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Chemical Compound Review

Enterochelin     N-[(3S,7S,11S)-7,11- bis[(2,3...

Synonyms: enterobactin, Enterochellin, H6ent, CHEMBL432995, SureCN263621, ...
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Disease relevance of Enterochelin

  • The activity of an efficient iron uptake process was clearly shown by experiments with a mutant of E. coli deficient in enterochelin biosynthesis [1].
  • The immunoglobulin fraction from normal human serum was isolated; when added to a defined medium (M199) prepared so as to mimic normal human serum, the immunoglobulin rendered the medium inhibitory to an enterochelin-defective strain of Salmonella typhimurium [2].
  • Subinhibitory MICs (sub-MICs) of several cephalosporins significantly reduced the enterochelin production of Klebsiella pneumoniae 327 grown under iron-depleted conditions and also reduced capsule formation regardless of iron availability [3].
  • A number of studies point to the conclusion that enterochelin, the iron chelator produced by a number of pathogenic enterobacteria, may be an essential metabolite for bacterial multiplication within the host [4].
  • These findings are consistent with the S. typhi enterochelin system playing a role in the pathogenesis of typhoid fever [5].

High impact information on Enterochelin


Chemical compound and disease context of Enterochelin


Biological context of Enterochelin


Anatomical context of Enterochelin

  • Our results demonstrated that, whatever the exogenous iron-chelating agent used, aerobactin was rapidly excreted, whereas enterochelin accumulated early in periplasm before its very belated release into the external medium [10].
  • Although aerobactin has a dramatically lower affinity for iron than enterochelin, it has been shown to provide a significant selective advantage for bacterial growth in conditions of iron limitation, such as in the body fluids and tissues of an infected animal [19].
  • One of the mutants (cbt) was apparently defective in outer membrane ferri-enterochelin receptor activity. aroE derivatives (unable to synthesize enterochelin) of the four mutant classes and the parent strain produced increased amounts of two outer membranes polypeptides when grown under iron stress [20].
  • As in the case of serum, the bacterial iron transporting compound, enterochelin, abolished the bacteriostatic effect of human milk [21].
  • The outer membrane isolated from cells grown in the iron-deficient media showed enterochelin-stimulated binding of iron, while the outer membrane from iron-rich cells and cytoplasmic membranes from both types of cells did not show such binding activity [22].

Associations of Enterochelin with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Enterochelin


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Enterochelin


  1. Novel iron uptake system specified by ColV plasmids: an important component in the virulence of invasive strains of Escherichia coli. Williams, P.H. Infect. Immun. (1979) [Pubmed]
  2. Bacteriostatic enterochelin-specific immunoglobulin from normal human serum. Moore, D.G., Yancey, R.J., Lankford, C.E., Earhart, C.F. Infect. Immun. (1980) [Pubmed]
  3. Effect of subinhibitory concentrations of cephalosporins on surface properties and siderophore production in iron-depleted Klebsiella pneumoniae. Kadurugamuwa, J.L., Anwar, H., Brown, M.R., Zak, O. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1985) [Pubmed]
  4. Antibacterial effect of scandium and indium complexes of enterochelin on Klebsiella pneumoniae. Rogers, H.J., Synge, C., Woods, V.E. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1980) [Pubmed]
  5. Salmonella typhi iron uptake mutants are attenuated in mice. Furman, M., Fica, A., Saxena, M., Di Fabio, J.L., Cabello, F.C. Infect. Immun. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Energy transduction between membranes. TonB, a cytoplasmic membrane protein, can be chemically cross-linked in vivo to the outer membrane receptor FepA. Skare, J.T., Ahmer, B.M., Seachord, C.L., Darveau, R.P., Postle, K. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Cooperative uptake of microcin E492 by receptors FepA, Fiu, and Cir and inhibition by the siderophore enterochelin and its dimeric and trimeric hydrolysis products. Strahsburger, E., Baeza, M., Monasterio, O., Lagos, R. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Characterization of an iroBCDEN gene cluster on a transmissible plasmid of uropathogenic Escherichia coli: evidence for horizontal transfer of a chromosomal virulence factor. Sorsa, L.J., Dufke, S., Heesemann, J., Schubert, S. Infect. Immun. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Molecular characterization of pldA, the structural gene for a phospholipase A from Campylobacter coli, and its contribution to cell-associated hemolysis. Grant, K.A., Belandia, I.U., Dekker, N., Richardson, P.T., Park, S.F. Infect. Immun. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Differences in excretion and efficiency of the aerobactin and enterochelin siderophores in a bovine pathogenic strain of Escherichia coli. Der Vartanian, M. Infect. Immun. (1988) [Pubmed]
  11. Enterochelin (enterobactin): virulence factor for Salmonella typhimurium. Yancey, R.J., Breeding, S.A., Lankford, C.E. Infect. Immun. (1979) [Pubmed]
  12. Iron requirement in the bactericidal mechanism of streptonigrin. Yeowell, H.N., White, J.R. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1982) [Pubmed]
  13. A factor produced by Escherichia coli K-12 inhibits the growth of E. coli mutants defective in the cytochrome bd quinol oxidase complex: enterochelin rediscovered. Cook, G.M., Loder, C., Søballe, B., Stafford, G.P., Membrillo-Hernández, J., Poole, R.K. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Correlation of the virulence of Klebsiella pneumoniae K1 and K2 with the presence of a plasmid encoding aerobactin. Nassif, X., Sansonetti, P.J. Infect. Immun. (1986) [Pubmed]
  15. Hydroxamate-mediated transport of iron controlled by ColV plasmids. Stuart, S.J., Greenwood, K.T., Luke, R.K. J. Bacteriol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  16. Tn5 mutagenesis of the enterochelin gene cluster of Escherichia coli. Laird, A.J., Young, I.G. Gene (1980) [Pubmed]
  17. Bacteriophage Mu-mediated gene transposition and in vitro cloning of the enterochelin gene cluster of Escherichia coli. Laird, A.J., Ribbons, D.W., Woodrow, G.C., Young, I.G. Gene (1980) [Pubmed]
  18. Ferric enterochelin transport in Yersinia enterocolitica: molecular and evolutionary aspects. Schubert, S., Fischer, D., Heesemann, J. J. Bacteriol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Iron, siderophores, and the pursuit of virulence: independence of the aerobactin and enterochelin iron uptake systems in Escherichia coli. Williams, P.H., Carbonetti, N.H. Infect. Immun. (1986) [Pubmed]
  20. Iron uptake in colicin B-resistant mutants of Escherichia coli K-12. Pugsley, A.P., Reeves, P. J. Bacteriol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  21. Bacteriostatic effect of human milk on Escherichia coli: the role of IgA. Rogers, H.J., Synge, C. Immunology (1978) [Pubmed]
  22. Involvement of outer membrane proteins in enterochelin-mediated iron uptake in Escherichia coli. Ichihara, S., Mizushima, S. J. Biochem. (1977) [Pubmed]
  23. Specific inhibition of Escherichia coli ferrienterochelin uptake by a normal human serum immunoglobulin. Moore, D.G., Earhart, C.F. Infect. Immun. (1981) [Pubmed]
  24. TonB interacts with nonreceptor proteins in the outer membrane of Escherichia coli. Higgs, P.I., Letain, T.E., Merriam, K.K., Burke, N.S., Park, H., Kang, C., Postle, K. J. Bacteriol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Genes aroA and serC of Salmonella typhimurium constitute an operon. Hoiseth, S.K., Stocker, B.A. J. Bacteriol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  26. Siderocalin (Lcn 2) also binds carboxymycobactins, potentially defending against mycobacterial infections through iron sequestration. Holmes, M.A., Paulsene, W., Jide, X., Ratledge, C., Strong, R.K. Structure (Camb.) (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. Characterization of group B colicin-resistant mutants of Escherichia coli K-12: colicin resistance and the role of enterochelin. Pugsley, A.P., Reeves, P. J. Bacteriol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  28. Biosynthesis of enterochelin in Escherichia coli K-12: separation of the polypeptides coded for by the entD, E, F and G genes. Woodrow, G.C., Young, I.G., Gibson, F. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1979) [Pubmed]
  29. Lipocalin 2 mediates an innate immune response to bacterial infection by sequestrating iron. Flo, T.H., Smith, K.D., Sato, S., Rodriguez, D.J., Holmes, M.A., Strong, R.K., Akira, S., Aderem, A. Nature (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Fimbriation, capsulation, and iron-scavenging systems of Klebsiella strains associated with human urinary tract infection. Tarkkanen, A.M., Allen, B.L., Williams, P.H., Kauppi, M., Haahtela, K., Siitonen, A., Orskov, I., Orskov, F., Clegg, S., Korhonen, T.K. Infect. Immun. (1992) [Pubmed]
  31. The activity of microcin E492 from Klebsiella pneumoniae is regulated by a microcin antagonist. Orellana, C., Lagos, R. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (1996) [Pubmed]
  32. Preparation of enterochelin from Escherichia coli. Young, I.G. Prep. Biochem. (1976) [Pubmed]
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