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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Genes, Synthetic

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Disease relevance of Genes, Synthetic


High impact information on Genes, Synthetic

  • From a pair of highly homologous mesophilic and thermophilic adenylate kinases, we generated a series of chimeric enzymes using a previously undescribed method with synthetic genes [6].
  • [alpha-(15)N]Lysine-labeled rhodopsin, prepared by expression of a synthetic gene in HEK293 cells, was investigated both by conventional and transverse relaxation optimized spectroscopy-type heteronuclear single quantum correlation spectroscopy [7].
  • We demonstrate that Pho85 controls the expression of not only previously identified glycogen synthetic genes, but also a significant regulon of genes involved in the cellular response to environmental stress [8].
  • The effects of metalloprotease inhibitors could be reversed by either adding exogenous EGF or by expressing an artificial gene for EGF that lacked a membrane-anchoring domain [9].
  • Synthetic genes for glycoprotein design and the elucidation of hydroxyproline-O-glycosylation codes [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Genes, Synthetic


Biological context of Genes, Synthetic


Anatomical context of Genes, Synthetic


Associations of Genes, Synthetic with chemical compounds

  • Upon induction with isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactoside, the flavodoxin polypeptide was expressed from the artificial gene to levels approaching 20% of total extractable proteins using either expression system [26].
  • To gain insight into the structural requirements for tyrosine sulfation in vivo, we have constructed and expressed an artificial gene encoding a polypeptide substrate for tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase [27].
  • Construction of a synthetic gene with optimized codon usage and expression as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein followed by purification yielded milligram amounts of polypeptide with two extra residues appended to the N terminus [28].
  • With the amino terminal region reconstituted with adenine-rich degenerate codons, the mid and carboxyl regions of the synthetic gene were also reconstructed to imitate the E. coli-favored codon degeneracy [29].
  • In the synthetic gene of the former the sequence coding for amino acid residues 76-102 was replaced by that for bovine alpha-lactalbumin 72-97, which represents the Ca(2+)-binding loop and the central helix C [30].

Gene context of Genes, Synthetic


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Genes, Synthetic


  1. A synthetic operon containing 14 bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor genes is expressed in E. coli. von Wilcken-Bergmann, B., Tils, D., Sartorius, J., Auerswald, E.A., Schröder, W., Müller-Hill, B. EMBO J. (1986) [Pubmed]
  2. Secretion of functional papain precursor from insect cells. Requirement for N-glycosylation of the pro-region. Vernet, T., Tessier, D.C., Richardson, C., Laliberté, F., Khouri, H.E., Bell, A.W., Storer, A.C., Thomas, D.Y. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Regulation of transcription of the human presenilin-1 gene by ets transcription factors and the p53 protooncogene. Pastorcic, M., Das, H.K. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Vaccine-induced immune responses in rodents and nonhuman primates by use of a humanized human immunodeficiency virus type 1 pol gene. Casimiro, D.R., Tang, A., Perry, H.C., Long, R.S., Chen, M., Heidecker, G.J., Davies, M.E., Freed, D.C., Persaud, N.V., Dubey, S., Smith, J.G., Havlir, D., Richman, D., Chastain, M.A., Simon, A.J., Fu, T.M., Emini, E.A., Shiver, J.W. J. Virol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Expression of bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A coded by a synthetic gene in Bacillus subtilis. Vasantha, N., Filpula, D. Gene (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. Roles of static and dynamic domains in stability and catalysis of adenylate kinase. Bae, E., Phillips, G.N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Solution NMR spectroscopy of [alpha -15N]lysine-labeled rhodopsin: The single peak observed in both conventional and TROSY-type HSQC spectra is ascribed to Lys-339 in the carboxyl-terminal peptide sequence. Klein-Seetharaman, J., Reeves, P.J., Loewen, M.C., Getmanova, E.V., Chung, J., Schwalbe, H., Wright, P.E., Khorana, H.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Chemical inhibition of the Pho85 cyclin-dependent kinase reveals a role in the environmental stress response. Carroll, A.S., Bishop, A.C., DeRisi, J.L., Shokat, K.M., O'Shea, E.K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Metalloprotease-mediated ligand release regulates autocrine signaling through the epidermal growth factor receptor. Dong, J., Opresko, L.K., Dempsey, P.J., Lauffenburger, D.A., Coffey, R.J., Wiley, H.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Synthetic genes for glycoprotein design and the elucidation of hydroxyproline-O-glycosylation codes. Shpak, E., Leykam, J.F., Kieliszewski, M.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. High-level expression of a bioengineered, cysteine-free hepatocyte-stimulating factor (interleukin 6)-like protein. Jambou, R.C., Snouwaert, J.N., Bishop, G.A., Stebbins, J.R., Frelinger, J.A., Fowlkes, D.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  12. Inquiries into the structure-function relationship of ribonuclease T1 using chemically synthesized coding sequences. Ikehara, M., Ohtsuka, E., Tokunaga, T., Nishikawa, S., Uesugi, S., Tanaka, T., Aoyama, Y., Kikyodani, S., Fujimoto, K., Yanase, K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  13. Folded proteins occur frequently in libraries of random amino acid sequences. Davidson, A.R., Sauer, R.T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Insertional gene synthesis, a novel method of assembling consecutive DNA sequences within specific sites in plasmids. Construction of the HIV-1 tat gene. Ciccarelli, R.B., Loomis, L.A., McCoon, P.E., Holzschu, D.L. Nucleic Acids Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. [3Fe-4S] <--> [4Fe-4S] cluster interconversion in Desulfovibrio africanus ferredoxin III: properties of an Asp14 --> Cys mutant. Busch, J.L., Breton, J.L., Bartlett, B.M., Armstrong, F.A., James, R., Thomson, A.J. Biochem. J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Synthesis, bacterial expression, and mutagenesis of the gene coding for mammalian cytochrome b5. Beck von Bodman, S., Schuler, M.A., Jollie, D.R., Sligar, S.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  17. Validation of RNAi silencing specificity using synthetic genes: salicylic acid-binding protein 2 is required for innate immunity in plants. Kumar, D., Gustafsson, C., Klessig, D.F. Plant J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein family as global regulators of lipid synthetic genes in energy metabolism. Shimano, H. Vitam. Horm. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Human-murine chimeras of ICAM-1 identify amino acid residues critical for rhinovirus and antibody binding. Register, R.B., Uncapher, C.R., Naylor, A.M., Lineberger, D.W., Colonno, R.J. J. Virol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Identification of a genetic locus essential for serotype b-specific antigen synthesis in Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. Yoshida, Y., Nakano, Y., Yamashita, Y., Koga, T. Infect. Immun. (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Antibodies against specific extracellular epitopes of the glucagon receptor block glucagon binding. Unson, C.G., Cypess, A.M., Wu, C.R., Goldsmith, P.K., Merrifield, R.B., Sakmar, T.P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. Heat shock induces the release of fibroblast growth factor 1 from NIH 3T3 cells. Jackson, A., Friedman, S., Zhan, X., Engleka, K.A., Forough, R., Maciag, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  23. D4 dopamine receptor-mediated signaling events determined in transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells. Chio, C.L., Drong, R.F., Riley, D.T., Gill, G.S., Slightom, J.L., Huff, R.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. Chemical synthesis and expression in yeast of a gene encoding connective tissue activating peptide-III. A novel approach for the facile assembly of a gene encoding a human platelet-derived mitogen. Mullenbach, G.T., Tabrizi, A., Blacher, R.W., Steimer, K.S. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  25. Inhibition of cellular response to platelet-derived growth factor by low M(r) phosphotyrosine protein phosphatase overexpression. Berti, A., Rigacci, S., Raugei, G., Degl'Innocenti, D., Ramponi, G. FEBS Lett. (1994) [Pubmed]
  26. Chemical synthesis and expression of a synthetic gene for the flavodoxin from Clostridium MP. Eren, M., Swenson, R.P. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  27. In vivo expression and stoichiometric sulfation of the artificial protein sulfophilin, a polymer of tyrosine sulfation sites. Niehrs, C., Huttner, W.B., Rüther, U. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  28. Type I shorthorn sculpin antifreeze protein: recombinant synthesis, solution conformation, and ice growth inhibition studies. Fairley, K., Westman, B.J., Pham, L.H., Haymet, A.D., Harding, M.M., Mackay, J.P. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. Specific degenerate codons enhanced selective expression of human parathyroid hormone in Escherichia coli. Sung, W.L., Zahab, D.M., Barbier, J.R., Watson, D., Yaguchi, M., Neugebauer, W., Willick, G.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  30. A Ca(2+)-binding chimera of human lysozyme and bovine alpha-lactalbumin that can form a molten globule. Pardon, E., Haezebrouck, P., De Baetselier, A., Hooke, S.D., Fancourt, K.T., Desmet, J., Dobson, C.M., Van Dael, H., Joniau, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  31. Mrc1 is required for sister chromatid cohesion to aid in recombination repair of spontaneous damage. Xu, H., Boone, C., Klein, H.L. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. DAB486IL-2 fusion toxin in refractory rheumatoid arthritis. Sewell, K.L., Parker, K.C., Woodworth, T.G., Reuben, J., Swartz, W., Trentham, D.E. Arthritis Rheum. (1993) [Pubmed]
  33. Identification of ADP-ribosylation site in human glutamate dehydrogenase isozymes. Choi, M.M., Huh, J.W., Yang, S.J., Cho, E.H., Choi, S.Y., Cho, S.W. FEBS Lett. (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. Characterization of a cysteine-free analog of recombinant human basic fibroblast growth factor. Arakawa, T., Hsu, Y.R., Schiffer, S.G., Tsai, L.B., Curless, C., Fox, G.M. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1989) [Pubmed]
  35. Expression, purification, and characterization of recombinant human interleukin-13 from NS-O cells. Cannon-Carlson, S., Varnerin, J., Tsarbopoulos, A., Jenh, C.H., Cox, M.A., Chou, C.C., Connelly, N., Zavodny, P., Tang, J.C. Protein Expr. Purif. (1998) [Pubmed]
  36. Design, synthesis and expression of a human interleukin-2 gene incorporating the codon usage bias found in highly expressed Escherichia coli genes. Williams, D.P., Regier, D., Akiyoshi, D., Genbauffe, F., Murphy, J.R. Nucleic Acids Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  37. The role of His66 and His72 in the reaction mechanism of bovine liver low-M(r) phosphotyrosine protein phosphatase. Chiarugi, P., Cirri, P., Camici, G., Manao, G., Fiaschi, T., Raugei, G., Cappugi, G., Ramponi, G. Biochem. J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  38. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a recombinant bacterial heme oxygenase (Hmu O) from Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Chu, G.C., Park, S.Y., Shiro, Y., Yoshida, T., Ikeda-Saito, M. J. Struct. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  39. A fusion protein of conotoxin MVIIA and thioredoxin expressed in Escherichia coli has significant analgesic activity. Zhan, J., Chen, X., Wang, C., Qiu, J., Ma, F., Wang, K., Zheng, S. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2003) [Pubmed]
  40. Gene delivery systems--gene therapy vectors for cystic fibrosis. Klink, D., Schindelhauer, D., Laner, A., Tucker, T., Bebok, Z., Schwiebert, E.M., Boyd, A.C., Scholte, B.J. J. Cyst. Fibros. (2004) [Pubmed]
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