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Gene Review

Al  -  alopecia

Mus musculus

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Disease relevance of Al


Psychiatry related information on Al


High impact information on Al

  • HGPS is a rare genetic disorder resulting in phenotypes suggestive of accelerated ageing, including shortened stature, craniofacial disproportion, very thin skin, alopecia and osteoporosis, with death in the early teens predominantly due to atherosclerosis [8].
  • Most traditional cytotoxic anticancer agents ablate the rapidly dividing epithelium of the hair follicle and induce alopecia (hair loss) [9].
  • A kindred with a rare, recessively inherited type of alopecia universalis was used to search for a locus by homozygosity mapping, and linkage was established in a 6-centimorgan interval on chromosome 8p12 (the logarithm of the odds favoring linkage score was 6.19) [10].
  • Keratin 17 (K17)-null mice develop alopecia in the first week post-birth, correlating with hair shaft fragility and untimely apoptosis in the hair bulb [11].
  • Metabolic and cellular analysis of alopecia in vitamin D receptor knockout mice [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of Al


Biological context of Al


Anatomical context of Al


Associations of Al with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Al


Regulatory relationships of Al


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Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Al

  • Treatment of human scalp xenografts with antibodies to laminin-10, or its receptor beta1 integrin, produced alopecia [36].
  • As compared with patients treated with chemotherapy alone, there was a significant decrease in the level of alopecia in patients receiving the combined therapy [37].
  • Lymphocyte-mediated alopecia in C57BL/6 mice following successful immunotherapy for melanoma [38].
  • To assess the ability of AS101 to protect against chemotherapy-induced alopecia, phase-II clinical trials have been initiated with cancer patients suffering from various malignancies [37].
  • PTH(7-34) and PTHrP(7-34) shifted it towards a mild form of "dystrophic anagen", associated with a significant reduction in apoptotic (TUNEL+) hair bulb cells, thus mitigating the degree of follicle damage and retarding the onset of cyclophosphamide-induced alopecia [39].


  1. Association of parvoviruses with rheumatoid arthritis of humans. Simpson, R.W., McGinty, L., Simon, L., Smith, C.A., Godzeski, C.W., Boyd, R.J. Science (1984) [Pubmed]
  2. Interleukin 31, a cytokine produced by activated T cells, induces dermatitis in mice. Dillon, S.R., Sprecher, C., Hammond, A., Bilsborough, J., Rosenfeld-Franklin, M., Presnell, S.R., Haugen, H.S., Maurer, M., Harder, B., Johnston, J., Bort, S., Mudri, S., Kuijper, J.L., Bukowski, T., Shea, P., Dong, D.L., Dasovich, M., Grant, F.J., Lockwood, L., Levin, S.D., LeCiel, C., Waggie, K., Day, H., Topouzis, S., Kramer, J., Kuestner, R., Chen, Z., Foster, D., Parrish-Novak, J., Gross, J.A. Nat. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Virus-induced diabetes mellitus. XX. Polyendocrinopathy and autoimmunity. Onodera, T., Toniolo, A., Ray, U.R., Jenson, A.B., Knazek, R.A., Notkins, A.L. J. Exp. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  4. Autoimmune hair loss (alopecia areata) transferred by T lymphocytes to human scalp explants on SCID mice. Gilhar, A., Ullmann, Y., Berkutzki, T., Assy, B., Kalish, R.S. J. Clin. Invest. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Subcutaneous or topical administration of 16,16 dimethyl prostaglandin E2 protects from radiation-induced alopecia in mice. Hanson, W.R., Pelka, A.E., Nelson, A.K., Malkinson, F.D. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Effects of cinnarizine, a calcium antagonist that produces human parkinsonism, in parkin knock out mice. Serrano, A., Menéndez, J., Casarejos, M.J., Solano, R.M., Gallego, E., Sánchez, M., Mena, M.A., García de Yebenes, J. Neuropharmacology (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. The goitrogenic effect of 4,4'-oxydianiline in rats and mice. Hayden, D.W., Wade, G.G., Handler, A.H. Vet. Pathol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  8. A progeroid syndrome in mice is caused by defects in A-type lamins. Mounkes, L.C., Kozlov, S., Hernandez, L., Sullivan, T., Stewart, C.L. Nature (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Prevention of chemotherapy-induced alopecia in rats by CDK inhibitors. Davis, S.T., Benson, B.G., Bramson, H.N., Chapman, D.E., Dickerson, S.H., Dold, K.M., Eberwein, D.J., Edelstein, M., Frye, S.V., Gampe Jr, R.T., Griffin, R.J., Harris, P.A., Hassell, A.M., Holmes, W.D., Hunter, R.N., Knick, V.B., Lackey, K., Lovejoy, B., Luzzio, M.J., Murray, D., Parker, P., Rocque, W.J., Shewchuk, L., Veal, J.M., Walker, D.H., Kuyper, L.F. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Alopecia universalis associated with a mutation in the human hairless gene. Ahmad, W., Faiyaz ul Haque, M., Brancolini, V., Tsou, H.C., ul Haque, S., Lam, H., Aita, V.M., Owen, J., deBlaquiere, M., Frank, J., Cserhalmi-Friedman, P.B., Leask, A., McGrath, J.A., Peacocke, M., Ahmad, M., Ott, J., Christiano, A.M. Science (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Keratin 17 modulates hair follicle cycling in a TNFalpha-dependent fashion. Tong, X., Coulombe, P.A. Genes Dev. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Metabolic and cellular analysis of alopecia in vitamin D receptor knockout mice. Sakai, Y., Kishimoto, J., Demay, M.B. J. Clin. Invest. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. A new role for neurotrophin-3: involvement in the regulation of hair follicle regression (catagen). Botchkarev, V.A., Welker, P., Albers, K.M., Botchkareva, N.V., Metz, M., Lewin, G.R., Bulfone-Paus, S., Peters, E.M., Lindner, G., Paus, R. Am. J. Pathol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Direct effects of minoxidil on epidermal cells in culture. Cohen, R.L., Alves, M.E., Weiss, V.C., West, D.P., Chambers, D.A. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  15. Successful treatment of alopecia areata-like hair loss with the contact sensitizer squaric acid dibutylester (SADBE) in C3H/HeJ mice. Freyschmidt-Paul, P., Sundberg, J.P., Happle, R., McElwee, K.J., Metz, S., Boggess, D., Hoffmann, R. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. The development of dermatitis infiltrated by gamma delta T cells in IL-7 transgenic mice. Uehira, M., Matsuda, H., Hikita, I., Sakata, T., Fujiwara, H., Nishimoto, H. Int. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Effect of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides on the immunogenicity of Pfs25, a Plasmodium falciparum transmission-blocking vaccine antigen. Coban, C., Ishii, K.J., Stowers, A.W., Keister, D.B., Klinman, D.M., Kumar, N. Infect. Immun. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Effect of adenovirus-mediated expression of Sonic hedgehog gene on hair regrowth in mice with chemotherapy-induced alopecia. Sato, N., Leopold, P.L., Crystal, R.G. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Molecular analysis of the genetic defect in a large cohort of IP patients and identification of novel NEMO mutations interfering with NF-kappaB activation. Fusco, F., Bardaro, T., Fimiani, G., Mercadante, V., Miano, M.G., Falco, G., Israël, A., Courtois, G., D'Urso, M., Ursini, M.V. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Increased frequency of spontaneous skin tumors in transgenic mice which overexpress ornithine decarboxylase. Megosh, L., Gilmour, S.K., Rosson, D., Soler, A.P., Blessing, M., Sawicki, J.A., O'Brien, T.G. Cancer Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Influence of FHIT on benzo[a]pyrene-induced tumors and alopecia in mice: chemoprevention by budesonide and N-acetylcysteine. Balansky, R., D'Agostini, F., Ganchev, G., Izzotti, A., Di Marco, B., Lubet, R.A., Zanesi, N., Croce, C.M., De Flora, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. A recurrent deletion in the ubiquitously expressed NEMO (IKK-gamma) gene accounts for the vast majority of incontinentia pigmenti mutations. Aradhya, S., Woffendin, H., Jakins, T., Bardaro, T., Esposito, T., Smahi, A., Shaw, C., Levy, M., Munnich, A., D'Urso, M., Lewis, R.A., Kenwrick, S., Nelson, D.L. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Activator protein-1 activity regulates epithelial tumor cell identity. Gerdes, M.J., Myakishev, M., Frost, N.A., Rishi, V., Moitra, J., Acharya, A., Levy, M.R., Park, S.W., Glick, A., Yuspa, S.H., Vinson, C. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. Protection against doxorubicin-induced alopecia in rats by liposome-entrapped monoclonal antibodies. Balsari, A.L., Morelli, D., Ménard, S., Veronesi, U., Colnaghi, M.I. FASEB J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Epididymal cysteine-rich secretory protein 1 encoding gene is expressed in murine hair follicles and downregulated in mice overexpressing Hoxc13. Peterson, R.L., Tkatchenko, T.V., Pruett, N.D., Potter, C.S., Jacobs, D.F., Awgulewitsch, A. J. Investig. Dermatol. Symp. Proc. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Expression of CD200 on epithelial cells of the murine hair follicle: a role in tissue-specific immune tolerance? Rosenblum, M.D., Olasz, E.B., Yancey, K.B., Woodliff, J.E., Lazarova, Z., Gerber, K.A., Truitt, R.L. J. Invest. Dermatol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. Conditional epidermal expression of TGFbeta 1 blocks neonatal lethality but causes a reversible hyperplasia and alopecia. Liu, X., Alexander, V., Vijayachandra, K., Bhogte, E., Diamond, I., Glick, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Overexpression of Bcl-2 protects from ultraviolet B-induced apoptosis but promotes hair follicle regression and chemotherapy-induced alopecia. Müller-Röver, S., Rossiter, H., Paus, R., Handjiski, B., Peters, E.M., Murphy, J.E., Mecklenburg, L., Kupper, T.S. Am. J. Pathol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  29. Heparanase regulates murine hair growth. Zcharia, E., Philp, D., Edovitsky, E., Aingorn, H., Metzger, S., Kleinman, H.K., Vlodavsky, I., Elkin, M. Am. J. Pathol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Targeted expression of human vitamin d receptor in the skin promotes the initiation of the postnatal hair follicle cycle and rescues the alopecia in vitamin D receptor null mice. Kong, J., Li, X.J., Gavin, D., Jiang, Y., Li, Y.C. J. Invest. Dermatol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. Keratin 17 null mice exhibit age- and strain-dependent alopecia. McGowan, K.M., Tong, X., Colucci-Guyon, E., Langa, F., Babinet, C., Coulombe, P.A. Genes Dev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. Targeted ablation of the vitamin D receptor: an animal model of vitamin D-dependent rickets type II with alopecia. Li, Y.C., Pirro, A.E., Amling, M., Delling, G., Baron, R., Bronson, R., Demay, M.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  33. Overexpression of Hoxc13 in differentiating keratinocytes results in downregulation of a novel hair keratin gene cluster and alopecia. Tkatchenko, A.V., Visconti, R.P., Shang, L., Papenbrock, T., Pruett, N.D., Ito, T., Ogawa, M., Awgulewitsch, A. Development (2001) [Pubmed]
  34. 'Cyclic alopecia' in Msx2 mutants: defects in hair cycling and hair shaft differentiation. Ma, L., Liu, J., Wu, T., Plikus, M., Jiang, T.X., Bi, Q., Liu, Y.H., Müller-Röver, S., Peters, H., Sundberg, J.P., Maxson, R., Maas, R.L., Chuong, C.M. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  35. Targeted disruption of Smad4 in mouse epidermis results in failure of hair follicle cycling and formation of skin tumors. Yang, L., Mao, C., Teng, Y., Li, W., Zhang, J., Cheng, X., Li, X., Han, X., Xia, Z., Deng, H., Yang, X. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  36. Laminin-10 is crucial for hair morphogenesis. Li, J., Tzu, J., Chen, Y., Zhang, Y.P., Nguyen, N.T., Gao, J., Bradley, M., Keene, D.R., Oro, A.E., Miner, J.H., Marinkovich, M.P. EMBO J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  37. The protective role of the immunomodulator AS101 against chemotherapy-induced alopecia studies on human and animal models. Sredni, B., Xu, R.H., Albeck, M., Gafter, U., Gal, R., Shani, A., Tichler, T., Shapira, J., Bruderman, I., Catane, R., Kaufman, B., Whisnant, J.K., Mettinger, K.L., Kalechman, Y. Int. J. Cancer (1996) [Pubmed]
  38. Lymphocyte-mediated alopecia in C57BL/6 mice following successful immunotherapy for melanoma. Becker, J.C., Varki, N., Bröcker, E.B., Reisfeld, R.A. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  39. A new strategy for modulating chemotherapy-induced alopecia, using PTH/PTHrP receptor agonist and antagonist. Peters, E.M., Foitzik, K., Paus, R., Ray, S., Holick, M.F. J. Invest. Dermatol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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