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Gene Review

virK  -  virulence protein

Shigella flexneri 5a str. M90T

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Disease relevance of virK


Psychiatry related information on virK


High impact information on virK


Chemical compound and disease context of virK


Biological context of virK


Anatomical context of virK

  • The transductants all simultaneously became deregulated for virulence and invaded HeLa cells equally well at 30 degrees C and 37 degrees C. Other virulence-associated phenotypes were also deregulated and expressed at 30 degrees C. Southern hybridization with a probe for Tn10 determined the insertion to be on the chromosome [17].
  • The median lethal dose and infection kinetics in mice suggest that the toxin is required for virulence and facilitates Salmonella survival within mouse peritoneal macrophages [18].
  • The type III secretion (TTS) pathway is used by numerous Gram-negative pathogens to inject virulence factors into eukaryotic cells [19].
  • The mutation, previously shown to compromise urinary tract virulence, was located within a 1112 bp gene that restored normal swarming of the mutant when expressed in trans [20].
  • In contrast, the MreB system is required for establishment of the rod shape of the cell and for polar targeting of other polar constituents, such as the Shigella virulence factor IcsA and the aspartate chemoreceptor Tar, in a process that is independent of the Min system [21].

Associations of virK with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of virK

  • H-NS, one of the main nucleoid-associated proteins, controls the temperature-dependent expression of the virulence genes by repressing the in vivo transcription of virF only below a critical temperature (approximately 32 degrees C) [24].
  • It acts as a transcriptional activator and is itself transcriptionally activated by another virulence protein, VirF [25].

Other interactions of virK

  • icsB: a Shigella flexneri virulence gene necessary for the lysis of protrusions during intercellular spread [26].
  • Identification of a novel virulence gene, virA, on the large plasmid of Shigella, involved in invasion and intercellular spreading [27].
  • The S. flexneri cytotoxic genes have been localized to the ipa operon of shigella's virulence plasmid. ipaB, C and D deletion mutants are not invasive and therefore not cytotoxic [28].
  • Using TnphoA mutagenesis, we have identified two virulence plasmid genes, mxiJ and mxiM, that encode proteins exported by the general export pathway [29].
  • Recombinant plasmids carrying this regulatory gene, designated ipaR, were found to restore full virulence to a non-invasive ipaR::Tn5 insertion mutant [M90T-W(pHS1042)] that had lost the ability to synthesize four Ipa antigens (IpaA, 70 kDa; IpaB, 62 kDa; IpaC, 42 kDa; and IpaD, 37 kDa) [30].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of virK


  1. The virulence plasmid pWR100 and the repertoire of proteins secreted by the type III secretion apparatus of Shigella flexneri. Buchrieser, C., Glaser, P., Rusniok, C., Nedjari, H., D'Hauteville, H., Kunst, F., Sansonetti, P., Parsot, C. Mol. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Identification and characterization of virK, a virulence-associated large plasmid gene essential for intercellular spreading of Shigella flexneri. Nakata, N., Sasakawa, C., Okada, N., Tobe, T., Fukuda, I., Suzuki, T., Komatsu, K., Yoshikawa, M. Mol. Microbiol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Virulence of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites. Effects of bacteria, microaerobic conditions, and metronidazole. Bracha, R., Mirelman, D. J. Exp. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  4. Genome sequence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus: a pathogenic mechanism distinct from that of V cholerae. Makino, K., Oshima, K., Kurokawa, K., Yokoyama, K., Uda, T., Tagomori, K., Iijima, Y., Najima, M., Nakano, M., Yamashita, A., Kubota, Y., Kimura, S., Yasunaga, T., Honda, T., Shinagawa, H., Hattori, M., Iida, T. Lancet (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Inorganic polyphosphate is essential for long-term survival and virulence factors in Shigella and Salmonella spp. Kim, K.S., Rao, N.N., Fraley, C.D., Kornberg, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Yersinia's stratagem: targeting innate and adaptive immune defense. Heesemann, J., Sing, A., Trülzsch, K. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Evidence for long-term memory of the mucosal immune system: milk secretory immunoglobulin A against Shigella lipopolysaccharides. Hayani, K.C., Guerrero, M.L., Ruiz-Palacios, G.M., Gomez, H.F., Cleary, T.G. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. A genetic determinant required for continuous reinfection of adjacent cells on large plasmid in S. flexneri 2a. Makino, S., Sasakawa, C., Kamata, K., Kurata, T., Yoshikawa, M. Cell (1986) [Pubmed]
  9. Downregulation of bactericidal peptides in enteric infections: a novel immune escape mechanism with bacterial DNA as a potential regulator. Islam, D., Bandholtz, L., Nilsson, J., Wigzell, H., Christensson, B., Agerberth, B., Gudmundsson, G. Nat. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. DNA supercoiling and environmental regulation of virulence gene expression in Shigella flexneri. Dorman, C.J., Bhriain, N.N., Higgins, C.F. Nature (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. PtdIns5P activates the host cell PI3-kinase/Akt pathway during Shigella flexneri infection. Pendaries, C., Tronchère, H., Arbibe, L., Mounier, J., Gozani, O., Cantley, L., Fry, M.J., Gaits-Iacovoni, F., Sansonetti, P.J., Payrastre, B. EMBO J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Topological analysis of glucosyltransferase GtrV of Shigella flexneri by a dual reporter system and identification of a unique reentrant loop. Korres, H., Verma, N.K. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Chromosomal and plasmid-encoded enzymes are required for assembly of the R3-type core oligosaccharide in the lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia coli O157:H7. Kaniuk, N.A., Vinogradov, E., Li, J., Monteiro, M.A., Whitfield, C. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. The aerobactin iron transport system genes in Shigella flexneri are present within a pathogenicity island. Vokes, S.A., Reeves, S.A., Torres, A.G., Payne, S.M. Mol. Microbiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Regulation of O-antigen chain length is required for Shigella flexneri virulence. Van den Bosch, L., Manning, P.A., Morona, R. Mol. Microbiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Complete DNA sequence and analysis of the large virulence plasmid of Shigella flexneri. Venkatesan, M.M., Goldberg, M.B., Rose, D.J., Grotbeck, E.J., Burland, V., Blattner, F.R. Infect. Immun. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Identification of a chromosomal gene controlling temperature-regulated expression of Shigella virulence. Maurelli, A.T., Sansonetti, P.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  18. A cytolysin encoded by Salmonella is required for survival within macrophages. Libby, S.J., Goebel, W., Ludwig, A., Buchmeier, N., Bowe, F., Fang, F.C., Guiney, D.G., Songer, J.G., Heffron, F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. MxiK and MxiN interact with the Spa47 ATPase and are required for transit of the needle components MxiH and MxiI, but not of Ipa proteins, through the type III secretion apparatus of Shigella flexneri. Jouihri, N., Sory, M.P., Page, A.L., Gounon, P., Parsot, C., Allaoui, A. Mol. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. A cell-surface polysaccharide that facilitates rapid population migration by differentiated swarm cells of Proteus mirabilis. Gygi, D., Rahman, M.M., Lai, H.C., Carlson, R., Guard-Petter, J., Hughes, C. Mol. Microbiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. The MreB and Min cytoskeletal-like systems play independent roles in prokaryotic polar differentiation. Shih, Y.L., Kawagishi, I., Rothfield, L. Mol. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Two msbB genes encoding maximal acylation of lipid A are required for invasive Shigella flexneri to mediate inflammatory rupture and destruction of the intestinal epithelium. D'Hauteville, H., Khan, S., Maskell, D.J., Kussak, A., Weintraub, A., Mathison, J., Ulevitch, R.J., Wuscher, N., Parsot, C., Sansonetti, P.J. J. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Virulence-associated chromosomal loci of Shigella flexneri identified by random Tn5 insertion mutagenesis. Okada, N., Sasakawa, C., Tobe, T., Yamada, M., Nagai, S., Talukder, K.A., Komatsu, K., Kanegasaki, S., Yoshikawa, M. Mol. Microbiol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  24. Thermoregulation of Shigella and Escherichia coli EIEC pathogenicity. A temperature-dependent structural transition of DNA modulates accessibility of virF promoter to transcriptional repressor H-NS. Falconi, M., Colonna, B., Prosseda, G., Micheli, G., Gualerzi, C.O. EMBO J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. Site of transcriptional activation of virB on the large plasmid of Shigella flexneri 2a by VirF, a member of the AraC family of transcriptional activators. Jost, B.H., Adler, B. Microb. Pathog. (1993) [Pubmed]
  26. icsB: a Shigella flexneri virulence gene necessary for the lysis of protrusions during intercellular spread. Allaoui, A., Mounier, J., Prévost, M.C., Sansonetti, P.J., Parsot, C. Mol. Microbiol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  27. Identification of a novel virulence gene, virA, on the large plasmid of Shigella, involved in invasion and intercellular spreading. Uchiya, K., Tobe, T., Komatsu, K., Suzuki, T., Watarai, M., Fukuda, I., Yoshikawa, M., Sasakawa, C. Mol. Microbiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. IpaB mediates macrophage apoptosis induced by Shigella flexneri. Zychlinsky, A., Kenny, B., Ménard, R., Prévost, M.C., Holland, I.B., Sansonetti, P.J. Mol. Microbiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. MxiJ, a lipoprotein involved in secretion of Shigella Ipa invasins, is homologous to YscJ, a secretion factor of the Yersinia Yop proteins. Allaoui, A., Sansonetti, P.J., Parsot, C. J. Bacteriol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  30. Molecular characterization of a trans-acting, positive effector (ipaR) of invasion plasmid antigen synthesis in Shigella flexneri serotype 5. Buysse, J.M., Venkatesan, M., Mills, J.A., Oaks, E.V. Microb. Pathog. (1990) [Pubmed]
  31. Genome sequence of the enterobacterial phytopathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica and characterization of virulence factors. Bell, K.S., Sebaihia, M., Pritchard, L., Holden, M.T., Hyman, L.J., Holeva, M.C., Thomson, N.R., Bentley, S.D., Churcher, L.J., Mungall, K., Atkin, R., Bason, N., Brooks, K., Chillingworth, T., Clark, K., Doggett, J., Fraser, A., Hance, Z., Hauser, H., Jagels, K., Moule, S., Norbertczak, H., Ormond, D., Price, C., Quail, M.A., Sanders, M., Walker, D., Whitehead, S., Salmond, G.P., Birch, P.R., Parkhill, J., Toth, I.K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. Molecular dissection of VirB, a key regulator of the virulence cascade of Shigella flexneri. Beloin, C., McKenna, S., Dorman, C.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. Molecular cloning and characterization of chromosomal virulence region kcpA of Shigella flexneri. Yamada, M., Sasakawa, C., Okada, N., Makino, S.I., Yoshikawa, M. Mol. Microbiol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  34. Identification and molecular characterization of EatA, an autotransporter protein of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Patel, S.K., Dotson, J., Allen, K.P., Fleckenstein, J.M. Infect. Immun. (2004) [Pubmed]
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