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Chemical Compound Review

Pimonidazol     1-(2-nitroimidazol-1-yl)-3- (1...

Synonyms: PIMONIDAZOLE, Pimonidazolum, CHEMBL58752, SureCN51977, NSC-380540, ...
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Disease relevance of NSC318502


High impact information on NSC318502


Chemical compound and disease context of NSC318502


Biological context of NSC318502

  • These cells stained positively for pimonidazole and therefore generated hypoxic stress within the target tissue, a prerequisite for the differentiation of stem cells to chondrocytes and subsequent heterotopic bone formation [13].
  • METHODS: Using punch biopsy wounds in rats as a wound healing model, the distributions of vascular endothelial growth factor, transforming growth factor-beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and pimonidazole adducts (as a hypoxia marker) were followed immunohistochemically during the healing process [14].
  • Recent studies show that carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9) is up-regulated by hypoxia and that its immunohistochemical tissue distribution follows the distribution of the radiosensitizer pimonidazole (C. C. Wykoff et al., Cancer Res. 60: 7075-7083, 2001) [15].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Colocalization of immunostaining for involucrin and pimonidazole binding is consistent with oxygen regulation, but the lack of involucrin expression in hypoxic regions of poorly differentiated tumors indicates that its transcriptional status with respect to hypoxia induction is altered by cell differentiation [11].
  • Accelerated elimination of pimonidazole following microsomal enzyme induction in mice: a possible approach to reduced neurotoxicity of the pimonidazole-etanidazole combination [16].

Anatomical context of NSC318502


Associations of NSC318502 with other chemical compounds


Gene context of NSC318502


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of NSC318502


  1. Transcriptional response to hypoxia in human tumors. Lal, A., Peters, H., St Croix, B., Haroon, Z.A., Dewhirst, M.W., Strausberg, R.L., Kaanders, J.H., van der Kogel, A.J., Riggins, G.J. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Inhibition of mitochondrial respiration elevates oxygen concentration but leaves regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) intact. Doege, K., Heine, S., Jensen, I., Jelkmann, W., Metzen, E. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Orally administered pimonidazole to label hypoxic tumor cells. Bennewith, K.L., Raleigh, J.A., Durand, R.E. Cancer Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Hypoxia and vascular endothelial growth factor expression in human squamous cell carcinomas using pimonidazole as a hypoxia marker. Raleigh, J.A., Calkins-Adams, D.P., Rinker, L.H., Ballenger, C.A., Weissler, M.C., Fowler, W.C., Novotny, D.B., Varia, M.A. Cancer Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Pimonidazole binding and tumor vascularity predict for treatment outcome in head and neck cancer. Kaanders, J.H., Wijffels, K.I., Marres, H.A., Ljungkvist, A.S., Pop, L.A., van den Hoogen, F.J., de Wilde, P.C., Bussink, J., Raleigh, J.A., van der Kogel, A.J. Cancer Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Distribution of hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow according to regional hypoxia. Parmar, K., Mauch, P., Vergilio, J.A., Sackstein, R., Down, J.D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2007) [Pubmed]
  7. Antitumor effect of 2-methoxyestradiol in a rat orthotopic brain tumor model. Kang, S.H., Cho, H.T., Devi, S., Zhang, Z., Escuin, D., Liang, Z., Mao, H., Brat, D.J., Olson, J.J., Simons, J.W., Lavallee, T.M., Giannakakou, P., Van Meir, E.G., Shim, H. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Reduced expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha in perinecrotic regions of solid tumors. Sobhanifar, S., Aquino-Parsons, C., Stanbridge, E.J., Olive, P. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Observation of incipient tumor angiogenesis that is independent of hypoxia and hypoxia inducible factor-1 activation. Cao, Y., Li, C.Y., Moeller, B.J., Yu, D., Zhao, Y., Dreher, M.R., Shan, S., Dewhirst, M.W. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Adipose tissue hypoxia in obesity and its impact on adipocytokine dysregulation. Hosogai, N., Fukuhara, A., Oshima, K., Miyata, Y., Tanaka, S., Segawa, K., Furukawa, S., Tochino, Y., Komuro, R., Matsuda, M., Shimomura, I. Diabetes (2007) [Pubmed]
  11. Hypoxia and differentiation in squamous cell carcinomas of the uterine cervix: pimonidazole and involucrin. Azuma, Y., Chou, S.C., Lininger, R.A., Murphy, B.J., Varia, M.A., Raleigh, J.A. Clin. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha expression as an intrinsic marker of hypoxia: correlation with tumor oxygen, pimonidazole measurements, and outcome in locally advanced carcinoma of the cervix. Hutchison, G.J., Valentine, H.R., Loncaster, J.A., Davidson, S.E., Hunter, R.D., Roberts, S.A., Harris, A.L., Stratford, I.J., Price, P.M., West, C.M. Clin. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Hypoxic adipocytes pattern early heterotopic bone formation. Olmsted-Davis, E., Gannon, F.H., Ozen, M., Ittmann, M.M., Gugala, Z., Hipp, J.A., Moran, K.M., Fouletier-Dilling, C.M., Schumara-Martin, S., Lindsey, R.W., Heggeness, M.H., Brenner, M.K., Davis, A.R. Am. J. Pathol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  14. Early wound healing exhibits cytokine surge without evidence of hypoxia. Haroon, Z.A., Raleigh, J.A., Greenberg, C.S., Dewhirst, M.W. Ann. Surg. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Hypoxia-regulated carbonic anhydrase-9 (CA9) relates to poor vascularization and resistance of squamous cell head and neck cancer to chemoradiotherapy. Koukourakis, M.I., Giatromanolaki, A., Sivridis, E., Simopoulos, K., Pastorek, J., Wykoff, C.C., Gatter, K.C., Harris, A.L. Clin. Cancer Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Accelerated elimination of pimonidazole following microsomal enzyme induction in mice: a possible approach to reduced neurotoxicity of the pimonidazole-etanidazole combination. Workman, P. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. Hepatocellular hypoxia-induced vascular endothelial growth factor expression and angiogenesis in experimental biliary cirrhosis. Rosmorduc, O., Wendum, D., Corpechot, C., Galy, B., Sebbagh, N., Raleigh, J., Housset, C., Poupon, R. Am. J. Pathol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Hypoxia-associated spontaneous pulmonary metastasis in human melanoma xenografts: involvement of microvascular hot spots induced in hypoxic foci by interleukin 8. Rofstad, E.K., Halsør, E.F. Br. J. Cancer (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Binge drinking disturbs hepatic microcirculation after transplantation: prevention with free radical scavengers. Zhong, Z., Arteel, G.E., Connor, H.D., Schemmer, P., Chou, S.C., Raleigh, J.A., Mason, R.P., Lemasters, J.J., Thurman, R.G. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Chronic enteral ethanol treatment causes hypoxia in rat liver tissue in vivo. Arteel, G.E., Iimuro, Y., Yin, M., Raleigh, J.A., Thurman, R.G. Hepatology (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Abnormal clinical pharmacokinetics of the developmental radiosensitizers pimonidazole (Ro 03-8799) and etanidazole (SR 2508). Maughan, T.S., Newman, H.F., Bleehen, N.M., Ward, R., Workman, P. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1990) [Pubmed]
  22. A comparison of colorimetric and clonogenic assays for hypoxic-specific toxins with hamster and human cells. Watts, M.E., Roberts, I.J., Woodcock, M. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1989) [Pubmed]
  23. Comparing the anti-tumor effect of several bioreductive drugs when used in combination with photodynamic therapy (PDT). Bremner, J.C., Bradley, J.K., Adams, G.E., Naylor, M.A., Sansom, J.M., Stratford, I.J. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. Hypoxia-inducible expression of tumor-associated carbonic anhydrases. Wykoff, C.C., Beasley, N.J., Watson, P.H., Turner, K.J., Pastorek, J., Sibtain, A., Wilson, G.D., Turley, H., Talks, K.L., Maxwell, P.H., Pugh, C.W., Ratcliffe, P.J., Harris, A.L. Cancer Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Erythropoietin and erythropoietin receptor expression in head and neck cancer: relationship to tumor hypoxia. Arcasoy, M.O., Amin, K., Chou, S.C., Haroon, Z.A., Varia, M., Raleigh, J.A. Clin. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Hypoxia in human colorectal adenocarcinoma: Comparison between extrinsic and potential intrinsic hypoxia markers. Goethals, L., Debucquoy, A., Perneel, C., Geboes, K., Ectors, N., De Schutter, H., Penninckx, F., McBride, W.H., Begg, A.C., Haustermans, K.M. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. Proliferation and hypoxia in human squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix: first report of combined immunohistochemical assays. Kennedy, A.S., Raleigh, J.A., Perez, G.M., Calkins, D.P., Thrall, D.E., Novotny, D.B., Varia, M.A. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1997) [Pubmed]
  28. Carbonic anhydrase 9 as an endogenous marker for hypoxic cells in cervical cancer. Olive, P.L., Aquino-Parsons, C., MacPhail, S.H., Liao, S.Y., Raleigh, J.A., Lerman, M.I., Stanbridge, E.J. Cancer Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  29. Podocyte expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 and HIF-2 during glomerular development. Freeburg, P.B., Robert, B., St John, P.L., Abrahamson, D.R. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. Oxygen status of lung granulomas in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected mice. Aly, S., Wagner, K., Keller, C., Malm, S., Malzan, A., Brandau, S., Bange, F.C., Ehlers, S. J. Pathol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. Comparison between the comet assay and pimonidazole binding for measuring tumour hypoxia. Olive, P.L., Durand, R.E., Raleigh, J.A., Luo, C., Aquino-Parsons, C. Br. J. Cancer (2000) [Pubmed]
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