ultrasonography with reference to the effect of pelvic floor training. Estrogen receptor studies." Neurourol. Urodynam. 1997;16:237-275. Khullar, V., Toozs-Hobson, P., Boos, K., Hextall, A., Cardozo, L. Neurourology and urodynamics. (1999) [Pubmed]
  33. Physiotherapy for persistent postnatal stress urinary incontinence: a randomized controlled trial. Dumoulin, C., Lemieux, M.C., Bourbonnais, D., Gravel, D., Bravo, G., Morin, M. Obstetrics and gynecology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  34. Prophylactic perioperative use of clindamycin and metronidazole in vaginal hysterectomy without pelvic floor repair. Egarter, C., Fitz, R., Brehm, R., Husslein, P. Arch. Gynecol. Obstet. (1988) [Pubmed]
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