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Chemical Compound Review

Laxettes     3,3-bis(4- hydroxyphenyl)isobenzofuran- 1-one

Synonyms: Chocolax, Espotabs, Phenolax, Phthalin, Alophen, ...
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Disease relevance of phenolphthalein

  • Phenolphthalein regimens were associated with a slight rise in serum potassium concentrations (similar to placebo); this may have been due to extracellular volume contraction produced by high volume and sodium-rich diarrhea and acidosis secondary to bicarbonate losses [1].
  • A statistically significant level of chromosomal aberrations was elicited in SHE cells treated with phenolphthalein at the highest dose (40 microM) [2].
  • Using the structure of TS from Lactobacillus casei in complex with the nonsubstrate analogue phenolphthalein, inhibitors were designed to take advantage of features of the bacterial enzyme that differ from those of the human enzyme [3].
  • At the end of 4 wk all 50 animals were injected i.p. with a dose of 15 mg/kg body weight of phenolphthalein [4].
  • Risk of ovarian cancer in relation to use of phenolphthalein-containing laxatives [5].

Psychiatry related information on phenolphthalein


High impact information on phenolphthalein


Chemical compound and disease context of phenolphthalein


Biological context of phenolphthalein


Anatomical context of phenolphthalein


Associations of phenolphthalein with other chemical compounds


Gene context of phenolphthalein


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of phenolphthalein


  1. Effect of single dose resin-cathartic therapy on serum potassium concentration in patients with end-stage renal disease. Gruy-Kapral, C., Emmett, M., Santa Ana, C.A., Porter, J.L., Fordtran, J.S., Fine, K.D. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Cell-transforming activity and genotoxicity of phenolphthalein in cultured Syrian hamster embryo cells. Tsutsui, T., Tamura, Y., Yagi, E., Hasegawa, K., Tanaka, Y., Uehama, A., Someya, T., Hamaguchi, F., Yamamoto, H., Barrett, J.C. Int. J. Cancer (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Structure-based design of inhibitors specific for bacterial thymidylate synthase. Stout, T.J., Tondi, D., Rinaldi, M., Barlocco, D., Pecorari, P., Santi, D.V., Kuntz, I.D., Stroud, R.M., Shoichet, B.K., Costi, M.P. Biochemistry (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. The disaccharide effect of sucrose feeding on glucuronide excretion and bile concentration of injected phenolphthalein in guinea pigs. Ahrens, R.A., Garland, S.L., Kigutha, H.N., Russek, E. J. Nutr. (1985) [Pubmed]
  5. Risk of ovarian cancer in relation to use of phenolphthalein-containing laxatives. Cooper, G.S., Longnecker, M.P., Sandler, D.P., Ness, R.B. Br. J. Cancer (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. A hydrogel readout for autonomous detection of ions in microchannels. Moorthy, J., Beebe, D.J. Lab on a chip. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Glucuronidation in the reindeer: dietary modification in the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity with 4-nitrophenol, 1-naphthol and phenolphthalein as acceptors. Juvonen, R., Laitinen, M., Hietanen, E., Nieminen, M. Int. J. Biochem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  8. Effect of three laxatives and a cation exchange resin on fecal sodium and potassium excretion. Emmett, M., Hootkins, R.E., Fine, K.D., Santa Ana, C.A., Porter, J.L., Fordtran, J.S. Gastroenterology (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Phenolphthalein exposure causes multiple carcinogenic effects in experimental model systems. Dunnick, J.K., Hailey, J.R. Cancer Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Release of lysosomal enzyme beta-glucuronidase from isolated human eosinophils. Marshall, T., Shult, P., Busse, W.W. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  11. Loss of heterozygosity frequency at the Trp53 locus in p53-deficient (+/-) mouse tumors is carcinogen-and tissue-dependent. French, J.E., Lacks, G.D., Trempus, C., Dunnick, J.K., Foley, J., Mahler, J., Tice, R.R., Tennant, R.W. Carcinogenesis (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Laxative use not a risk for colorectal cancer: data from the Melbourne Colorectal Cancer Study. Kune, G.A. Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie. (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Tumor promoting effect of phenolphthalein on development of lung tumors induced by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea in transgenic mice carrying human prototype c-Ha-ras gene. Imaoka, M., Kashida, Y., Watanabe, T., Ueda, M., Onodera, H., Hirose, M., Mitsumori, K. J. Vet. Med. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Comparison of acid phosphatases in the rat prostatic complex and seminal vesicles. Rytöluoto-Kärkkäinen, R., Jauhiainen, A., Vanha-Perttula, T. J. Urol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  15. Cyclic AMP-dependent phosphorylation in the control of biotransformation in the liver. Bánhegyi, G., Garzó, T., Mészáros, G., Faragó, A., Antoni, F., Mandl, J. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  16. Induction of chromosome aberrations in vitro by phenolphthalein: mechanistic studies. Armstrong, M.J., Gara, J.P., Gealy, R., Greenwood, S.K., Hilliard, C.A., Laws, G.M., Galloway, S.M. Mutat. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Bisphenols that stimulate cells to release alkali metal cations: a structure-activity study. Hopp, L., Megee, S.O., Lloyd, J.B. J. Med. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Conjugation reactions in hepatocytes isolated from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Grant, M.H., Duthie, S.J. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  19. Phenolphthalein- and harmaline-induced disturbances in the transport functions of isolated brush border and basolateral membrane vesicles from rat jejunum and kidney cortex. Im, W.B., Misch, D.W., Powell, D.W., Faust, R.G. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  20. Selective inhibitory effect of organophosphates on UDP-glucuronyl transferase activities in rat liver microsomes. Watanabe, H.K., Hoskins, B., Ho, I.K. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  21. Roles of the C-terminal domains of human dihydrodiol dehydrogenase isoforms in the binding of substrates and modulators: probing with chimaeric enzymes. Matsuura, K., Hara, A., Deyashiki, Y., Iwasa, H., Kume, T., Ishikura, S., Shiraishi, H., Katagiri, Y. Biochem. J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Comparative assessment of phenolphthalein and phenolphthalein glucuronide: is phenolphthalein glucuronide a better laxative? Anand, B.S., Torres, E., Operkun, A., Graham, D.Y. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. UDP glucuronyltransferase and phenolsulfotransferase from rat liver in vivo and in vitro. III. The effect of phenolphthalein and its sulfate and glucuronide conjugate on conjugation and biliary excretion of harmol. Mulder, G.J., Pilon, A.H. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  24. Separation of different UDP glucuronosyltransferase activities according to charge heterogeneity by chromatofocusing using mouse liver microsomes. Three major types of aglycones. Mackenzie, P.I., Joffe, M.M., Munson, P.J., Owens, I.S. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  25. Estrogenic effects of phenolphthalein on human breast cancer cells in vitro. Ravdin, P.M., van Beurden, M., Jordan, V.C. Breast Cancer Res. Treat. (1987) [Pubmed]
  26. Biliary excretion of phenolphthalein sulfate in rats. Tanaka, H., Sano, N., Takikawa, H. Pharmacology (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Levels of lysosomal enzymes in tissues of mice infected with Mycoplasma fermentans. Gabridge, M.G., Yip, D.M., Hedges, K. Infect. Immun. (1975) [Pubmed]
  28. Activities of several phase I and phase II xenobiotic biotransformation enzymes in cultured hepatocytes from male and female rats. Croci, T., Williams, G.M. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  29. Phenolphthalein-containing laxative use in relation to adenomatous colorectal polyps in three studies. Longnecker, M.P., Sandler, D.P., Haile, R.W., Sandler, R.S. Environ. Health Perspect. (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. The pharmacokinetics of beta-cyclodextrin and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin in the rat. Frijlink, H.W., Visser, J., Hefting, N.R., Oosting, R., Meijer, D.K., Lerk, C.F. Pharm. Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  31. Determination of cyclodextrins in biological fluids by high-performance liquid chromatography with negative colorimetric detection using post-column complexation with phenolphthalein. Frijlink, H.W., Visser, J., Drenth, B.F. J. Chromatogr. (1987) [Pubmed]
  32. Surface modification of phenolphthalein poly(ether sulfone) ultrafiltration membranes by blending with acrylonitrile-based copolymer containing ionic groups for imparting surface electrical properties. Wang, M., Wu, L.G., Zheng, X.C., Mo, J.X., Gao, C.J. Journal of colloid and interface science. (2006) [Pubmed]
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