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Chemical Compound Review

Scandium-47     scandium

Synonyms: AC1L4OQM, 47Sc, 14391-96-9, Scandium, isotope of mass 47
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Disease relevance of scandium


High impact information on scandium

  • Trace element concentration in human brain. Activation analysis of cobalt, iron, rubidium, selenium, zinc, chromium, silver, cesium, antimony and scandium [6].
  • Both concentration and enantiomeric composition of a wide range of chiral substrates can be determined with high accuracy by two simple competitive binding assays using a scandium complex derived from 1,8-bis(3-(3',5'-dimethylphenyl)-9-acridyl)naphthalene N,N'-dioxide [7].
  • The scandium dihydrosilyl complexes Cp*(2)ScSiH(2)R (R = Mes (4), Trip (5), SiPh(3) (6), Si(SiMe(3))(3) (7); Mes = 2,4,6-Me(3)C(6)H(2), Trip = 2,4,6-(i)()Pr(3)C(6)H(2)) and Cp*(2)ScSiH(SiMe(3))(2) (8) were synthesized by addition of the appropriate hydrosilane to Cp*(2)ScMe (1) [8].
  • The kinetic fluorescence measurement revealed that aluminium, beryllium, and gallium ions, when complexed with the fluoride ion and ADP, induced a biphasic fluorescence change of pyrenyl GroEL, while scandium and vanadate ions did not induce any kinetically observed change in fluorescence [9].
  • The blocking of Ga -67 plasma protein-binding sites-by administration of scandium citrate, ferric citrate, and a colloidal hydrous ferric oxide preparation-reduced the uptake of Ga-67 in normal soft tissues and also that in the viable portion of an experimental abscess [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of scandium

  • Previous work showed that complexes of enterochelin containing either scandium (Sc3+) or indium (In3+) exerted a bacteriostatic effect on Klebsiella pneumoniae in serum, whilst the Sc3+ complex exerted a significant therapeutic effect on mice infected with K. pneumoniae [11].

Biological context of scandium


Anatomical context of scandium

  • Measurements of altered activity of soluble acetylcholinesterase from E. electricus electric organ by the inorganic cations aluminum, scandium and yttrium demonstrate that these ions are noncompetitive enzyme inhibitors [17].
  • Mean concentrations of toenail scandium were 6.74 micro/kg in cases and 7.75 microg/kg in controls [2].

Associations of scandium with other chemical compounds


Gene context of scandium

  • With a catalytic amount of scandium triflate (1% mol), CTVs were obtained with yields similar to or higher than those reported previously in reactions run under strong acidic conditions [23].
  • Our results suggest that toenail scandium level is associated with a reduced risk of acute MI, but we are uncertain whether this element can really play a protective role in the development of CHD [2].
  • XRF, NMR, XRD, TGA and FT-IR shows that scandium (Sc3+) has been isomorphously substituted into the zeolite framework [24].
  • The number of binding scandium ions changes depending on temperature, causing a remarkable color change associated with the change in the ESR spectra [25].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of scandium


  1. Antibacterial effect of scandium and indium complexes of enterochelin on Klebsiella pneumoniae. Rogers, H.J., Synge, C., Woods, V.E. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1980) [Pubmed]
  2. Association between toenail scandium levels and risk of acute myocardial infarction in European men: the EURAMIC and Heavy Metals Study. Gómez-Aracena, J., Martin-Moreno, J.M., Riemersma, R.A., Bode, P., Gutiérrez-Bedmar, M., Gorgojo, L., Kark, J.D., Garcia-Rodríguez, A., Gomez-Gracia, E., Kardinaal, A.F., Aro, A., Van't Veerh, P., Wedel, H., Kok, F.J., Fernández-Crehuet, J. Toxicology and industrial health. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Toenail cerium levels and risk of a first acute myocardial infarction: The EURAMIC and heavy metals study. Gómez-Aracena, J., Riemersma, R.A., Gutiérrez-Bedmar, M., Bode, P., Kark, J.D., Garcia-Rodríguez, A., Gorgojo, L., Veer, P.V., Fernández-Crehuet, J., Kok, F.J., Martin-Moreno, J.M. Chemosphere (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Effects of dextran 70 versus crystalloids in the microcirculation of porcine hemorrhagic pancreatitis. Lehtola, A., Kivilaakso, E., Puolakkainen, P., Karonen, S.L., Lempinen, M., Schröder, T. Surgery, gynecology & obstetrics. (1986) [Pubmed]
  5. Trace element content in breasts with fibrocystic disease. Kanias, G.D., Kouri, E., Arvaniti, H., Karaiosifidi, H., Kouneli, S. Biological trace element research. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Trace element concentration in human brain. Activation analysis of cobalt, iron, rubidium, selenium, zinc, chromium, silver, cesium, antimony and scandium. Höck, A., Demmel, U., Schicha, H., Kasperek, K., Feinendegen, L.E. Brain (1975) [Pubmed]
  7. Determination of enantiomeric excess and concentration of unprotected amino acids, amines, amino alcohols, and carboxylic acids by competitive binding assays with a chiral scandium complex. Mei, X., Wolf, C. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Synthesis and characterization of scandium silyl complexes of the type Cp*2ScSiHRR'. sigma-Bond metathesis reactions and catalytic dehydrogenative silation of hydrocarbons. Sadow, A.D., Tilley, T.D. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. The allosteric transition of GroEL induced by metal fluoride-ADP complexes. Inobe, T., Kikushima, K., Makio, T., Arai, M., Kuwajima, K. J. Mol. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Studies of the vivo uptake of Ga-67 by an experimental abscess: concise communication. Hayes, R.L., Rafter, J.J., Carlton, J.E., Byrd, B.L. J. Nucl. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  11. Antibacterial effect of the scandium and indium complexes of enterochelin on Escherichia coli. Rogers, H.J., Woods, V.E., Synge, C. J. Gen. Microbiol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  12. Studies of the in vivo entry of Ga-67 into normal and malignant tissue. Hayes, R.L., Rafter, J.J., Byrd, B.L., Carlton, J.E. J. Nucl. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  13. The effect of scandium on the tissue distribution of Ga-67 in normal and tumor-bearing rodents. Hayes, R.L., Byrd, B.L., Rafter, J.J., Carlton, J.E. J. Nucl. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  14. Stereoselective synthesis of tetrahydropyran-4-ones from dioxinones catalyzed by scandium(III) triflate. Morris, W.J., Custar, D.W., Scheidt, K.A. Org. Lett. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Studies of nutritional safety of some heavy metals in mice. Hutcheson, D.P., Gray, D.H., Venugopal, B., Luckey, T.D. J. Nutr. (1975) [Pubmed]
  16. Terphenyl ligand systems in lanthanide chemistry: use of the 2,6-di(1-naphthyl)phenyl ligand for the synthesis of kinetically stabilized complexes of trivalent ytterbium, thulium, and yttrium. Rabe, G.W., Bérubé, C.D., Yap, G.P. Inorganic chemistry. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Noncompetitive inhibition by aluminum, scandium and yttrium of acetylcholinesterase from Electrophorus electricus. Marquis, J.K., Lerrick, A.J. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  18. Activation and inactivation of bovine caudate acetylcholinesterase by trivalent cations. Marquis, J.K., Black, E.E. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  19. A general method for the catalytic nazarov cyclization of heteroaromatic compounds. Malona, J.A., Colbourne, J.M., Frontier, A.J. Org. Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Modification of radiation sensitivity by salts of the metals beryllium and indium and the rare earths cerium, lanthanum and scandium. Floersheim, G.L. Radiat. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Synthesis and structural characterization of 2,6-dimesitylphenyl complexes of scandium, ytterbium, and yttrium. Rabe, G.W., Bérubé, C.D., Yap, G.P., Lam, K.C., Concolino, T.E., Rheingold, A.L. Inorganic chemistry. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Adhesion of water-borne particulates on freshwater biota. Sansone, U., Belli, M., Riccardi, M., Alonzi, A., Jeran, Z., Radojko, J., Smodis, B., Montanari, M., Cavolo, F. Sci. Total Environ. (1998) [Pubmed]
  23. Improved synthesis of functional CTVs and cryptophanes using Sc(OTf)3 as catalyst. Brotin, T., Roy, V., Dutasta, J.P. J. Org. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Preparation of isomorphously substituted scandium ZSM-5 using aqueous fluoride gels. Brigden, C.T., Thompsett, D., Williams, C.D. Dalton transactions (Cambridge, England : 2003) (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Thermochromism of the disproportionation equilibrium of pi-dimer radical anion complexes bridged by scandium ions. Yuasa, J., Fukuzumi, S. Org. Biomol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Direct imaging of Sc2@C84 molecules encapsulated inside single-wall carbon nanotubes by high resolution electron microscopy with atomic sensitivity. Suenaga, K., Okazaki, T., Wang, C.R., Bandow, S., Shinohara, H., Iijima, S. Phys. Rev. Lett. (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Capabilities of static TOF-SIMS in the differentiation of first-row transition metal oxides. Aubriet, F., Poleunis, C., Bertrand, P. Journal of mass spectrometry : JMS. (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Radiochemical purification of no-carrier-added scandium-47 for radioimmunotherapy. Kolsky, K.L., Joshi, V., Mausner, L.F., Srivastava, S.C. Applied radiation and isotopes : including data, instrumentation and methods for use in agriculture, industry and medicine. (1998) [Pubmed]
  29. Investigation of the separation of scandium and rare earth elements from red mud by use of reversed-phase HPLC. Tsakanika, L.V., Ochsenkühn-Petropoulou, M.T., Mendrinos, L.N. Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry. (2004) [Pubmed]
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