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Gene Review

Pbsn  -  probasin

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: M-40, PB, Prbs, Probasin
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Disease relevance of Pbsn

  • The incidence of endotoxemia 24 hr after CCl4 as detected by lead acetate enhancement was also reduced by PB pretreatment [1].
  • Prostate carcinomas developing in transgenic rats with SV40 T antigen expression under probasin promoter control are strictly androgen dependent [2].
  • Polymyxin B (PB), a cyclic polypeptide antibiotic, has potent antiendotoxin properties but is associated with significant toxicity when given parenterally [3].
  • In castrated animals, a single, low, environmentally relevant dose of cadmium (20 microg/kg body weight) increased the wet weight of the prostate (1.97- to 3-fold) and the seminal vesicle complex (approximately 1.5-fold) and increased the expression of the androgen-regulated gene, probasin (27-fold) [4].
  • In the adenocarcinoma, signals of probasin but not PSP94 and SVSII were detected [5].

Psychiatry related information on Pbsn

  • Bilateral administration of the galanin antagonist M40 (1.0 nmole/0.2 microl) into BSTL immediately prior to stress exposure attenuated the anxiogenic-like effects of immobilization stress, restoring both social interaction time and exploration of open arms to control levels [6].

High impact information on Pbsn

  • C7 and M40 (1 microM) alone significantly stimulated glucose-induced insulin secretion [7].
  • In groups of rats pretreated with either PB, gentamicin, or diluent, the LD100 of an oral dose of CCl4 was reduced by PB to an LD50, but the gentamicin pretreatment was without effect [1].
  • The antibiotic polymyxin B (PB) has unique antiendotoxin properties not shared by gentamicin sulfate, an antibiotic with a similar antibacterial spectrum [1].
  • Furthermore, a galanin receptor antagonist, M40, attenuated the antidepressant-like effect of FLX in the forced swim test, a rodent preclinical screen commonly used to evaluate antidepressant-like efficacy [8].
  • Receptor autoradiographic studies show that M40 (1 microM) displaces [mono[125I]iodo-Tyr26]galanin from binding sites in the hippocampus, hypothalamus, and spinal cord [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Pbsn


Biological context of Pbsn

  • Pbsn, a prostate-specific gene on chromosome X, was controlled by a QTL on chromosome 8 [13].
  • Later we demonstrated that a large (L) fragment (-10806 to +28 bp, LPB) of the PB promoter would target high levels of gene expression to the prostate in transgenic mice [14].
  • These results suggested that optimal transcription of the PB gene depended on the presence of enhancer regions upstream of the proximal promoter [14].
  • However, the serum level of testosterone, and expression of the transgene, probasin, and the androgen receptor did not correlate with the strain variation in tumor development [15].
  • The PB promoter creates a model that contains six AR binding sites that function in a cooperative manner for maximum androgen-regulated prostate-specific gene transcription [14].

Anatomical context of Pbsn

  • In vivo, probasin appears both in the secretions and in the nucleus of prostatic epithelial cells [16].
  • Effects of genetic background on prostate and taste bud carcinogenesis due to SV40 T antigen expression under probasin gene promoter control [15].
  • M40 injected alone, however, does not improve DNMTP choice accuracy deficits in rats with selective cholinergic immunotoxic lesions of the basal forebrain [17].
  • Ventral lobe mRNA was hybridized with a prostate binding protein (PBP) cDNA probe, while lateral and dorsal mRNA were hybridized with RWB (seminal vesicle secretory protein or SVS-II), probasin, and DP1 cDNA probes [18].
  • Glucocorticoids were incapable of increasing the induction of the pCAT PB -278/+52 reporter construct compared with that of pCAT PB -244/+52 in the prostatic cell line LNCaP, suggesting that the putative prostate-specific protein acts as an inducer only when androgen and androgen receptor are present [19].

Associations of Pbsn with chemical compounds

  • Two nonconventional androgen receptor binding sites (ARBSs), ARBS-3 and ARBS-4, in an upstream androgen-dependent enhancer of the PB gene were identified [14].
  • In addition, alignment of the deduced amino acids determined that the probasin gene also contains the glycine-X-tryptophan (G-X-W) motif similar to that of human retinol serum binding protein which binds retinol, and the C-X-X-X-C motif also found in insect lipocalins that bind pheromones [20].
  • These results show that PRB-RA/cystathionase is neither structurally nor functionally related to probasin except for a common epitope and that cystathionase, a cystein-producing enzyme, is localized in urinary tubular epithelial cells in a highly restricted region of the kidney in addition to in liver parenchymal cells [21].
  • Inhibition of prostate carcinogenesis in probasin/SV40 T antigen transgenic rats by raloxifene, an antiestrogen with anti-androgen action, but not nimesulide, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor [22].
  • We observed that the mRNA transcripts of both PSP94 and probasin were increased after treatments with DHT, DEX, and MPA, suggesting that these two proteins could also be regulated by glucocorticoid and progestin [23].

Other interactions of Pbsn


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Pbsn


  1. Endotoxin and the liver. III. Modification of acute carbon tetrachloride injury by polymyxin b--an antiendotoxin. Nolan, J.P., Leibowitz, A.I. Gastroenterology (1978) [Pubmed]
  2. Prostate carcinomas developing in transgenic rats with SV40 T antigen expression under probasin promoter control are strictly androgen dependent. Asamoto, M., Hokaiwado, N., Cho, Y.M., Takahashi, S., Ikeda, Y., Imaida, K., Shirai, T. Cancer Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Protection from endotoxemia: a rat model of plasmapheresis and specific adsorption with polymyxin B. Cohen, J., Aslam, M., Pusey, C.D., Ryan, C.J. J. Infect. Dis. (1987) [Pubmed]
  4. Role of cadmium in the regulation of AR gene expression and activity. Martin, M.B., Voeller, H.J., Gelmann, E.P., Lu, J., Stoica, E.G., Hebert, E.J., Reiter, R., Singh, B., Danielsen, M., Pentecost, E., Stoica, A. Endocrinology (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Expression study of three secretory proteins (prostatic secretory protein of 94 amino acids, probasin, and seminal vesicle secretion II) in dysplastic and neoplastic rat prostates. Kwong, J., Lui, K., Chan, P.S., Ho, S.M., Wong, Y.C., Xuan, J.W., Chan, F.L. Prostate (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Modulatory effects of galanin in the lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis on behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to acute stress. Khoshbouei, H., Cecchi, M., Morilak, D.A. Neuropsychopharmacology (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Possible evidence for endogenous production of a novel galanin-like peptide. Wang, Z.L., Kulkarni, R.N., Wang, R.M., Smith, D.M., Ghatei, M.A., Byfield, P.G., Bennet, W.M., Bloom, S.R. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. A role for galanin in antidepressant actions with a focus on the dorsal raphe nucleus. Lu, X., Barr, A.M., Kinney, J.W., Sanna, P., Conti, B., Behrens, M.M., Bartfai, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Galanin-receptor ligand M40 peptide distinguishes between putative galanin-receptor subtypes. Bartfai, T., Langel, U., Bedecs, K., Andell, S., Land, T., Gregersen, S., Ahrén, B., Girotti, P., Consolo, S., Corwin, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Insoluble fiber is a major constituent responsible for lowering the post-prandial blood glucose concentration in the pre-germinated brown rice. Seki, T., Nagase, R., Torimitsu, M., Yanagi, M., Ito, Y., Kise, M., Mizukuchi, A., Fujimura, N., Hayamizu, K., Ariga, T. Biol. Pharm. Bull. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Influence of atrazine administration and reduction of calorie intake on prostate carcinogenesis in probasin/SV40 T antigen transgenic rats. Kandori, H., Suzuki, S., Asamoto, M., Murasaki, T., Mingxi, T., Ogawa, K., Shirai, T. Cancer Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Postischemic liver damage in rats: effect of some therapeutic interventions on survival rate. Yamauchi, H., Baca, I., Mittmann, U., Geisen, H.P., Salzer, M. Tohoku J. Exp. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  13. Expression quantitative trait loci analysis of 13 genes in the rat prostate. Yamashita, S., Wakazono, K., Nomoto, T., Tsujino, Y., Kuramoto, T., Ushijima, T. Genetics (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. An androgen-dependent upstream enhancer is essential for high levels of probasin gene expression. Zhang, J., Gao, N., Kasper, S., Reid, K., Nelson, C., Matusik, R.J. Endocrinology (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Effects of genetic background on prostate and taste bud carcinogenesis due to SV40 T antigen expression under probasin gene promoter control. Asamoto, M., Hokaiwado, N., Cho, Y.M., Shirai, T. Carcinogenesis (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Regulation of a bifunctional mRNA results in synthesis of secreted and nuclear probasin. Spence, A.M., Sheppard, P.C., Davie, J.R., Matuo, Y., Nishi, N., McKeehan, W.L., Dodd, J.G., Matusik, R.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. Coadministration of galanin antagonist M40 with a muscarinic M1 agonist improves delayed nonmatching to position choice accuracy in rats with cholinergic lesions. McDonald, M.P., Willard, L.B., Wenk, G.L., Crawley, J.N. J. Neurosci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Effects of neonatal estrogen exposure on prostatic secretory genes and their correlation with androgen receptor expression in the separate prostate lobes of the adult rat. Prins, G.S., Woodham, C., Lepinske, M., Birch, L. Endocrinology (1993) [Pubmed]
  19. Identification of the deoxyribonucleic acid-binding site of a regulatory protein involved in prostate-specific and androgen receptor-dependent gene expression. Patrikainen, L., Shan, J., Porvari, K., Vihko, P. Endocrinology (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Rat probasin: structure and function of an outlier lipocalin. Kasper, S., Matusik, R.J. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Identification of probasin-related antigen as cystathionine gamma-lyase by molecular cloning. Nishi, N., Tanabe, H., Oya, H., Urushihara, M., Miyanaka, H., Wada, F. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Inhibition of prostate carcinogenesis in probasin/SV40 T antigen transgenic rats by raloxifene, an antiestrogen with anti-androgen action, but not nimesulide, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor. Zeng, Y., Yokohira, M., Saoo, K., Takeuchi, H., Chen, Y., Yamakawa, K., Matsuda, Y., Kakehi, Y., Imaida, K. Carcinogenesis (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. A comparative study of hormonal regulation of three secretory proteins (prostatic secretory protein-PSP94, probasin, and seminal vesicle secretion II) in rat lateral prostate. Kwong, J., Xuan, J.W., Chan, P.S., Ho, S.M., Chan, F.L. Endocrinology (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Rodent PSP94 gene expression is more specific to the dorsolateral prostate and less sensitive to androgen ablation than probasin. Imasato, Y., Onita, T., Moussa, M., Sakai, H., Chan, F.L., Koropatnick, J., Chin, J.L., Xuan, J.W. Endocrinology (2001) [Pubmed]
  25. Androgen-independent effects of prolactin on the different lobes of the immature rat prostate. Reiter, E., Lardinois, S., Klug, M., Sente, B., Hennuy, B., Bruyninx, M., Closset, J., Hennen, G. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  26. Proliferation and differentiation of rat dorsal prostatic epithelial cells in collagen gel matrix culture, focusing upon effects of adipocytes. Tokuda, Y., Toda, S., Masaki, Z., Sugihara, H. International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association. (1999) [Pubmed]
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