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Chemical Compound Review

Factor T     heptasodium tungsten nonatriacontahydrate

Synonyms: Pta 11, AC1L9Q86, PW11O39(7-), 87261-30-1, Undecaphosphotungstate
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Disease relevance of Undecaphosphotungstate


High impact information on Undecaphosphotungstate

  • A novel transcription factor, T-bet, directs Th1 lineage commitment [6].
  • The copy number of this episome is stably maintained even when an excess of the limiting initiation factor T antigen is provided [7].
  • We have also localized the human gene for an unrelated polypeptide hormone, epidermal growth factor, to chromosome 4q, in the same region as another specialized growth factor, T-cell growth factor [8].
  • Lymphoid enhancer factor/T-cell factor (LEF/TCF) are transcription factors that mediate the Wnt signaling pathway, and have crucial roles during embryonic development in various organisms [9].
  • Central to control of the IFN-gamma gene is the transcription factor T-bet, whose induction is Stat-1 dependent [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Undecaphosphotungstate


Biological context of Undecaphosphotungstate

  • The transcription factor T-bet is a key determinant of IFN-gamma gene expression in helper T cells, but the mechanisms by which it achieves this effect are not clear [12].
  • Here, we report that the transcription factor T-bet, known to regulate Th cell differentiation, also controls the generation of the CD8+ cytotoxic effector cell [13].
  • By contrast, cis/TF asserts that B is a likely binding site of a transcription factor T if the expression pattern of T is correlated to the composite expression patterns of all genes containing B, even when those genes are not mutually correlated [14].
  • One such cytokine, IL-27, augments differentiation of naive T cells toward an IFN-gamma-producing phenotype by up-regulating the transcription factor T-bet and promoting expression of the IL-12Rbeta2 chain allowing T cells to respond to IL-12p70 [15].
  • The stoichiometry was calculated without the usual correction fro GTP hydrolysis obtained in the same system lacking elongation factor T or aminoacyl-tRNA [16].

Anatomical context of Undecaphosphotungstate

  • A limiting-dilution system is described that makes use of T cell growth factor T cell expansion and allows the determination of precursor frequencies for various regulatory and effector T cells in nonimmune, polyclonally, or specifically activated T cell populations [17].
  • 1. The purified IL-2 lacked detectable interferon (alpha and gamma), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, B cell growth factor, T cell-replacing factor, and thymocyte-differentiating activity and was free of any contaminating proteins as judged by silver staining in SDS-PAGE [18].
  • Transcription factor T-bet regulates inflammatory arthritis through its function in dendritic cells [19].
  • We have previously shown that NK cells expressing Ly-49A were reduced or almost absent in mice harboring a single or no functional allele of the transcription factor T cell factor-1 (TCF-1), respectively [20].
  • Although it is clear that the transcription factor T-bet plays an essential role in the differentiation of IFN-gamma-producing CD4(+) Th1 lymphocytes, the potential role of T-bet in the differentiation of Th17 cells is not completely understood [21].

Associations of Undecaphosphotungstate with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Undecaphosphotungstate


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Undecaphosphotungstate

  • Lymphoid enhancer factor/T-cell factor (LEF/TCF) high mobility group box transcription factors are the nuclear transducers of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling cascade [30].
  • By immunoprecipitation, the factor T was shown to be physically associated with DNA polymerase alpha-primase complex [31].
  • Specific immunosuppressive treatment will no doubt be part of future autoimmune disease therapy, but for the time being is no more than theoretically stimulating experimentation (anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibodies, specific T cell suppressor factor, T cell "vaccination") [32].


  1. The transcription factor T-bet regulates mucosal T cell activation in experimental colitis and Crohn's disease. Neurath, M.F., Weigmann, B., Finotto, S., Glickman, J., Nieuwenhuis, E., Iijima, H., Mizoguchi, A., Mizoguchi, E., Mudter, J., Galle, P.R., Bhan, A., Autschbach, F., Sullivan, B.M., Szabo, S.J., Glimcher, L.H., Blumberg, R.S. J. Exp. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Experimental expression in mice and spontaneous expression in human SLE of polyomavirus T-antigen. A molecular basis for induction of antibodies to DNA and eukaryotic transcription factors. Rekvig, O.P., Moens, U., Sundsfjord, A., Bredholt, G., Osei, A., Haaheim, H., Traavik, T., Arnesen, E., Haga, H.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. T-bet, a Th1 transcription factor, is up-regulated in T cells from patients with aplastic anemia. Solomou, E.E., Keyvanfar, K., Young, N.S. Blood (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Interleukin-10 induces uteroglobin-related protein (UGRP) 1 gene expression in lung epithelial cells through homeodomain transcription factor T/EBP/NKX2.1. Srisodsai, A., Kurotani, R., Chiba, Y., Sheikh, F., Young, H.A., Donnelly, R.P., Kimura, S. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Role of transcription factor T-bet expression by CD4+ cells in gastritis due to Helicobacter pylori in mice. Eaton, K.A., Benson, L.H., Haeger, J., Gray, B.M. Infect. Immun. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. A novel transcription factor, T-bet, directs Th1 lineage commitment. Szabo, S.J., Kim, S.T., Costa, G.L., Zhang, X., Fathman, C.G., Glimcher, L.H. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Cis-acting negative control of DNA replication in eukaryotic cells. Roberts, J.M., Weintraub, H. Cell (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. Human chromosomal mapping of genes for insulin-like growth factors I and II and epidermal growth factor. Brissenden, J.E., Ullrich, A., Francke, U. Nature (1984) [Pubmed]
  9. Acetylation regulates subcellular localization of the Wnt signaling nuclear effector POP-1. Gay, F., Calvo, D., Lo, M.C., Ceron, J., Maduro, M., Lin, R., Shi, Y. Genes Dev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Further checkpoints in Th1 development. Robinson, D.S., O'Garra, A. Immunity (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Anionic properties of beta-lactam-enhancing factor on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Tajima, Y., Nagasawa, Z., Tanabe, I., Kusaba, K., Tadano, J. Res. Microbiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. T-bet antagonizes mSin3a recruitment and transactivates a fully methylated IFN-gamma promoter via a conserved T-box half-site. Tong, Y., Aune, T., Boothby, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Antigen-driven effector CD8 T cell function regulated by T-bet. Sullivan, B.M., Juedes, A., Szabo, S.J., von Herrath, M., Glimcher, L.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. cis element/transcription factor analysis (cis/TF): a method for discovering transcription factor/cis element relationships. Birnbaum, K., Benfey, P.N., Shasha, D.E. Genome Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. IL-27 signaling compromises control of bacterial growth in mycobacteria-infected mice. Pearl, J.E., Khader, S.A., Solache, A., Gilmartin, L., Ghilardi, N., deSauvage, F., Cooper, A.M. J. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. The coupling with polypeptide synthesis of the GTPase activity dependent on elongation factor G. Chinali, G., Parmeggiani, A. J. Biol. Chem. (1980) [Pubmed]
  17. Quantitative studies on T cell diversity. I. Determination of the precursor frequencies for two types of streptococcus A-specific helper cells in nonimmune, polyclonally activated splenic T cells. Eichmann, K., Falk, I., Melchers, I., Simon, M.M. J. Exp. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  18. Purification of human interleukin 2 to apparent homogeneity and its molecular heterogeneity. Welte, K., Wang, C.Y., Mertelsmann, R., Venuta, S., Feldman, S.P., Moore, M.A. J. Exp. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  19. Transcription factor T-bet regulates inflammatory arthritis through its function in dendritic cells. Wang, J., Fathman, J.W., Lugo-Villarino, G., Scimone, L., von Andrian, U., Dorfman, D.M., Glimcher, L.H. J. Clin. Invest. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Initiation and limitation of Ly-49A NK cell receptor acquisition by T cell factor-1. Ioannidis, V., Kunz, B., Tanamachi, D.M., Scarpellino, L., Held, W. J. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. T-bet Regulates the Fate of Th1 and Th17 Lymphocytes in Autoimmunity. Gocke, A.R., Cravens, P.D., Ben, L.H., Hussain, R.Z., Northrop, S.C., Racke, M.K., Lovett-Racke, A.E. J. Immunol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  22. A crucial role for T-bet in selectin ligand expression in T helper 1 (Th1) cells. Underhill, G.H., Zisoulis, D.G., Kolli, K.P., Ellies, L.G., Marth, J.D., Kansas, G.S. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Lithium induces gene expression through lymphoid enhancer-binding factor/T-cell factor responsive element in rat PC12 cells. Bettini, E., Magnani, E., Terstappen, G.C. Neurosci. Lett. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Long-term treatment of transfusional iron overload with the oral iron chelator deferiprone (L1): a Dutch multicenter trial. Kersten, M.J., Lange, R., Smeets, M.E., Vreugdenhil, G., Roozendaal, K.J., Lameijer, W., Goudsmit, R. Ann. Hematol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  25. Inhibitors of gamma-secretase block in vivo and in vitro T helper type 1 polarization by preventing Notch upregulation of Tbx21. Minter, L.M., Turley, D.M., Das, P., Shin, H.M., Joshi, I., Lawlor, R.G., Cho, O.H., Palaga, T., Gottipati, S., Telfer, J.C., Kostura, L., Fauq, A.H., Simpson, K., Such, K.A., Miele, L., Golde, T.E., Miller, S.D., Osborne, B.A. Nat. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Biochemical characterization of regulatory factors derived from T cell hybridomas and spleen cells. II. Evidence for glycosylation of T cell growth factor, T cell replacing factor, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Clark-Lewis, I., Schrader, J.W. J. Immunol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  27. HIC-5 is a novel repressor of lymphoid enhancer factor/T-cell factor-driven transcription. Ghogomu, S.M., van Venrooy, S., Ritthaler, M., Wedlich, D., Gradl, D. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. Sustained T-bet expression confers polarized human TH2 cells with TH1-like cytokine production and migratory capacities. Lametschwandtner, G., Biedermann, T., Schwärzler, C., Günther, C., Kund, J., Fassl, S., Hinteregger, S., Carballido-Perrig, N., Szabo, S.J., Glimcher, L.H., Carballido, J.M. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Signaling through beta-catenin and Lef/Tcf. Novak, A., Dedhar, S. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  30. Functional diversity of Xenopus lymphoid enhancer factor/T-cell factor transcription factors relies on combinations of activating and repressing elements. Gradl, D., König, A., Wedlich, D. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. A novel stimulating protein of mammalian DNA polymerase alpha. Yoshida, S., Tamai, K., Umekawa, H., Suzuki, M., Kojima, K. J. Biochem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  32. Immunotherapeutics of multiple sclerosis. Durelli, L. Acta neurologica. (1991) [Pubmed]
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