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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
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Disease relevance of Phleum

  • Group V major allergen Phl p 5b of timothy grass pollen induces allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma in 90% of grass pollen-allergic patients [1].
  • CONCLUSION: Phl p 4 represents a trypsin-resistant major timothy grass pollen allergen with immunologic similarities to the major ragweed allergen Amb a 1 and therefore must be considered an important cross-reactive component in grass pollen and weed pollen allergy [2].
  • METHODS: Proof of the AT principle was shown by using a human ex vivo system in which EBV was used to transform human B cells specific for the timothy grass pollen allergen Phl p 5b [3].
  • Phage display has been used to clone human IgE to timothy grass pollen allergen Phl p 5, to characterize the epitopes for murine and human antibodies to a birch pollen allergen Bet v 1, and to elucidate the epitopes of a murine mAb to the house dust mite allergen Der p 1 [4].
  • RESULTS: Of all subjects studied, 19.9% suffered from rhinoconjunctivitis, 4.1% rhinoconjunctivitis plus asthma, 3.1% asthma alone, and 0.8% atopic dermatitis; 46.4% had a positive skin test to at least one allergen (28.2% to D. pteronyssinus, 20.4% to Olea, 13.8% to Phleum); and 43% had total IgE > 100 kU/L and 44.7% a family history of atopy [5].

High impact information on Phleum

  • An IgE inhibition experiment performed with recombinant birch profilin and purified natural profilins from timothy grass and mugwort indicates common IgE epitopes [6].
  • We have used the major timothy grass pollen allergen Phl p 1, which cross-reacts with most grass-, corn-, and monocot-derived group 1 allergens to develop a generally applicable strategy for the production of hypoallergenic allergy vaccines [7].
  • B cell epitopes of the major timothy grass pollen allergen, phl p 1, revealed by gene fragmentation as candidates for immunotherapy [8].
  • Local and systemic IL-10 responses and serum Ab concentrations were measured before/after a double-blind trial of grass pollen (Phleum pratense, Phl P) immunotherapy [9].
  • "Allergen engineering": variants of the timothy grass pollen allergen Phl p 5b with reduced IgE-binding capacity but conserved T cell reactivity [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Phleum


Biological context of Phleum


Anatomical context of Phleum


Associations of Phleum with chemical compounds

  • In the present study we immunized mice with aluminum hydroxide-adsorbed purified recombinant major timothy grass pollen allergens (rPhl p 1, rPhl p 2, rPhl p 5), dog albumin, a major animal dander allergen, and proteins with low (beta-lactoglobulin) or no (ribulose diphosphate carboxylase) allergenic potential in humans [23].
  • METHODS: Aqueous and lipid extracts from Phleum pratense L and Betula alba L pollen were analyzed by means of HPLC [24].
  • Although preincubation with recombinant Bet v 1 and Bet v 2 did not significantly inhibit IgE binding to latex proteins, weed and, in particular, timothy grass pollen extract strongly inhibited IgE binding to latex allergens [25].
  • METHODS: The patients received cluster immunotherapy with a standardized birch (Betula verrucosa) or grass (Phleum pratense) pollen extract adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide [26].
  • METHODS: CAP inhibition experiments were performed with crude oilseed rape (OSR) and timothy grass pollen extracts and a neoglycoprotein construct displaying a MUXF glycan, as present in pineapple-stem bromelain (MUXF-BSA) [27].

Gene context of Phleum

  • We report for the first time the successful measurement of IL-4 secreted by CBMC stimulated by the allergens timothy grass pollen and house dust mite extract [28].
  • Sequence analysis of the insert shows 87% similarity to tobacco ntPro2, 78% to timothy grass profilin, 77% to Arabidopsis AthPRF4, 77% to maize ZmPro3, and 73% to birch profilin [29].
  • Fluids from blister chambers after either Ag (timothy grass, orchard grass, or ragweed) or vehicle control challenge were collected hourly for 12 h from nine patients with allergic rhinitis [30].
  • The NMR analyses of the birch and the nonreactive timothy grass profilin peptides showed that the loss of binding was not due to major structural differences [31].
  • A panel of 60 cDNA clones coding for IgE-binding proteins from timothy grass pollen was immunocharacterized with sera from 30 patients allergic to grass pollen and antibodies raised against natural grass pollen allergens [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Phleum

  • The percentage of grass pollen-specific IgE that was preabsorbed with a combination of recombinant timothy grass pollen allergens (Phl p 1, Phl p 2, and Phl p 5) and recombinant birch profilin (Bet v 2) was determined by ELISA in sera from 193 European, American, and Asian subjects [33].
  • Group I had a history of seasonal allergic rhinitis, negative skin prick test responses to timothy and Bermuda grass, but positive intradermal skin test responses to timothy grass [34].
  • By immunoelectron microscopy Phl p 4 was localized in the exine, cytoplasm, and amyloplast of timothy grass pollen. significant sequence similarities of a Phl p 4 10 amino acid peptide with Amb a 1, the major ragweed allergen, could be found [2].
  • By RNase activity gel of natural pollen extract of timothy grass and consecutive Western blot analysis of the excised proteins, the RNase active bands were shown to be group V allergens [35].
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify and characterize an allergen of the high molecular mass fraction of Phleum pratense pollen by N-terminal protein sequencing and molecular cloning [36].


  1. Crystallization and preliminary diffraction data of a major pollen allergen. Crystal growth separates a low molecular weight form with elevated biological activity. Bufe, A., Betzel, C., Schramm, G., Petersen, A., Becker, W.M., Schlaak, M., Perbandt, M., Dauter, Z., Weber, W. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Characterization of Phl p 4, a major timothy grass (Phleum pratense) pollen allergen. Fischer, S., Grote, M., Fahlbusch, B., Müller, W.D., Kraft, D., Valenta, R. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Antigen-specific targeting and elimination of EBV-transformed B cells by allergen toxins. Stöcker, M., Klockenbring, T., Huhn, M., Nachreiner, T., Wicklein, D., Petersen, A., Bauer, R., Goerlich, R., Fischer, R., Barth, S. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Use of phage display technology to investigate allergen-antibody interactions. Davies, J.M., O'hehir, R.E., Suphioglu, C. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Prevalence of atopy in students from Málaga, Spain. García-González, J.J., Vega-Chicote, J.M., Rico, P., del Prado, J.M., Carmona, M.J., Miranda, A., Pérez-Estrada, M., Martin, S., Cervera, J.A., Acebes, J.M. Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Profilins constitute a novel family of functional plant pan-allergens. Valenta, R., Duchene, M., Ebner, C., Valent, P., Sillaber, C., Deviller, P., Ferreira, F., Tejkl, M., Edelmann, H., Kraft, D. J. Exp. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. Nonanaphylactic synthetic peptides derived from B cell epitopes of the major grass pollen allergen, Phl p 1, for allergy vaccination. Focke, M., Mahler, V., Ball, T., Sperr, W.R., Majlesi, Y., Valent, P., Kraft, D., Valenta, R. FASEB J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. B cell epitopes of the major timothy grass pollen allergen, phl p 1, revealed by gene fragmentation as candidates for immunotherapy. Ball, T., Fuchs, T., Sperr, W.R., Valent, P., Vangelista, L., Kraft, D., Valenta, R. FASEB J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Grass pollen immunotherapy induces mucosal and peripheral IL-10 responses and blocking IgG activity. Nouri-Aria, K.T., Wachholz, P.A., Francis, J.N., Jacobson, M.R., Walker, S.M., Wilcock, L.K., Staple, S.Q., Aalberse, R.C., Till, S.J., Durham, S.R. J. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. "Allergen engineering": variants of the timothy grass pollen allergen Phl p 5b with reduced IgE-binding capacity but conserved T cell reactivity. Schramm, G., Kahlert, H., Suck, R., Weber, B., Stüwe, H.T., Müller, W.D., Bufe, A., Becker, W.M., Schlaak, M.W., Jäger, L., Cromwell, O., Fiebig, H. J. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Direct determination of allergens in ambient aerosols: methodological aspects. Schäppi, G.F., Monn, C., Wüthrich, B., Wanner, H.U. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Assessment of the fructanolytic activities in the rumen bacterium Treponema saccharophilum strain S. Kasperowicz, A., Míchalowski, T. J. Appl. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Enzyme potentiated desensitisation in treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis: double blind randomised controlled study. Radcliffe, M.J., Lewith, G.T., Turner, R.G., Prescott, P., Church, M.K., Holgate, S.T. BMJ (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Calcium-dependent immunoglobulin E recognition of the apo- and calcium-bound form of a cross-reactive two EF-hand timothy grass pollen allergen, Phl p 7. Niederberger, V., Hayek, B., Vrtala, S., Laffer, S., Twardosz, A., Vangelista, L., Sperr, W.R., Valent, P., Rumpold, H., Kraft, D., Ehrenberger, K., Valenta, R., Spitzauer, S. FASEB J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Mutual boosting effects of sensitization with timothy grass pollen and latex glove extract on IgE antibody responses in a mouse model. Mahler, V., Diepgen, T.L., Kubeta, O., Leakakos, T., Truscott, W., Schuler, G., Kraft, D., Valenta, R. J. Invest. Dermatol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Post-translational modifications influence IgE reactivity to the major allergen Phl p 1 of timothy grass pollen. Petersen, A., Schramm, G., Schlaak, M., Becker, W.M. Clin. Exp. Allergy (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Properties of tree and grass pollen allergens: reinvestigation of the linkage between solubility and allergenicity. Vrtala, S., Grote, M., Duchêne, M., van Ree, R., Kraft, D., Scheiner, O., Valenta, R. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. Immunologic characterization of purified recombinant timothy grass pollen (Phleum pratense) allergens (Phl p 1, Phl p2, Phl p 5). Vrtala, S., Susani, M., Sperr, W.R., Valent, P., Laffer, S., Dolecek, C., Kraft, D., Valenta, R. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Properties of group I allergens from grass pollen and their relation to cathepsin B, a member of the C1 family of cysteine proteinases. Grobe, K., Pöppelmann, M., Becker, W.M., Petersen, A. Eur. J. Biochem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. A simplified method for measuring basophil histamine release and blocking antibodies in hay fever patients. Basophil histamine content and cell preservation. Skov, P.S., Norn, S. Acta allergologica. (1977) [Pubmed]
  21. Blood serum tocopherol levels in calves born from cows winter fed hay or grass silage. Hidiroglou, M., Lessard, J.R., Wauthy, J.M. Can. J. Comp. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  22. Number of beta-receptors in rhinitic pollinic patients. Gamboa, P.M., Sanz, M.L., de la Cuesta, C.G., García, B.E., Castillo, J.G., Oehling, A. Journal of investigational allergology & clinical immunology : official organ of the International Association of Asthmology (INTERASMA) and Sociedad Latinoamericana de Alergia e Inmunología. (1991) [Pubmed]
  23. Immunization with purified natural and recombinant allergens induces mouse IgG1 antibodies that recognize similar epitopes as human IgE and inhibit the human IgE-allergen interaction and allergen-induced basophil degranulation. Vrtala, S., Ball, T., Spitzauer, S., Pandjaitan, B., Suphioglu, C., Knox, B., Sperr, W.R., Valent, P., Kraft, D., Valenta, R. J. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. Lipid mediators from pollen act as chemoattractants and activators of polymorphonuclear granulocytes. Traidl-Hoffmann, C., Kasche, A., Jakob, T., Huger, M., Plötz, S., Feussner, I., Ring, J., Behrendt, H. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Natural latex, grass pollen, and weed pollen share IgE epitopes. Fuchs, T., Spitzauer, S., Vente, C., Hevler, J., Kapiotis, S., Rumpold, H., Kraft, D., Valenta, R. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. Antihistamine premedication in specific cluster immunotherapy: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Nielsen, L., Johnsen, C.R., Mosbech, H., Poulsen, L.K., Malling, H.J. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  27. Antibody binding to venom carbohydrates is a frequent cause for double positivity to honeybee and yellow jacket venom in patients with stinging-insect allergy. Hemmer, W., Focke, M., Kolarich, D., Wilson, I.B., Altmann, F., Wöhrl, S., Götz, M., Jarisch, R. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Measurement of T-helper cytokines secreted by cord blood mononuclear cells in response to allergens. Devereux, G., Hall, A.M., Barker, R.N. J. Immunol. Methods (2000) [Pubmed]
  29. Molecular cloning and mRNA localization of tomato pollen profilin. Yu, L.X., Nasrallah, J., Valenta, R., Parthasarathy, M.V. Plant Mol. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  30. Appearance of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor activity at allergen-challenged cutaneous late-phase reaction sites. Massey, W., Friedman, B., Kato, M., Cooper, P., Kagey-Sobotka, A., Lichtenstein, L.M., Schleimer, R.P. J. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  31. Molecular and structural analysis of a continuous birch profilin epitope defined by a monoclonal antibody. Wiedemann, P., Giehl, K., Almo, S.C., Fedorov, A.A., Girvin, M., Steinberger, P., Rüdiger, M., Ortner, M., Sippl, M., Dolecek, C., Kraft, D., Jockusch, B., Valenta, R. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  32. IgE-binding capacity of recombinant timothy grass (Phleum pratense) pollen allergens. Laffer, S., Vrtala, S., Duchêne, M., van Ree, R., Kraft, D., Scheiner, O., Valenta, R. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  33. IgE antibodies to recombinant pollen allergens (Phl p 1, Phl p 2, Phl p 5, and Bet v 2) account for a high percentage of grass pollen-specific IgE. Niederberger, V., Laffer, S., Fröschl, R., Kraft, D., Rumpold, H., Kapiotis, S., Valenta, R., Spitzauer, S. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  34. An assessment of the role of intradermal skin testing in the diagnosis of clinically relevant allergy to timothy grass. Nelson, H.S., Oppenheimer, J., Buchmeier, A., Kordash, T.R., Freshwater, L.L. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  35. Major allergen Phl p Vb in timothy grass is a novel pollen RNase. Bufe, A., Schramm, G., Keown, M.B., Schlaak, M., Becker, W.M. FEBS Lett. (1995) [Pubmed]
  36. Complementary DNA cloning and expression of a newly recognized high molecular mass allergen phl p 13 from timothy grass pollen (Phleum pratense). Suck, R., Petersen, A., Hagen, S., Cromwell, O., Becker, W.M., Fiebig, H. Clin. Exp. Allergy (2000) [Pubmed]
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