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Gene Review

PGRMC1  -  progesterone receptor membrane component 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: HPR6.6, MPR, Membrane-associated progesterone receptor component 1, PGRMC, mPR
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Disease relevance of PGRMC1

  • This result is mirrored by effects of an antibody raised against the recombinant E. coli mPR which suppressed the rapid progesterone-initiated Ca2+ increase in sperm [1].
  • We report here that the Hpr6.6 protein regulates the response to oxidative damage in breast cancer cells [2].
  • After the start of the nationwide measles, parotitis, and rubella (MPR) vaccination programme in 1982 in Finland, encephalitides associated with these viruses seem to have totally vanished [3].
  • Addition of the antibodies to the medium of Morris hepatoma 7777 cells, which express only the Mr 46,000 MPR, resulted in a decreased intracellular retention and increased secretion of newly synthesized lysosomal enzymes [4].
  • At follow-up, a steeper correlation was found between MPR and minimal stenosis diameter (MPR1: slope, 0.52 versus 0.91; MPR2: slope, 1.48 versus 1.95) and between MaxFR and net lumen gain (slope, 0.78 versus 1.27) [5].
  • PGRMC1's role in regulating the viability of ovarian cancers was assessed by overexpressing PGRMC1, depleting PGRMC1 using small interfering RNA, and attenuating PGRMC1's action with a blocking antibody [6].

High impact information on PGRMC1

  • TIP47 is present in cytosol and on endosomes and is required for MPR transport from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network in vitro and in vivo [7].
  • These data suggest that TIP47 binds MPR cytoplasmic domains and facilitates their collection into transport vesicles destined for the Golgi [7].
  • TIP47 recognizes a phenylalanine/tryptophan signal in the tail of the cation-dependent MPR that is essential for its proper sorting within the endosomal pathway [7].
  • Second, we examine the physiological and biochemical data supporting the concept of cognate membrane receptors for P, E, and T, the so-called mPR, mER, and mTR [8].
  • fEndosome-to-Golgi retrieval of the mannose 6-phosphate receptor (MPR) is required for lysosome biogenesis [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of PGRMC1

  • Adherence to statin therapy, as reflected by MPR, is closely related to LDL cholesterol goal attainment in patients with diabetes and dyslipidemia [10].
  • We have previously shown that the insulin-like growth factor-II/mannose 6-phosphate receptor (IGF-II/MPR) exhibits a polarized cell surface distribution in the human colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cell line in which there is a threefold enrichment on the basolateral surface [11].
  • Moreover, in breast cancer cells MCF-7 dioxin induced mPR expression [12].
  • A decrease in the amount of 5-HT released by projections from the MPR to the trigeminal nucleus could be partially responsible for the pain experienced in migraine headache [13].

Biological context of PGRMC1


Anatomical context of PGRMC1

  • PGRMC1 and its binding partner, plasminogen activator inhibitor RNA-binding protein-1 (PAIRBP1), were detected in human granulosa/luteal cells [17].
  • Here we show that expression of mPR-cDNA in CHO cells leads to increased microsomal progesterone binding [1].
  • In control fibroblasts that express both types of MPR, the secretion-recapture pathway is of minor importance [18].
  • MPR and lysosomal enzymes were also found in coated pits of the plasma membrane [19].
  • On this basis, it has been proposed that cells lacking MPR are poor targets for cytotoxic lymphocytes that mediate allograft rejection or tumor immune surveillance [20].

Associations of PGRMC1 with chemical compounds

  • Our results support the assumption that mPR represents the first steroid membrane receptor or a part of it involved in rapid, nongenomic steroid signalling [1].
  • Baf did not interfere with transport of HRP to MPR-labeled late endosomes, but nearly completely abrogated transport to cathepsin D-labeled lysosomes [21].
  • When the cells were treated with the lysosomotropic amine primaquine, binding of anti-MPR to the cells in culture was reduced by half [19].
  • In a second approach, sections of formalin-fixed breast biopsy specimens were probed with biotinylated MPR [22].
  • The phosphorylated MPR 300-CT was cross-linked by means of bis(sulfosuccinimidyl)suberate mainly to a cytosolic protein of 35 kDa (referred to as TIP 35) and to 35- and 91-kDa proteins salt-washed from bovine brain membranes [23].

Other interactions of PGRMC1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PGRMC1


  1. Specific progesterone binding to a membrane protein and related nongenomic effects on Ca2+-fluxes in sperm. Falkenstein, E., Heck, M., Gerdes, D., Grube, D., Christ, M., Weigel, M., Buddhikot, M., Meizel, S., Wehling, M. Endocrinology (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Hpr6.6 protein mediates cell death from oxidative damage in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Hand, R.A., Craven, R.J. J. Cell. Biochem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Effect of measles, mumps, rubella vaccination on pattern of encephalitis in children. Koskiniemi, M., Vaheri, A. Lancet (1989) [Pubmed]
  4. Mr 46,000 mannose 6-phosphate specific receptor: its role in targeting of lysosomal enzymes. Stein, M., Zijderhand-Bleekemolen, J.E., Geuze, H., Hasilik, A., von Figura, K. EMBO J. (1987) [Pubmed]
  5. Comparison of myocardial perfusion reserve before and after coronary balloon predilatation and after stent implantation in patients with postangioplasty restenosis. Haude, M., Caspari, G., Baumgart, D., Brennecke, R., Meyer, J., Erbel, R. Circulation (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Regulation of ovarian cancer cell viability and sensitivity to cisplatin by progesterone receptor membrane component-1. Peluso, J.J., Liu, X., Saunders, M.M., Claffey, K.P., Phoenix, K. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2008) [Pubmed]
  7. TIP47: a cargo selection device for mannose 6-phosphate receptor trafficking. Díaz, E., Pfeffer, S.R. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Membrane sex-steroid receptors in the brain. Ramirez, V.D., Zheng, J. Frontiers in neuroendocrinology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Cargo-selective endosomal sorting for retrieval to the Golgi requires retromer. Seaman, M.N. J. Cell Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Adherence to statin therapy and LDL cholesterol goal attainment by patients with diabetes and dyslipidemia. Parris, E.S., Lawrence, D.B., Mohn, L.A., Long, L.B. Diabetes Care (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Basolateral sorting signal of the 300-kDa mannose 6-phosphate receptor. Wick, D.A., Seetharam, B., Dahms, N.M. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Transcriptional activation of the membrane-bound progesterone receptor (mPR) by dioxin, in endocrine-responsive tissues. Selmin, O., Thorne, P.A., Blachere, F.M., Johnson, P.D., Romagnolo, D.F. Mol. Reprod. Dev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Characteristics of extravascular serotonin receptors in the brain. Haigler, H.J. Advances in neurology. (1982) [Pubmed]
  14. Photo-leucine and photo-methionine allow identification of protein-protein interactions in living cells. Suchanek, M., Radzikowska, A., Thiele, C. Nat. Methods (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Expression and function of PAIRBP1 within gonadotropin-primed immature rat ovaries: PAIRBP1 regulation of granulosa and luteal cell viability. Peluso, J.J., Pappalardo, A., Losel, R., Wehling, M. Biol. Reprod. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Cloning and tissue expression of two putative steroid membrane receptors. Gerdes, D., Wehling, M., Leube, B., Falkenstein, E. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Progesterone Regulation of Human Granulosa/Luteal Cell Viability by an RU486-Independent Mechanism. Engmann, L., Losel, R., Wehling, M., Peluso, J.J. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Neither type of mannose 6-phosphate receptor is sufficient for targeting of lysosomal enzymes along intracellular routes. Kasper, D., Dittmer, F., von Figura, K., Pohlmann, R. J. Cell Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Possible pathways for lysosomal enzyme delivery. Geuze, H.J., Slot, J.W., Strous, G.J., Hasilik, A., von Figura, K. J. Cell Biol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  20. A clathrin/dynamin- and mannose-6-phosphate receptor-independent pathway for granzyme B-induced cell death. Trapani, J.A., Sutton, V.R., Thia, K.Y., Li, Y.Q., Froelich, C.J., Jans, D.A., Sandrin, M.S., Browne, K.A. J. Cell Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Transport from late endosomes to lysosomes, but not sorting of integral membrane proteins in endosomes, depends on the vacuolar proton pump. van Weert, A.W., Dunn, K.W., Gueze, H.J., Maxfield, F.R., Stoorvogel, W. J. Cell Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Increased levels of glycoproteins containing mannose 6-phosphate in human breast carcinomas. Sleat, D.E., Chen, T.L., Raska, K., Lobel, P. Cancer Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Phosphorylation of the cytoplasmic tail of the 300-kDa mannose 6-phosphate receptor is required for the interaction with a cytosolic protein. Rosorius, O., Issinger, O.G., Braulke, T. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Rat brain contains high levels of mannose-6-phosphorylated glycoproteins including lysosomal enzymes and palmitoyl-protein thioesterase, an enzyme implicated in infantile neuronal lipofuscinosis. Sleat, D.E., Sohar, I., Lackland, H., Majercak, J., Lobel, P. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  25. Expression of the receptor MPL and proliferative effects of its ligand thrombopoietin on human leukemia cells. Quentmeier, H., Zaborski, M., Graf, G., Ludwig, W.D., Drexler, H.G. Leukemia (1996) [Pubmed]
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