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Chemical Compound Review

CCRIS 3974     zinc 2-[(3-azanidyl-1-oxido...

Synonyms: LS-162824, NCGC00181764-01, Polaprezinc [INN], Promac (antiulcer agent)
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Disease relevance of Carnosine

  • BACKGROUND: Although the detailed mechanism is unclear, zinc and its derivative, polaprezinc, have been reported to accelerate gastric ulcer healing in vivo [1].
  • Polaprezinc attenuates the Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric mucosal leucocyte activation in Mongolian gerbils--a study using intravital videomicroscopy [2].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Polaprezinc inhibited the development of H. pylori-induced gastritis through its scavenging action against monochloramine [3].
  • These results suggested the healing effect of polaprezinc-sodium alginate suspension and the risk of steroids to severe oral mucositis induced by chemotherapy [4].
  • H. pylori inoculation significantly increased the heights of both pyloric and fundic mucosae (mainly due to the increased height of foveolar hyperplasia), but polaprezinc inhibited the increase of mucosal thickness in both pyloric and fundic mucasae [3].

High impact information on Carnosine

  • To determine the role of elastase or AOS derived from neutrophils in these circumstances, ONO-5046 (an elastase inhibitor), a combination of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (scavengers of AOS), and polaprezinc (an anti-ulcer agent with anti-inflammatory effects) were administered before aspirin [5].
  • Zinc and its derivative, polaprezinc, have been reported to be potent antioxidants in gastric mucosa [2].
  • Polaprezinc-suppressed IL-8 secretion induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) or IL-1beta in a dose-dependent manner [6].
  • Western blot analysis showed inhibition of TNF-alpha-induced IkappaB-alpha phosphorylation in the presence of polaprezinc [6].
  • These results suggest that although polaprezinc, a novel antiulcer agent, does not have proliferative effects on epithelial cells, it does promote the proliferation of non-parenchymal cells, and IGF-I is involved in this action [7].

Chemical compound and disease context of Carnosine

  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential effectiveness of the topical external medicines used in clinical settings, and the authors investigated the effects of 1% azulene ointment, 0.12% dexamethasone ointment, and polaprezinc-sodium alginate suspension on an animal model for oral mucositis induced by chemotherapy [4].
  • These ulcerogenic and PD responses caused by NH4OH plus ischemia were also attenuated by prior application of polaprezinc, while dmPGE2 and sucralfate prevented such lesions without affecting the reduced PD response [8].
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Mice with colitis induced by DSS were intrarectally treated with polaprezinc (15 mg/kg) or zinc sulfate (7.5 mg/kg) every day after the administration of DSS for 7 days [9].
  • This ulcerogenic response caused NH4OH plus ischemia was also attenuated by prior application of polaprezinc as well as taurine (25 mg/ml, 1 ml) [10].

Biological context of Carnosine


Anatomical context of Carnosine


Associations of Carnosine with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Carnosine


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Carnosine


  1. Insulin-like growth factor I plays a role in gastric wound healing: evidence using a zinc derivative, polaprezinc, and an in vitro rabbit wound repair model. Watanabe, S., Wang, X.E., Hirose, M., Kivilioto, T., Osada, T., Miwa, H., Oide, H., Kitamura, T., Yoneta, T., Seto, K., Sato, N. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Polaprezinc attenuates the Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric mucosal leucocyte activation in Mongolian gerbils--a study using intravital videomicroscopy. Suzuki, H., Mori, M., Seto, K., Miyazawa, M., Kai, A., Suematsu, M., Yoneta, T., Miura, S., Ishii, H. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Polaprezinc attenuates Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis in Mongolian gerbils. Ishihara, R., Iishi, H., Sakai, N., Yano, H., Uedo, N., Narahara, H., Iseki, K., Mikuni, T., Ishiguro, S., Tatsuta, M. Helicobacter (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Evaluation of topical external medicine for 5-fluorouracil-induced oral mucositis in hamsters. Mitsuhashi, H., Suemaru, K., Li, B., Cui, R., Araki, H. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Role of elastase and active oxygen species in gastric mucosal injury induced by aspirin administration in Helicobacter pylori-infected Mongolian gerbils. Yoshida, N., Sugimoto, N., Ochiai, J., Nakamura, Y., Ichikawa, H., Naito, Y., Yoshikawa, T. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Polaprezinc down-regulates proinflammatory cytokine-induced nuclear factor-kappaB activiation and interleukin-8 expression in gastric epithelial cells. Shimada, T., Watanabe, N., Ohtsuka, Y., Endoh, M., Kojima, K., Hiraishi, H., Terano, A. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Effect of polaprezinc (N-(3-aminopropionyl)-L-histidinato zinc), a novel antiulcer agent containing zinc, on cellular proliferation: role of insulin-like growth factor I. Seto, K., Yoneta, T., Suda, H., Tamaki, H. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Mucosal ulcerogenic action of monochloramine in rat stomachs: effects of polaprezinc and sucralfate. Kato, S., Nishiwaki, H., Konaka, A., Takeuchi, K. Dig. Dis. Sci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Polaprezinc (N-(3-aminopropionyl)-L-histidinato zinc) ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice. Ohkawara, T., Takeda, H., Kato, K., Miyashita, K., Kato, M., Iwanaga, T., Asaka, M. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Ulcerogenic and healing impairing actions of monochloramine in rat stomachs: effects of zinc L-carnosine, polaprezinc. Nishiwaki, H., Kato, S., Sugamoto, S., Umeda, M., Morita, H., Yoneta, T., Takeuchi, K. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Tissue distribution of polaprezinc in rats determined by the double tracer method. Furuta, S., Suzuki, M., Toyama, S., Miwa, M., Sano, H. Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Polaprezinc, a gastroprotective agent: attenuation of monochloramine-evoked gastric DNA fragmentation. Suzuki, H., Mori, M., Seto, K., Nagahashi, S., Kawaguchi, C., Morita, H., Suzuki, M., Miura, S., Yoneta, T., Ishii, H. J. Gastroenterol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Polaprezinc protects gastric mucosal cells from noxious agents through antioxidant properties in vitro. Hiraishi, H., Sasai, T., Oinuma, T., Shimada, T., Sugaya, H., Terano, A. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Disposition of polaprezinc (zinc L-carnosine complex) in rat gastrointestinal tract and effect of cimetidine on its adhesion to gastric tissues. Furuta, S., Toyama, S., Miwa, M., Sano, H. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. Polaprezinc protects human colon cells from oxidative injury induced by hydrogen peroxide: Relevant to cytoprotective heat shock proteins. Ohkawara, T., Nishihira, J., Nagashima, R., Takeda, H., Asaka, M. World J. Gastroenterol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Polaprezinc, a mucosal protective agent, in combination with lansoprazole, amoxycillin and clarithromycin increases the cure rate of Helicobacter pylori infection. Kashimura, H., Suzuki, K., Hassan, M., Ikezawa, K., Sawahata, T., Watanabe, T., Nakahara, A., Mutoh, H., Tanaka, N. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. (1999) [Pubmed]
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