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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Keratosis


Psychiatry related information on Keratosis


High impact information on Keratosis


Chemical compound and disease context of Keratosis


Biological context of Keratosis


Anatomical context of Keratosis

  • Keratinocytes of actinic keratoses also showed a strong hsRPB7 expression that however did not strictly spare the basal cell layer presumably reflecting the disturbed intraepidermal stratification because of the premalignant status of these precancerous lesions [22].
  • Increased levels of arachidonic acid in RBC membranes were associated with increased risk of SCC [odds ratio (OR), 1.08 per mg/100 mL change; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.02-1.15] and this association remained when controls with actinic keratosis precursor lesions were excluded [23].
  • We propose that a classification scheme analogous to that used by gynecologists for evolving carcinoma of the uterine cervix using the terminology "keratinocytic intraepidermal neoplasia" or another term such as "solar keratotic intraepidermal SCC" be used to define these lesions and that the term actinic (solar) keratosis be eliminated [24].
  • Increased Fas ligand expression by T cells and tumour cells in the progression of actinic keratosis to squamous cell carcinoma [25].
  • The association of raised 6-thioguanine nucleotide concentrations in red blood cells with actinic keratoses and malignant skin tumours in these patients supports chemical carcinogenesis as a possible cause [26].

Gene context of Keratosis

  • RESULTS: We observed a significant decrease in expression of one or more ISGF-3 proteins in 76% of patients with actinic keratosis (19 of 25 patients) [27].
  • When overlying actinic keratoses showed p53 staining, the staining did not necessarily correlate with the intensity or even the presence of positive staining in the subjacent BCC [28].
  • Enhanced expression of p16 in seborrhoeic keratosis; a lesion of accumulated senescent epidermal cells in G1 arrest [29].
  • COX-2 expression was also increased in human actinic keratoses, SCC and BCC as well as in murine SCC and BCC [30].
  • Senile keratosis, Bowen's disease and seborrhoeic keratosis showed the predominance of the CEA-related antigens over CEA weakly expressed [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Keratosis


  1. Loss-of-function mutations in the cathepsin C gene result in periodontal disease and palmoplantar keratosis. Toomes, C., James, J., Wood, A.J., Wu, C.L., McCormick, D., Lench, N., Hewitt, C., Moynihan, L., Roberts, E., Woods, C.G., Markham, A., Wong, M., Widmer, R., Ghaffar, K.A., Pemberton, M., Hussein, I.R., Temtamy, S.A., Davies, R., Read, A.P., Sloan, P., Dixon, M.J., Thakker, N.S. Nat. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Reversible activation of c-Myc in skin: induction of a complex neoplastic phenotype by a single oncogenic lesion. Pelengaris, S., Littlewood, T., Khan, M., Elia, G., Evan, G. Mol. Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Identification and characterization of a retinoid-induced class II tumor suppressor/growth regulatory gene. DiSepio, D., Ghosn, C., Eckert, R.L., Deucher, A., Robinson, N., Duvic, M., Chandraratna, R.A., Nagpal, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Progressive decreases in nuclear retinoid receptors during skin squamous carcinogenesis. Xu, X.C., Wong, W.Y., Goldberg, L., Baer, S.C., Wolf, J.E., Ramsdell, W.M., Alberts, D.S., Lippman, S.M., Lotan, R. Cancer Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Induction of cancer, actinic keratosis, and specific p53 mutations by UVB light in human skin maintained in severe combined immunodeficient mice. Nomura, T., Nakajima, H., Hongyo, T., Taniguchi, E., Fukuda, K., Li, L.Y., Kurooka, M., Sutoh, K., Hande, P.M., Kawaguchi, T., Ueda, M., Takatera, H. Cancer Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Safety and efficacy of dose-intensive oral vitamin A in subjects with sun-damaged skin. Alberts, D., Ranger-Moore, J., Einspahr, J., Saboda, K., Bozzo, P., Liu, Y., Xu, X.C., Lotan, R., Warneke, J., Salasche, S., Stratton, S., Levine, N., Goldman, R., Islas, M., Duckett, L., Thompson, D., Bartels, P., Foote, J. Clin. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Comorbidity of keratosis follicularis (Darier's Disease) and bipolar affective disorder: an indication for valproate instead of lithium. Ehrt, U., Brieger, P. General hospital psychiatry. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Hydroxyurea-associated squamous dysplasia. Sanchez-Palacios, C., Guitart, J. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Acridine orange-DNA complex in actinic keratosis. Kumakiri, M., Hashimoto, K. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1977) [Pubmed]
  10. Effect of topically applied T4 endonuclease V in liposomes on skin cancer in xeroderma pigmentosum: a randomised study. Xeroderma Pigmentosum Study Group. Yarosh, D., Klein, J., O'Connor, A., Hawk, J., Rafal, E., Wolf, P. Lancet (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Malignant transformation of solar keratoses to squamous cell carcinoma. Marks, R., Rennie, G., Selwood, T.S. Lancet (1988) [Pubmed]
  12. Etretinate in treatment of actinic keratosis. A double-blind crossover study. Moriarty, M., Dunn, J., Darragh, A., Lambe, R., Brick, I. Lancet (1982) [Pubmed]
  13. Skin cancer. Recognition and treatment. Marks, R., Motley, R.J. Drugs (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Correlation between macroscopic fluorescence and protoporphyrin IX content in psoriasis and actinic keratosis following application of aminolevulinic acid. Smits, T., Robles, C.A., van Erp, P.E., van de Kerkhof, P.C., Gerritsen, M.J. J. Invest. Dermatol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Pathology related to chronic arsenic exposure. Centeno, J.A., Mullick, F.G., Martinez, L., Page, N.P., Gibb, H., Longfellow, D., Thompson, C., Ladich, E.R. Environ. Health Perspect. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Chemoprevention of human actinic keratoses by topical 2-(difluoromethyl)-dl-ornithine. Alberts, D.S., Dorr, R.T., Einspahr, J.G., Aickin, M., Saboda, K., Xu, M.J., Peng, Y.M., Goldman, R., Foote, J.A., Warneke, J.A., Salasche, S., Roe, D.J., Bowden, G.T. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Modulation of biologic endpoints by topical difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), in subjects at high-risk for nonmelanoma skin cancer. Einspahr, J.G., Nelson, M.A., Saboda, K., Warneke, J., Bowden, G.T., Alberts, D.S. Clin. Cancer Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. p53 mutations in solar keratoses. Park, W.S., Lee, H.K., Lee, J.Y., Yoo, N.J., Kim, C.S., Kim, S.H. Hum. Pathol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Characterization of a new type of human papillomavirus (HPV) related to HPV5 from a case of actinic keratosis. Kawashima, M., Favre, M., Jablonska, S., Obalek, S., Orth, G. Virology (1986) [Pubmed]
  20. Activated ras genes occur in human actinic keratoses, premalignant precursors to squamous cell carcinomas. Spencer, J.M., Kahn, S.M., Jiang, W., DeLeo, V.A., Weinstein, I.B. Archives of dermatology. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Immunohistochemical examination of tumor-suppressor gene p53 product and pyrimidine dimer in solar keratosis. Taguchi, M., Watanabe, S., Sato, Y., Kameya, T., Munakata, N., Ishihara, K., Nakane, P.K., Hisatome, H., Ikeda, S. J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  22. Suprabasal overexpression of the hsRPB7 gene in psoriatic epidermis as identified by a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction differential display model comparing psoriasis plaque tissue with peritonsillar mucosa. Böckelmann, R., Neugebauer, P., Paseban, N.D., Hüttemann, M., Gollnick, H., Bonnekoh, B. Am. J. Pathol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Fatty acid composition of red blood cell membranes and risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. Harris, R.B., Foote, J.A., Hakim, I.A., Bronson, D.L., Alberts, D.S. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Histopathology of incipient intraepidermal squamous cell carcinoma ("actinic keratosis"). Cockerell, C.J. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Increased Fas ligand expression by T cells and tumour cells in the progression of actinic keratosis to squamous cell carcinoma. Satchell, A.C., Barnetson, R.S., Halliday, G.M. Br. J. Dermatol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Skin cancer in renal transplant recipients is associated with increased concentrations of 6-thioguanine nucleotide in red blood cells. Lennard, L., Thomas, S., Harrington, C.I., Maddocks, J.L. Br. J. Dermatol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  27. Suppression of type I interferon signaling proteins is an early event in squamous skin carcinogenesis. Clifford, J.L., Walch, E., Yang, X., Xu, X., Alberts, D.S., Clayman, G.L., El-Naggar, A.K., Lotan, R., Lippman, S.M. Clin. Cancer Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Immunohistochemical nuclear staining for p53, PCNA, and Ki-67 in different histologic variants of basal cell carcinoma. Barrett, T.L., Smith, K.J., Hodge, J.J., Butler, R., Hall, F.W., Skelton, H.G. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  29. Enhanced expression of p16 in seborrhoeic keratosis; a lesion of accumulated senescent epidermal cells in G1 arrest. Nakamura, S., Nishioka, K. Br. J. Dermatol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in murine and human nonmelanoma skin cancers: implications for therapeutic approaches. An, K.P., Athar, M., Tang, X., Katiyar, S.K., Russo, J., Beech, J., Aszterbaum, M., Kopelovich, L., Epstein, E.H., Mukhtar, H., Bickers, D.R. Photochem. Photobiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. Immunohistochemical demonstration of carcinoembryonic antigen and related antigens in various cutaneous keratinous neoplasms and verruca vulgaris. Egawa, K., Honda, Y., Ono, T., Kuroki, M. Br. J. Dermatol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  32. Photobleaching during and re-appearance after photodynamic therapy of topical ALA-induced fluorescence in UVB-treated mouse skin. Van der Veen, N., De Bruijn, H.S., Star, W.M. Int. J. Cancer (1997) [Pubmed]
  33. An oncology patient with an erythematous papulosquamous eruption in sun-exposed areas. Inflamed actinic keratoses due to systemic chemotherapy (fluorouracil and, possibly, interferon alfa). Sollitto, R.B., Frank, W., Palko, M.J., Rogers, G.S. Archives of dermatology. (1994) [Pubmed]
  34. Effect of a 1-week treatment with 0.5% topical fluorouracil on occurrence of actinic keratosis after cryosurgery: a randomized, vehicle-controlled clinical trial. Jorizzo, J., Weiss, J., Furst, K., VandePol, C., Levy, S.F. Archives of dermatology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  35. The treatment of keratosis palmaris et plantaris with isotretinoin. A multicenter study. Bergfeld, W.F., Derbes, V.J., Elias, P.M., Frost, P., Greer, K.E., Shupack, J.L. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  36. Successful treatment of actinic keratosis with imiquimod cream 5%: a report of six cases. Stockfleth, E., Meyer, T., Benninghoff, B., Christophers, E. Br. J. Dermatol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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