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Chemical Compound Review

AC1NRA23     (2S)-2-amino-N-[(2S)-5...

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Disease relevance of Antipain


High impact information on Antipain

  • Chromatid exchanges increased 26 hr posttreatment with the combination of MNNG and antipain used for transformation [5].
  • DNA replication relative to untreated controls is not affected by MNNG, antipain, or the combination of the two; no synergistic lethality of antipain and MNNG occurred as reflected in the cloning efficiency [5].
  • These results suggest that the protease inhibitor antipain has more than one mechanism of action in modulating the fixation and expression of transformation by x-irradiation, possibly by the modification of DNA repair [6].
  • Using cultured normal hamster embryo cells and the heterploid mouse C3H cell line 10T1/2, clone 8, we have studied the effect of the protease inhibitor antipain on x-ray-induced neoplastic transformation [6].
  • We found in both cell systems that, while there was no effect on cell survival as compared to irradiated controls, the addition of antipain at a concentration of 6 microgram/ml to the cultures 24 hr prior to irradiation resulted in enhanced transformation as compared to the frequency in cultures exposed to radiation alone [6].

Chemical compound and disease context of Antipain

  • Because previous studies postulated that antipain could affect the induction of chromosomal aberrations by suppressing free radical reactions within cells, we also tested whether antipain affects X-ray-induced aberrations when present only during the time of irradiation, as is the case for free radical scavengers, such as L-cysteine [7].
  • Effects of antipain (a protease inhibitor) on respiration, viability, and excision of pyrimidine dimers in UV-irradiated Escherichia coli cells [8].
  • Leupeptin and antipain induced the appearance of microvillar extensions and blebs on the cytoplasmic membrane, resembling a shedding process [9].
  • (c) Pre-incubation of the parasites with the proteinase inhibitors antipain and chymostatin, previously shown to confer protection from Leu-OMe toxicity, nearly completely prevented the morphological changes of megasomes [10].
  • Antipain also prevented the suppression of UV-mutagenicity by HuIFN-alpha in RSa and xeroderma pigmentosum-derived fibroblast cells, as shown by culturing cells in medium containing antipain immediately after UV exposure and evaluating the generation of clones resistant to ouabain- or 6-thioguanine-mediated cytotoxicity [11].

Biological context of Antipain


Anatomical context of Antipain

  • Elevation of antipain-sensitive protease activity was found, furthermore, in RSa cells cultured with HuIFN-alpha and subsequently treated with sodium saccharin [14].
  • Under these conditions, cleavage can be blocked with 1-chloro-3-tosylamido-7-amino-L-2-heptanone and antipain, but protease inhibitors do not affect the inhibition of DNA binding that occurs in whole cytosol [15].
  • Opioid receptors mediate antipain responses in both the peripheral nervous system and CNS [16].
  • To determine whether future studies on the effects of proteolytic inhibition on infarct size are feasible, the ability of the proteinase inhibitors antipain, leupeptin, pepstatin and chymostatin, given in vivo, to interfere with proteolysis in ischemic myocardium was also evaluated [3].
  • Plasminogen activator (PA) activity was analyzed in normal and transformed 10T1/2 mouse fibroblasts treated with the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and the protease inhibitors antipain, leupeptin, and soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI) [17].

Associations of Antipain with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Antipain


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Antipain

  • Calcium-activated protease (CAP) was purified from the cytosol fraction of homogenized human platelet concentrates using a combination of gel filtration chromatography and affinity chromatography on antipain aminohexyl-Sepharose and activated thiol-Sepharose 4B [28].
  • A variety of treatment protocols have been studied where antipain was present before, during and at various times post-irradiation [29].
  • The effects of inhibitors of Ca(2+)-dependent endopeptidases (antipain and leupeptin) on morphine analgesia, reinforcing properties of morphine and on the development of opiate physical dependence were studied [30].
  • The inhibitors antipain, leupeptin, aprotinin, L-1-tosylamide-2-phenyl-ethyl chloromethyl ketone (TPCK), or N-alpha-p-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone (TLCK) reduced parasite invasion to 16-66% of control after treatment of cultured cells or sporozoites with 5- or 50-micrograms/ml concentrations of inhibitors in the culture medium [31].
  • The estrogen receptor (ER) was separated from the cytoplasmic components of the cow uterus through successive gel filtrations of the cytosol in the presence of antipain, a protease inhibitor [32].


  1. A protease inhibitor blocks SOS functions in Escherichia coli: antipain prevents lambda repressor inactivation, ultraviolet mutagenesis, and filamentous growth. Meyn, M.S., Rossman, T., Troll, W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1977) [Pubmed]
  2. Evidence for the presence of an inactive precursor of human hepatocyte growth factor in plasma and sera of patients with liver diseases. Arakaki, N., Kawakami, S., Nakamura, O., Ohnishi, T., Miyazaki, H., Ishii, T., Tsubouchi, H., Daikuhara, Y. Hepatology (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Role of cellular proteinases in acute myocardial infarction. I. Proteolysis in nonischemic and ischemic rat myocardium and the effects of antipain, leupeptin, pepstatin and chymostatin administered in vivo. Bolli, R., Cannon, R.O., Speir, E., Goldstein, R.E., Epstein, S.E. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  4. Inhibition of proteolytic activity of poliovirus and rhinovirus 2A proteinases by elastase-specific inhibitors. Molla, A., Hellen, C.U., Wimmer, E. J. Virol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Antipain inhibits N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine-induced transformation and increases chromosomal aberrations. DiPaolo, J.A., Amsbaugh, S.C., Popescu, N.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1980) [Pubmed]
  6. Conditions for inhibiting and enhancing effects of the protease inhibitor antipain on x-ray-induced neoplastic transformation in hamster and mouse cells. Borek, C., Miller, R., Pain, C., Troll, W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1979) [Pubmed]
  7. Antipain-mediated suppression of X-ray-induced chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes. Afzal, V., Wiencke, J.K., Wolff, S. Carcinogenesis (1989) [Pubmed]
  8. Effects of antipain (a protease inhibitor) on respiration, viability, and excision of pyrimidine dimers in UV-irradiated Escherichia coli cells. Swenson, P.A., Schenley, R.L. J. Bacteriol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  9. Phytomonas serpens: cysteine peptidase inhibitors interfere with growth, ultrastructure and host adhesion. Santos, A.L., d'Avila-Levy, C.M., Dias, F.A., Ribeiro, R.O., Pereira, F.M., Elias, C.G., Souto-Padrón, T., Lopes, A.H., Alviano, C.S., Branquinha, M.H., Soares, R.M. Int. J. Parasitol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Megasomes as the targets of leucine methyl ester in Leishmania amazonensis amastigotes. Antoine, J.C., Jouanne, C., Ryter, A. Parasitology (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. Involvement of antipain-sensitive protease activity in suppression of UV-mutagenicity by human interferon-alpha. Isogai, E., Suzuki, N. Mutat. Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Antipain-induced suppression of oncogene expression in H-ras-transformed NIH3T3 cells. Cox, L.R., Motz, J., Troll, W., Garte, S.J. Cancer Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. Inhibition of H-ras oncogene transformation of NIH3T3 cells by protease inhibitors. Garte, S.J., Currie, D.D., Troll, W. Cancer Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. Suppression of saccharin-induced mutagenicity by interferon-alpha in human RSa cells. Suzuki, N., Suzuki, H. Cancer Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. Purification and preliminary characterization of a macromolecular inhibitor of glucocorticoid receptor binding to DNA. Dahmer, M.K., Tienrungroj, W., Pratt, W.B. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  16. Proinflammatory chemokines, such as C-C chemokine ligand 3, desensitize mu-opioid receptors on dorsal root ganglia neurons. Zhang, N., Rogers, T.J., Caterina, M., Oppenheim, J.J. J. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Protease inhibitor antipain suppresses 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate induction of plasminogen activator in transformable mouse embryo fibroblasts. Long, S.D., Quigley, J.P., Troll, W., Kennedy, A.R. Carcinogenesis (1981) [Pubmed]
  18. Necrosis and apoptosis induced by oxidized low density lipoproteins occur through two calcium-dependent pathways in lymphoblastoid cells. Escargueil-Blanc, I., Salvayre, R., Nègre-Salvayre, A. FASEB J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. Inhibition of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate induction of epidermal transglutaminase activity by protease inhibitors. Kawamura, H., Strickland, J.E., Yuspa, S.H. Cancer Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
  20. Intracellular processing of epidermal growth factor and its effect on ligand-receptor interactions. Wiley, H.S., VanNostrand, W., McKinley, D.N., Cunningham, D.D. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  21. Isolation and characterization of a novel serine proteinase complexed with alpha 2-macroglobulin from porcine gastric mucosa. Uchino, T., Sakurai, Y., Nishigai, M., Takahashi, T., Arakawa, H., Ikai, A., Takahashi, K. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  22. Purification and characterization of a collagen-degrading protease from Porphyromonas gingivalis. Bedi, G.S., Williams, T. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 proteolysis is induced after elective surgery. Davenport, M.L., Isley, W.L., Pucilowska, J.B., Pemberton, L.B., Lyman, B., Underwood, L.E., Clemmons, D.R. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1992) [Pubmed]
  24. Effects of microbial proteinase inhibitors on the degradation of endogenous and internalized proteins by rat yolk sacs. Knowles, S.E., Ballard, F.J., Livesey, G., Williams, K.E. Biochem. J. (1981) [Pubmed]
  25. Regulation of serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF binding proteins during rat pregnancy. Davenport, M.L., Clemmons, D.R., Miles, M.V., Camacho-Hubner, C., D'Ercole, A.J., Underwood, L.E. Endocrinology (1990) [Pubmed]
  26. Hypermutable change of human UV(r)-1 cells by p53 overexpression. Sugita, T., Hiwasa, T., Nomura, J., Kita, K., Hiroshima, K., Suzuki, H., Sekiya, S., Suzuki, N. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. Localization of cathepsin B in two human lung cancer cell lines. Erdel, M., Trefz, G., Spiess, E., Habermaas, S., Spring, H., Lah, T., Ebert, W. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  28. Purification of human platelet calcium-activated protease. Effect on platelet and endothelial function. Yoshida, N., Weksler, B., Nachman, R. J. Biol. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  29. Suppression of the radiation-induced expression of a tumor-associated antigen in human cell hybrids by the protease inhibitor antipain. Sun, C., Colman, M., Redpath, J.L. Carcinogenesis (1988) [Pubmed]
  30. Inhibitors of Ca(2+)-dependent endopeptidases modulate morphine-induced effects in rats. Lyupina, Y.V., Sudakov, S.K., Yarygin, V.N. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. Reduction in cell entry of Eimeria tenella (Coccidia) sporozoites by protease inhibitors, and partial characterization of proteolytic activity associated with intact sporozoites and merozoites. Fuller, A.L., McDougald, L.R. J. Parasitol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  32. Estrogen receptor of cow uterus. I. Characterization of native and proteolyzed "4S" estrogen receptors. Murayama, A., Fukai, F., Hazato, T., Yamamoto, T. J. Biochem. (1980) [Pubmed]
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