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MeSH Review

Portal System

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Disease relevance of Portal System

  • The development of implantable insulin pumps, which can deliver insulin intraperitoneally, led to numerous studies on insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) patients, demonstrating that insulin delivered intraperitoneally is rapidly and predictably absorbed with most of it going into the portal system, resulting in hepatic delivery of insulin [1].
  • The resistance of mice with schistosomiasis that were injected with trehalose dipalmitate and challenged with schistosomal cercariae was increased, as assayed by recovery of schistosomula from the lungs and of adult worms from the portal system [2].
  • PVA particles and coils were used to occlude the right portal system and veins supplying segment IV to promote FLR hypertrophy (segments I-III +/- IV) [3].
  • Hypothyroidism presumably increases the release of DA into the pituitary portal system [4].
  • With reactive hyperemia both significant higher peak iodine concentrations in the portal blood and significant improvement in visualization of the portal system and porto-systemic venous collaterals occurred when compared to tolazoline or control angiograms [5].

High impact information on Portal System

  • Retinoic acid is mainly absorbed through the portal system and transported in plasma as the anion bound to serum albumin [6].
  • Thus despite massive histological alterations and pronounced increases in stimulation-dependent resistances - predominantly in the portal system - cirrhotic rat livers responded in their glucose metabolism to nervous and hormonal stimuli in almost the same manner as normal livers [7].
  • Theoretically peri-insular levels depend on the islet-acinar portal system, but the actual hormone levels have never been demonstrated [8].
  • Taken together, these results show that AL POMC cells possess functional regulatory receptor systems prior to maturation of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal system [9].
  • We also propose that stress-induced CRH release will not be similarly quenched by the CRH-BP in the hypothalamic portal system, as the concentration of CRH released will be high, and the exposure time before reaching pituitary corticotropes will be low [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Portal System


Biological context of Portal System


Anatomical context of Portal System

  • We conclude that Cudt containing TEPA depletes exocrine tissue and facilitates pancreas digestion for successful transplantation of islets into the portal system [20].
  • The release of CRF into the hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal system in response to stress is known, and it has been suggested that CRF may function elsewhere in the central nervous system to promote stress-induced physiological and behavioral changes [21].
  • Both ascorbic acid and hydrocortisone are secreted from cortical cells during stress into the adrenal portal system and thus contact medullary chromaffin cells [22].
  • The results demonstrate that the axon of some neuroendocrine CRF cells in the rat paraventricular nucleus give rise to terminal boutons just outside the nucleus, and may thus synapse with other hypothalamic neurons, as well as releasing neuropeptides into the hypophyseal portal system [23].
  • An immunoreactive (IR) LHRH-producing system, with perikarya located in the preoptic nucleus, could be traced through the ventral hypothalamus down to the external layer of the rostral and caudal ME, in close vicinity to the hypophysial portal system [24].

Associations of Portal System with chemical compounds

  • In this study we tried to determine if there is accumulation of prostacyclin in the portal system [25].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with a liver-specific NO donor improves the portal system adaptability to portal blood flow increase and ameliorates the intra-hepatic response to methoxamine in cirrhotic rats [26].
  • If some chromium(VI) is absorbed by the intestine, it is massively reduced in the blood of the portal system and then in the liver [27].
  • In contrast, infusion of insulin (1.0 mU/kg X min) and glucagon (4 ng/kg X min) into the portal system did not alter hepatic extraction of insulin even though the amounts of insulin and glucagon presented to that organ were similar to those obtained with arginine and CCK-PZ [28].
  • This value was within the reported steroid concentration in the adrenal portal system during a significant stress [22].

Gene context of Portal System

  • Hypothalamic GHRH is secreted into the portal system, binds to specific surface receptors of the somatotroph cell and elicits intracellular signals that modulate pituitary GH synthesis and/or secretion [29].
  • ET-1 (45 ng, i.c.v.) also produced a significant reduction in blood flow to the brain (75%), heart (49%), kidneys (66%), GIT (40%), portal system (52%) and musculo-skeletal system (38%), while blood flow to the skin was not affected [30].
  • These results suggest that CEA may be drained mainly by the hematogenous portal system by the draining vein from the cancer cells in the invasive veins and that CA19-9 may be drained by the thoracic duct of the lymphatic system [31].
  • Hormones classically considered confined to the magnocellular-neurohypophysial system are found in the parvocellular-long portal system and are known to be paramount in the hypophysiotropic control of ACTH release [32].
  • Thus, we found no evidence that arcuate NKB neurons project to the primary capillary plexus of the portal system [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Portal System


  1. Why intraperitoneal delivery of insulin with implantable pumps in NIDDM? Duckworth, W.C., Saudek, C.D., Henry, R.R. Diabetes (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Induction of resistance to Schistosoma mansoni by natural cord factor and synthetic lower homologues. Olds, G.R., Chedid, L., Lederer, E., Mahmoud, A.A. J. Infect. Dis. (1980) [Pubmed]
  3. Portal vein embolization with polyvinyl alcohol particles and coils in preparation for major liver resection for hepatobiliary malignancy: safety and effectiveness--study in 26 patients. Madoff, D.C., Hicks, M.E., Abdalla, E.K., Morris, J.S., Vauthey, J.N. Radiology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Studies of the neural mechanisms by which hypothyroidism decreases prolactin secretion in the rat. Jahnke, G., Nicholson, G., Greeley, G.H., Youngblood, W.W., Prange, A.J., Kizer, J.S. Brain Res. (1980) [Pubmed]
  5. Improved arterial portography in portal hypertension during reactive mesenteric hyperemia induced by preceding 2-minute balloon occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery. Burgener, F.A., Gutierrez, O.H., Adams, J.T. Investigative radiology. (1982) [Pubmed]
  6. Overview of current knowledge of metabolism of vitamin A and carotenoids. Goodman, D.S. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1984) [Pubmed]
  7. Metabolic and hemodynamic responses of bivascularly perfused rat liver to nerve stimulation, noradrenaline, acetylcholine and glucagon in thioacetamide-induced micronodular cirrhosis. Zimmermann, T., Gardemann, A., Machnik, G., Dargel, R., Jungermann, K. Hepatology (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. In situ binding of islet hormones in the isolated perfused rat pancreas: evidence for local high concentrations of islet hormones via the islet-acinar axis. Nakagawa, A., Stagner, J.I., Samols, E. Diabetologia (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Ontogeny of basal and regulated secretion from POMC cells of the developing anterior lobe of the rat pituitary gland. Lugo, D.I., Pintar, J.E. Dev. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-binding protein: reduction in the adrenocorticotropin-releasing activity of placental but not hypothalamic CRH. Linton, E.A., Behan, D.P., Saphier, P.W., Lowry, P.J. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Enhancement of tissue Po2 of strangulated bowel by topical application of sodium nitroprusside. Guinto, R., LeVeen, E.G., Ip, M., Wapnick, S., LeVeen, H.H. Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960) (1978) [Pubmed]
  12. Enhanced adrenocorticotrophic hormone and cortisol responses to corticotrophin-releasing hormone in central idiopathic diabetes insipidus. Mazza, E., Goffi, S., Barchi, P., Arvat, E., Bellone, J., Limone, P., Ghigo, E., Camanni, F. Eur. J. Endocrinol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Treatment of experimental liver metastases in the rat by continuous intraportal infusion of 5-fluorouracil and heparin: a pilot study. Nagawa, H., Paris, P., Chauffert, B., Martin, F. Anticancer Drugs (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. Pneumoperitoneum with carbon dioxide enhances liver metastases of cancer cells implanted into the portal vein in rabbits. Ishida, H., Murata, N., Yamada, H., Nakada, H., Takeuchi, I., Shimomura, K., Fujioka, M., Idezuki, Y. Surgical endoscopy. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Evaluation of intestinal absorption into the portal system in enterohepatic circulation by measuring the difference in portal-venous blood concentrations of diclofenac. Tabata, K., Yamaoka, K., Fukuyama, T., Nakagawa, T. Pharm. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. Local absorption kinetics into the portal system using the portal-venous concentration difference after an oral dose of diclofenac in the awakening rat. Accelerative effect of bile on intestinal absorption of diclofenac. Tabata, K., Yamaoka, K., Fukuyama, T., Nakagawa, T. Drug Metab. Dispos. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Portal venous infusions of L-glutamine in anaesthetized dogs do not influence renal function. Levy, M. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Genotype Gly/Gly of the Arg16Gly polymorphism of the beta2-adrenergic receptor is associated with elevated fasting serum insulin concentrations, but not with acute insulin response to glucose, in type 2 diabetic patients. Ikarashi, T., Hanyu, O., Maruyama, S., Souda, S., Kobayashi, C., Abe, E., Ukisu, J., Naganuma, K., Suzuki, A., Toya, M., Kaneko, S., Suzuki, K., Nakagawa, O., Aizawa, Y. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Somatostatin secretion and action in the regulation of growth hormone secretion. Frohman, L.A., Downs, T.R., Kelijman, M., Clarke, I.J., Thomas, G. Metab. Clin. Exp. (1990) [Pubmed]
  20. In vivo depletion of pancreatic acinar tissue simplifies islet preparation for transplantation. Al-Abdullah, I.H., Vulin, C.L., Kumar, M.S. Transplantation (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Neurochemical and behavioral effects of corticotropin-releasing factor in the ventral tegmental area of the rat. Kalivas, P.W., Duffy, P., Latimer, L.G. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1987) [Pubmed]
  22. Hydrocortisone inhibition of ascorbic acid transport by chromaffin cells. Levine, M.A., Pollard, H.B. FEBS Lett. (1983) [Pubmed]
  23. Neuroendocrine CRF motoneurons: intrahypothalamic axon terminals shown with a new retrograde-Lucifer-immuno method. Rho, J.H., Swanson, L.W. Brain Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  24. Immunocytochemical identification of an LHRH-producing system originating in the preoptic nucleus of the duck. Bons, N., Kerdelhué, B., Assenmacher, I. Cell Tissue Res. (1978) [Pubmed]
  25. Prostacyclin accumulation during orthotopic liver transplantation in man. Khoury, G.F., Gundappa, N., Nyerges, A., Raybould, D., Busuttil, R. Transplantation (1992) [Pubmed]
  26. A liver-specific nitric oxide donor improves the intra-hepatic vascular response to both portal blood flow increase and methoxamine in cirrhotic rats. Loureiro-Silva, M.R., Cadelina, G.W., Iwakiri, Y., Groszmann, R.J. J. Hepatol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Threshold mechanisms and site specificity in chromium(VI) carcinogenesis. De Flora, S. Carcinogenesis (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. Comparison of hepatic extraction of insulin and glucagon in conscious and anesthetized dogs. Ishida, T., Lewis, R.M., Hartley, C.J., Entman, M.L., Field, J.B. Endocrinology (1983) [Pubmed]
  29. Ectopic secretion of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) in neuroendocrine tumors: relevant clinical aspects. Doga, M., Bonadonna, S., Burattin, A., Giustina, A. Ann. Oncol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  30. Systemic hemodynamic and regional circulatory effects of centrally administered endothelin-1 are mediated through ETA receptors. Rebello, S., Roy, S., Saxena, P.R., Gulati, A. Brain Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  31. Carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 levels of peripheral and draining venous blood in colorectal cancer patients. Correlation with histopathologic and immunohistochemical variables. Tabuchi, Y., Deguchi, H., Saitoh, Y. Cancer (1988) [Pubmed]
  32. Interactions between neurohypophysial hormones and the ACTH-adrenocortical axis. Raff, H. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (1993) [Pubmed]
  33. Morphologic evidence that neurokinin B modulates gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion via neurokinin 3 receptors in the rat median eminence. Krajewski, S.J., Anderson, M.J., Iles-Shih, L., Chen, K.J., Urbanski, H.F., Rance, N.E. J. Comp. Neurol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. The blood supply of experimental liver metastases. V. Increased tumor perfusion with epinephrine. Ackerman, N.B., Hechmer, P.A. Am. J. Surg. (1980) [Pubmed]
  35. Pathologically induced alterations in the dimensions of the hepatic portal vasculature of mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni. McHugh, S.M., Coulson, P.S., Wilson, R.A. Parasitology (1987) [Pubmed]
  36. CO2 splenoportography: preliminary results. Caridi, J.G., Hawkins, I.F., Cho, K., Sohn, S.Y., Langham, M.R., Weichmann, B.N., Klioze, S.D. AJR. American journal of roentgenology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  37. Immediate and long-term results of superior mesenteric vein-inferior vena cava shunt for portal hypertension in children. Auvert, J., Weisgerber, G. J. Pediatr. Surg. (1975) [Pubmed]
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