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Gene Review

Abat  -  4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: (S)-3-amino-2-methylpropionate transaminase, 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase, mitochondrial, GABA aminotransferase, GABA transaminase, GABA-AT, ...
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Disease relevance of Abat


Psychiatry related information on Abat

  • Neonatal administration of a GABA-T inhibitor alters central GABAA receptor mechanisms and alcohol drinking in adult rats [5].
  • Time-response studies on inhibition of GABA-T in whole brain demonstrated that at a dose of PLZ of 15 mg/kg i.p. inhibition of GABA-T remained relatively constant from 1 to 8 hr and that the enzyme was still inhibited by 23% at 24 hr after PLZ administration [6].
  • The GABA transaminase inhibitor gamma-acetylene GABA reduced exploratory behaviors at doses much lower than those needed to reduce receptivity [7].
  • It has previously been shown that chronic treatment with the GABA-transaminase inhibitor ethanolamine-O-sulphate (EOS), which elevates brain GABA levels by around 200%, selectivity enhances novel food consumption in rats treated with chlordiazepoxide (CDP) and given a food preference test [8].
  • Together, these data suggest that GVG may be useful for the treatment of nicotine addiction and further support the strategy of targeting the GABAergic system with a suicide inhibitor of GABA-transaminase for the treatment of drug addiction [9].

High impact information on Abat


Chemical compound and disease context of Abat


Biological context of Abat


Anatomical context of Abat


Associations of Abat with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of Abat


Other interactions of Abat


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Abat

  • cDNAs encoding gamma-aminobutyric acid aminotransferase (GABA-T) were isolated from a lambda ZAP rat hippocampal cDNA expression library by two independent cloning methods, immunological screening with an antimouse GABA-T antibody and plaque hybridization with a GABA-T cDNA probe derived by polymerase chain reaction [24].
  • However, the mass of beta-AlaAT I from rat brain was larger than that from rat liver and kidney, as assessed by Western-blot analysis, mass spectroscopy and N-terminal sequencing [19].
  • However, the beta-AlaAT I activity in the kidney was increased by protein-free and low-protein diets in relation to changes in its mRNA level [28].
  • Since correction of the deficiency in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in HD may be of therapeutic value, the efficacy of drugs that inhibit the GABA-degrading enzyme (GABA-T) in elevating the levels of GABA has been examined in the animal model for HD [25].
  • A total and rapidly occurring inhibition of GABA-T in all regions was obtained with intraperitoneal injection of 100 mg/kg AOAA, whereas after lower doses, marked regional differences in the degree of GABA-T inhibition were found, thus leading to underestimation of GABA synthesis rates, e.g., in substantia nigra [29].


  1. Molecular cloning and sequencing of a cDNA encoding alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase 2 from rat kidney. Lee, I.S., Muragaki, Y., Ideguchi, T., Hase, T., Tsuji, M., Ooshima, A., Okuno, E., Kido, R. J. Biochem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Expression of plasma membrane GABA transporters but not of the vesicular GABA transporter in dentate granule cells after kainic acid seizures. Sperk, G., Schwarzer, C., Heilman, J., Furtinger, S., Reimer, R.J., Edwards, R.H., Nelson, N. Hippocampus. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Identification of a familial mutation associated with GABA-transaminase deficiency disease. Medina-Kauwe, L.K., Nyhan, W.L., Gibson, K.M., Tobin, A.J. Neurobiol. Dis. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Metabolism and brain uptake of gamma-aminobutyric acid in galactosamine-induced hepatic encephalopathy in rats. Zeneroli, M.L., Iuliano, E., Racagni, G., Baraldi, M. J. Neurochem. (1982) [Pubmed]
  5. Neonatal administration of a GABA-T inhibitor alters central GABAA receptor mechanisms and alcohol drinking in adult rats. Táira, T., Porkka-Heiskanen, T., Korpi, E.R. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Effects of the antidepressant/antipanic drug phenelzine on GABA concentrations and GABA-transaminase activity in rat brain. McManus, D.J., Baker, G.B., Martin, I.L., Greenshaw, A.J., McKenna, K.F. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. GABAergic drugs and sexual motivation, receptivity and exploratory behaviors in the female rat. Agmo, A., Soria, P. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Evidence of a role for GABA in benzodiazepine effects on food preference in rats. Hodges, H.M., Green, S.E. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1981) [Pubmed]
  9. A pharmacologic strategy for the treatment of nicotine addiction. Dewey, S.L., Brodie, J.D., Gerasimov, M., Horan, B., Gardner, E.L., Ashby, C.R. Synapse (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Seizure protection and increased nerve-terminal GABA: delayed effects of GABA transaminase inhibition. Gale, K., Iadarola, M.J. Science (1980) [Pubmed]
  11. An arylaminopyridazine derivative of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a selective and competitive antagonist at the GABAA receptor site. Chambon, J.P., Feltz, P., Heaulme, M., Restle, S., Schlichter, R., Biziere, K., Wermuth, C.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1985) [Pubmed]
  12. Vigabatrin, the GABA-transaminase inhibitor, damages cone photoreceptors in rats. Duboc, A., Hanoteau, N., Simonutti, M., Rudolf, G., Nehlig, A., Sahel, J.A., Picaud, S. Ann. Neurol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Evidence implicating substantia nigra in regulation of kindled seizure threshold. McNamara, J.O., Galloway, M.T., Rigsbee, L.C., Shin, C. J. Neurosci. (1984) [Pubmed]
  14. Hippocampal electrical activity and gamma-aminobutyrate metabolism in brain tissue following administration of homocysteine. Dewhurst, I.C., Hagan, J.J., Morris, R.G., Griffiths, R. J. Neurochem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  15. Peripheral GABAA receptor-mediated effects of sodium valproate on dural plasma protein extravasation to substance P and trigeminal stimulation. Lee, W.S., Limmroth, V., Ayata, C., Cutrer, F.M., Waeber, C., Yu, X., Moskowitz, M.A. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. Does homocarnosine mediate the dyskinetic movements induced by gaba-transaminase inhibitors. Robin, M.M., Palfreyman, M.G. Neuropharmacology (1982) [Pubmed]
  17. Brain GABA-transaminase and monoamine oxidase after chronic ethanol treatment in rats. Sherif, F., Wahlström, G., Oreland, L. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. Anorectic potency of inhibiting GABA transaminase in brain: studies of hypothalamic, dietary and genetic obesities. Coscina, D.V., Nobrega, J.N. International journal of obesity. (1984) [Pubmed]
  19. The mature size of rat 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase is different in liver and brain. Kontani, Y., Sakata, S.F., Matsuda, K., Ohyama, T., Sano, K., Tamaki, N. Eur. J. Biochem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. About species specificity of brain 4-aminobutyrate-2-ketoglutarate transaminase (GABAT). Tardy, M., Rolland, B., Adeline, J., Gonnard, P. J. Neurochem. (1976) [Pubmed]
  21. Synthesis, brain uptake, and pharmacological properties of a glyceryl lipid containing GABA and the GABA-T inhibitor gamma-vinyl-GABA. Jacob, J.N., Hesse, G.W., Shashoua, V.E. J. Med. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  22. Changes in the effect of gamma-aminobutyric acid on prolactin secretion during sexual maturation in female rats. Moguilevsky, J.A., Carbone, S., Szwarcfarb, B. Endocrinology (1992) [Pubmed]
  23. The central GABAergic system and control of food intake under different experimental conditions. Olgiati, V.R., Netti, C., Guidobono, F., Pecile, A. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1980) [Pubmed]
  24. A rat brain cDNA encodes enzymatically active GABA transaminase and provides a molecular probe for GABA-catabolizing cells. Medina-Kauwe, L.K., Tillakaratne, N.J., Wu, J.Y., Tobin, A.J. J. Neurochem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Inhibitors of GABA metabolism: implications for Huntington's disease. Schwarcz, R., Bennett, J.P., Coyle, J.T. Ann. Neurol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  26. GABAergic innervation in cerebral blood vessels: an immunohistochemical demonstration of L-glutamic acid decarboxylase and GABA transaminase. Imai, H., Okuno, T., Wu, J.Y., Lee, T.J. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1991) [Pubmed]
  27. Inhibitory effect of ethanol administration on beta-alanine-2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase (GABA aminotransferase) in disulfiram-pretreated rats. Kontani, Y., Kawasaki, S., Kaneko, M., Matsuda, K., Sakata, S.F., Tamaki, N. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Influence of dietary protein levels on beta-alanine aminotransferase expression and activity in rats. Ito, S., Ohyama, T., Kontani, Y., Matslida, K., Sakata, S.F., Tamaki, N. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  29. Use of inhibitors of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transaminase for the estimation of GABA turnover in various brain regions of rats: a reevaluation of aminooxyacetic acid. Löscher, W., Hönack, D., Gramer, M. J. Neurochem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  30. Plasticity of rat central inhibitory synapses through GABA metabolism. Engel, D., Pahner, I., Schulze, K., Frahm, C., Jarry, H., Ahnert-Hilger, G., Draguhn, A. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2001) [Pubmed]
  31. Expression of GABA transaminase immunoreactivity in interneurons of the rat neostriatum. Yung, K.K., Kwok, K.H., Gao, Z.G., Choi, S.Y., Kwok, F.S. Neurochem. Int. (1998) [Pubmed]
  32. Cellular expression of ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits in subpopulations of neurons in the rat substantia nigra pars reticulata. Tse, Y.C., Yung, K.K. Brain Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. Lipid peroxides in brain during aging and vitamin E deficiency: possible relations to changes in neurotransmitter indices. Noda, Y., McGeer, P.L., McGeer, E.G. Neurobiol. Aging (1982) [Pubmed]
  34. Effect of early iron deficiency in rat on the gamma-aminobutyric acid shunt in brain. Taneja, V., Mishra, K., Agarwal, K.N. J. Neurochem. (1986) [Pubmed]
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