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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Silage


High impact information on Silage

  • Phylogenetic diversity of lactic acid bacteria associated with paddy rice silage as determined by 16S ribosomal DNA analysis [6].
  • Acetic acid increases stability of silage under aerobic conditions [7].
  • During the series of five experiments, each of which comprised 50 treatments, there was a steady increase in the amount of lactate that accumulated; the best treatment combination was that used in the last experiment, which produced 4.6 times more lactate than the untreated silage [8].
  • Mycophenolic acid in silage [9].
  • The fungal population was observed in the rumen, duodenum, cecum, and rectum and varied with diet; it was most abundant with lucerne hay alone and with corn silage plus monensin [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Silage

  • No differences were observed for body weight change, body condition score, and serum urea nitrogen concentration, but serum glucose concentration increased with increasing dietary proportion of ryegrass silage [11].
  • Three groups of 6 cows each were fed primarily a corn silage diet characterized by 1) clean silage (stored in an uncontaminated silo), 2) silage stored in a silo coated with a sealant containing Aroclor 1254, and 3) clean silage to which 200 mg Aroclor 1254 per head daily was added (approximately 2 to 3 mg/kg body weight per day) [12].
  • Listeria counts were highly correlated to silage pH (r = 0.92), the concentration of lactic acid (r = -0.80) and the pooled amount of undissociated acids (r = -0.83) [13].
  • Feeding silage with high butyric acid content increases the risk of subclinical ketosis [14].

Biological context of Silage


Anatomical context of Silage


Associations of Silage with chemical compounds

  • Net absorption of ammonia N, urea N, glucose, L-lactate, and volatile fatty acids was measured in four Hereford x Angus steers fed ad libitum orchard grass-clover silage [24].
  • Portal blood flow was slower (P less than 0.05), net ammonia N absorption was greater (P less than 0.05), and net absorption of L-lactate and propionate was lesser (P less than 0.10) when steers were fed silage than when they were fed 92% concentrate [24].
  • Feeding of maize silage was clearly reflected in the delta13C of muscle, with each 10% difference in the dietary C4 carbon intake resulting in a 0.9 to 1.0 per thousand shift of delta13C in lipid-free muscle and a 1.0 to 1.2 per thousand in lipid [25].
  • A xylitol-producer yeast isolated from corn silage and designated as ASM III was selected based on its outstanding biotechnological potential [26].
  • Feeding experiments with four young animals were performed using C3 and C4 plants (grass, maize silage, hay, etc.) over a time period of about 280 days [27].

Gene context of Silage

  • Changes in consecutive estimates of milk progesterone concentrations and serum steroid hormone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations in the postpartum period were examined in Finnish Ayrshire and Friesian dairy cows which were divided according to feeding into a hay group and a silage group [28].
  • Although interoperonic 16S rRNA gene length polymorphisms were detected in some isolates, strain analysis showed that most of the lactic acid bacteria species thriving in silage could be discriminated by this method [29].
  • Replacing silage with straw increased ADF intake (P<.05) and resulted in 1-h/d increase in rumination time (P<.05) [30].
  • Evaluation of the physical structure of fodder beets, potatoes, pressed beet pulp, brewers grains, and corn cob silage [31].
  • The data also suggest that due to an inadequate nutrient supply, the GH-IGF-1 regulatory mechanism was uncoupled in the cattle fed on silage, which may have contributed to the poor growth response of these animals [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Silage

  • Six steers fitted with ruminal, duodenal, and ileal cannulas were fed diets containing corn silage and high-moisture corn supplemented with urea, soybean meal (SBM), dry corn gluten feed (DCGF), a combination of corn gluten meal and blood meal (CB), or SBM and DCGF in combination with CB [33].
  • Construction and use of a computerized DNA fingerprint database for lactic acid bacteria from silage [34].
  • Levamisole was administered to group I calves in the drinking water, to group II calves by subcutaneous injection, and to Group III calves by feeding alfalfa pellets mixed in corn silage; group IV calves were nontreated controls [35].
  • Animals had ad libitum access to corn silage, with or without 100 mg monensin head-1.d-1, in a two-period crossover design [36].
  • Influence of the addition of urea to a low-protein diet on plasma amino acids and other metabolites in growing bulls fed sugar beet silage [37].


  1. Integration and expression of alpha-amylase and endoglucanase genes in the Lactobacillus plantarum chromosome. Scheirlinck, T., Mahillon, J., Joos, H., Dhaese, P., Michiels, F. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  2. Lactobacillus diolivorans sp. nov., a 1,2-propanediol-degrading bacterium isolated from aerobically stable maize silage. Krooneman, J., Faber, F., Alderkamp, A.C., Elferink, S.J., Driehuis, F., Cleenwerck, I., Swings, J., Gottschal, J.C., Vancanneyt, M. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Monensin effects on digestibility, methanogenesis and heat increment of a cracked corn-silage diet fed to steers. Wedegaertner, T.C., Johnson, D.E. J. Anim. Sci. (1983) [Pubmed]
  4. Effects of intraruminal infusions of sodium acetate and sodium chloride on silage intake by lactating cows. Forbes, J.M., Mbanya, J.N., Anil, M.H. Appetite. (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Influences of barley and oat silages for beef cows on occurrence of myopathy in their calves. Hidiroglou, H., Ivan, M., Jenkins, K.J. J. Dairy Sci. (1977) [Pubmed]
  6. Phylogenetic diversity of lactic acid bacteria associated with paddy rice silage as determined by 16S ribosomal DNA analysis. Ennahar, S., Cai, Y., Fujita, Y. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Acetic acid increases stability of silage under aerobic conditions. Danner, H., Holzer, M., Mayrhuber, E., Braun, R. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Efficient improvement of silage additives by using genetic algorithms. Davies, Z.S., Gilbert, R.J., Merry, R.J., Kell, D.B., Theodorou, M.K., Griffith, G.W. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Mycophenolic acid in silage. Schneweis, I., Meyer, K., Hörmansdorfer, S., Bauer, J. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Influence of diet and monensin on development of anaerobic fungi in the rumen, duodenum, cecum, and feces of cows. Grenet, E., Fonty, G., Jamot, J., Bonnemoy, F. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. Effect of replacing corn silage with annual ryegrass silage on nutrient digestibility, intake, and milk yield for lactating dairy cows. Bernard, J.K., West, J.W., Trammell, D.S. J. Dairy Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Dietary Aroclor 1254 in the milk fat of lactating beef cattle. Perry, T.W., Everson, R.J., Hendrix, K.S., Peterson, R.C., Weinland, K.M., Robinson, F.R. J. Dairy Sci. (1981) [Pubmed]
  13. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes in wilted and additive-treated grass silage. Pauly, T.M., Tham, W.A. Acta Vet. Scand. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Subclinical ketosis in dairy cows. Andersson, L. Vet. Clin. North Am. Food Anim. Pract. (1988) [Pubmed]
  15. Sodium bicarbonate for early lactation cows fed corn silage or hay crop silage-based diets. Canale, C.J., Stokes, M.R. J. Dairy Sci. (1988) [Pubmed]
  16. Urinary excretion of acetate and propionate by the Holstein cow as affected by physiological state and propionate infusion. Peters, J.P., Elliot, J.M. J. Dairy Sci. (1984) [Pubmed]
  17. In utero exposure of bovine fetuses to polychlorinated biphenyls. Perry, T.W., Everson, R.J., Hendrix, K.S., Peterson, R.C., Robinson, F.R. J. Dairy Sci. (1984) [Pubmed]
  18. Changes of tocopherols in blood serum of cows fed hay or silage. Lynch, G.P. J. Dairy Sci. (1983) [Pubmed]
  19. Voluntary feed intake, acid-base balance and partitioning of urinary nitrogen in lambs fed corn silage with added sodium bicarbonate or sodium sesquicarbonate. Phillip, L.E., Hidalgo, V. J. Anim. Sci. (1989) [Pubmed]
  20. Effect of ammoniated barley silage on ruminal fermentation, nitrogen supply to the small intestine, ruminal and whole tract digestion, and milk production of Holstein cows. Song, M.K., Kennelly, J.J. J. Dairy Sci. (1989) [Pubmed]
  21. The effect of formaldehyde treatment before ensiling on the digestion of wilted grass silage by sheep. Siddons, R.C., Evans, R.T., Beever, D.E. Br. J. Nutr. (1979) [Pubmed]
  22. Blood serum tocopherol levels in calves born from cows winter fed hay or grass silage. Hidiroglou, M., Lessard, J.R., Wauthy, J.M. Can. J. Comp. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  23. The effect of beta carotene supplementation on the beta carotene and vitamin A levels of blood plasma and some fertility indices of dairy cows. Iwańska, S., Lewicki, C., Rybicka, M. Archiv für Tierernährung. (1985) [Pubmed]
  24. Net nutrient absorption in beef steers fed silage or high concentrate diets containing four levels of limestone. Huntington, G.B. J. Nutr. (1983) [Pubmed]
  25. Alteration of the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope composition of beef by substitution of grass silage with maize silage. Bahar, B., Monahan, F.J., Moloney, A.P., O'Kiely, P., Scrimgeour, C.M., Schmidt, O. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Characterization of a new xylitol-producer Candida tropicalis strain. López, F., Delgado, O.D., Martínez, M.A., Spencer, J.F., Figueroa, L.I. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. Investigation of the feeding effect on the 13C/12C isotope ratio of the hormones in bovine urine using gas chromatography/combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Balizs, G., Jainz, A., Horvatovich, P. Journal of chromatography. A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. Bovine steroid hormone and SHBG concentrations postpartum and during the oestrous cycle. Vesanen, M., Isomaa, V., Bolton, N.J., Alanko, M., Vihko, R. Acta Vet. Scand. (1990) [Pubmed]
  29. Usefulness of length heterogeneity-PCR for monitoring lactic acid bacteria succession during maize ensiling. Brusetti, L., Borin, S., Mora, D., Rizzi, A., Raddadi, N., Sorlini, C., Daffonchio, D. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  30. Fibrolytic enzyme treatment of barley grain and source of forage in high-grain diets fed to growing cattle. Krause, M., Beauchemin, K.A., Rode, L.M., Farr, B.I., Nørgaard, P. J. Anim. Sci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  31. Evaluation of the physical structure of fodder beets, potatoes, pressed beet pulp, brewers grains, and corn cob silage. De Brabander, D.L., De Boever, J.L., De Smet, A.M., Vanacker, J.M., Boucqué, C.V. J. Dairy Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. Influence of diet and beta-agonist administration on plasma concentrations of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 in young steers. Dawson, J.M., Craigon, J., Buttery, P.J., Beever, D.E. Br. J. Nutr. (1993) [Pubmed]
  33. Intestinal supply of amino acids in steers fed ruminally degradable and undegradable crude protein sources alone and in combination. Cecava, M.J., Parker, J.E. J. Anim. Sci. (1993) [Pubmed]
  34. Construction and use of a computerized DNA fingerprint database for lactic acid bacteria from silage. Chan, R.K., Wortman, C.R., Smiley, B.K., Hendrick, C.A. J. Microbiol. Methods (2003) [Pubmed]
  35. Controlled test of anthelmintic activity of levamisole administered to calves via drinking water, subcutaneous injection, or alfalfa pellet premix. Lyons, E.T., Drudge, J.H., LaBore, D.E., Tolliver, S.C. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1975) [Pubmed]
  36. Fragmentation and ruminal escape of particles as related to variations in voluntary intake, chewing behavior and extent of digestion of potentially digestible NDF in heifers. Deswysen, A.G., Ellis, W.C. J. Anim. Sci. (1990) [Pubmed]
  37. Influence of the addition of urea to a low-protein diet on plasma amino acids and other metabolites in growing bulls fed sugar beet silage. Barej, W., Kulasek, G., Leontowicz, H., Szczygiel, M. Zeitschrift für Tierphysiologie, Tierernährung und Futtermittelkunde. (1978) [Pubmed]
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