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Gene Review

Prdm1  -  PR domain containing 1, with ZNF domain

Mus musculus

Synonyms: B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1, Beta-interferon gene positive regulatory domain I-binding factor, Blimp-1, Blimp1, PR domain zinc finger protein 1, ...
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Disease relevance of Prdm1

  • Stable or transient transfection of Blimp-1 into B cell lymphoma lines leads to the expression of many of the phenotypic changes associated with B cell differentiation into an early plasma cell stage, including induction of J chain message and immunoglobulin secretion, up-regulation of Syndecan-1, and increased cell size and granularity [1].
  • Blimp1 appears to govern cellular input into the gland since its loss leads to elevated c-myc expression, augmented cell proliferation, and SG hyperplasia [2].
  • Positive regulatory domain 1-binding factor 1 (PRDI-BF1), called B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (Blimp-1) in mice, represses the expression of CIITA pIII in plasma and multiple myeloma cells [3].
  • Mice lacking Blimp-1 developed severe colitis as early as 6 weeks of age, and Blimp-1-deficient regulatory T cells were defective in blocking the development of colitis [4].

High impact information on Prdm1

  • Finally, BrdU labeling experiments demonstrate that the SG defects associated with loss of Blimp1 lead to enhanced bulge stem cell activity, suggesting that when normal SG homeostasis is perturbed, multipotent stem cells in the bulge can be mobilized to correct this imbalance [2].
  • Blimp1 defines a progenitor population that governs cellular input to the sebaceous gland [2].
  • Thus, Blimp-1 appears to be a pleiotropic regulatory factor capable of at least partially driving the terminal differentiation of B cells [1].
  • Blimp-1, a novel zinc finger-containing protein that can drive the maturation of B lymphocytes into immunoglobulin-secreting cells [1].
  • Differentiating xbp1-deficient B cells induced Blimp-1 normally but failed to upregulate genes encoding many secretory pathway components [5].

Biological context of Prdm1

  • By gene expression profiling, we defined a set of genes whose induction during mouse plasmacytic differentiation is dependent on Blimp-1 and/or XBP1 [5].
  • Consistent with this, ectopic Blimp-1 repressed c-Myc expression and inhibited cell growth [6].
  • B1 cells showed the most rapid and pronounced up-regulation of Blimp-1 in response to the mitogens tested, followed by marginal zone B cells and then conventional B2 cells [7].
  • Different kinetics of blimp-1 induction in B cell subsets revealed by reporter gene [7].
  • Using a mouse expressing GFP under the control of the Blimp-1 regulatory elements (Blimp-1(GFP/+)), we examined the kinetics of Blimp-1 up-regulation in purified B cell subsets following activation [7].

Anatomical context of Prdm1

  • Here we show that Blimp1 (also known as Prdm1), a known transcriptional repressor, has a critical role in the foundation of the mouse germ cell lineage, as its disruption causes a block early in the process of primordial germ cell formation [8].
  • XBP1, downstream of Blimp-1, expands the secretory apparatus and other organelles, and increases protein synthesis in plasma cell differentiation [5].
  • Blimp-1-dependent repression of Pax-5 is required for differentiation of B cells to immunoglobulin M-secreting plasma cells [9].
  • Here, we report the existence of a population of unipotent progenitor cells that reside in the SG and express the transcriptional repressor Blimp1 [2].
  • Thus, maturation from transient plasmablast to long-lived ASCs in bone marrow is predicated on quantitative increases in Blimp-1 expression [10].

Associations of Prdm1 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Prdm1


Regulatory relationships of Prdm1

  • Under these conditions, the loss of OBF-1 blocks the genetic program of ASC differentiation so that Blimp-1/prdm1 induction fails, and bcl-6, Pax5, and AID are not repressed as in control ASC [16].
  • We demonstrate a direct connection between BSAP and B-lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (Blimp-1), a transcriptional repressor that is sufficient to drive plasmacytic differentiation [9].
  • To determine the role of Blimp-1 in B cell development in vivo, we have generated transgenic mice expressing an interfering truncated form of Blimp-1 (TBlimp) under the control of an immunoglobulin heavy chain promoter and intronic (E) enhancer [17].
  • These data indicate that CD38 ligation increases IL-5 receptor alpha expression and synergizes with IL-5 to enhance Blimp1 expression and IgM synthesis [18].
  • Moreover, B cells with restrained endogenous Gal-3 expression failed to down-regulate the Blimp-1 transcription factor after IL-4 stimulation [19].

Other interactions of Prdm1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Prdm1

  • Using cell-culture studies and genetic lineage tracing, we demonstrate that Blimp1-expressing cells are upstream from other cells of the SG lineage [2].
  • Using DNA microarrays, we found that introduction of Blimp-1 into B cells blocked expression of a remarkably large set of genes, while a much smaller number was induced [23].
  • However, T-B cell cocultures of spleen B cells from C3H/HeJ (H-2k) mice and syngeneic autoreactive SR.10 Th2 cells submitted to the anti-Blimp-1 therapy did not show any significant reduction in IgM- and IgG1-secreting plasma cell formation [11].
  • Blimp-1 is expressed in plasma cells derived from either a T-independent or T-dependent response in plasma cells that have undergone isotype switching and those resulting from secondary immunization [24].
  • We find that BCL-6 suppresses the differentiation of transformed and primary B cells to plasma cells by inhibiting the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3-dependent expression of the major regulator of plasma cell development, the B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein (Blimp-1) [25].


  1. Blimp-1, a novel zinc finger-containing protein that can drive the maturation of B lymphocytes into immunoglobulin-secreting cells. Turner, C.A., Mack, D.H., Davis, M.M. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Blimp1 defines a progenitor population that governs cellular input to the sebaceous gland. Horsley, V., O'Carroll, D., Tooze, R., Ohinata, Y., Saitou, M., Obukhanych, T., Nussenzweig, M., Tarakhovsky, A., Fuchs, E. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Positive regulatory domain I-binding factor 1 mediates repression of the MHC class II transactivator (CIITA) type IV promoter. Chen, H., Gilbert, C.A., Hudson, J.A., Bolick, S.C., Wright, K.L., Piskurich, J.F. Mol. Immunol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  4. Transcriptional repressor Blimp-1 regulates T cell homeostasis and function. Martins, G.A., Cimmino, L., Shapiro-Shelef, M., Szabolcs, M., Herron, A., Magnusdottir, E., Calame, K. Nat. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. XBP1, downstream of Blimp-1, expands the secretory apparatus and other organelles, and increases protein synthesis in plasma cell differentiation. Shaffer, A.L., Shapiro-Shelef, M., Iwakoshi, N.N., Lee, A.H., Qian, S.B., Zhao, H., Yu, X., Yang, L., Tan, B.K., Rosenwald, A., Hurt, E.M., Petroulakis, E., Sonenberg, N., Yewdell, J.W., Calame, K., Glimcher, L.H., Staudt, L.M. Immunity (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. ICSBP/IRF-8 inhibits mitogenic activity of p210 Bcr/Abl in differentiating myeloid progenitor cells. Tamura, T., Kong, H.J., Tunyaplin, C., Tsujimura, H., Calame, K., Ozato, K. Blood (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Different kinetics of blimp-1 induction in B cell subsets revealed by reporter gene. Fairfax, K.A., Corcoran, L.M., Pridans, C., Huntington, N.D., Kallies, A., Nutt, S.L., Tarlinton, D.M. J. Immunol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  8. Blimp1 is a critical determinant of the germ cell lineage in mice. Ohinata, Y., Payer, B., O'Carroll, D., Ancelin, K., Ono, Y., Sano, M., Barton, S.C., Obukhanych, T., Nussenzweig, M., Tarakhovsky, A., Saitou, M., Surani, M.A. Nature (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Blimp-1-dependent repression of Pax-5 is required for differentiation of B cells to immunoglobulin M-secreting plasma cells. Lin, K.I., Angelin-Duclos, C., Kuo, T.C., Calame, K. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Plasma cell ontogeny defined by quantitative changes in blimp-1 expression. Kallies, A., Hasbold, J., Tarlinton, D.M., Dietrich, W., Corcoran, L.M., Hodgkin, P.D., Nutt, S.L. J. Exp. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Differential involvement of the transcription factor Blimp-1 in T cell-independent and -dependent B cell differentiation to plasma cells. Soro, P.G., Morales-A, P., Martínez-M, J.A., Morales-A, S., Copín, S.G., Marcos, M.A., Gaspar, M.L. J. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Activation of terminal B cell differentiation by inhibition of histone deacetylation. Lee, S.C., Bottaro, A., Insel, R.A. Mol. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Blimp1 associates with Prmt5 and directs histone arginine methylation in mouse germ cells. Ancelin, K., Lange, U.C., Hajkova, P., Schneider, R., Bannister, A.J., Kouzarides, T., Surani, M.A. Nat. Cell Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Blimp-1 overcomes the block in IgM secretion in lipopolysaccharide/anti-mu F(ab')2-co-stimulated B lymphocytes. Schliephake, D.E., Schimpl, A. Eur. J. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. IgG1 production by sIgD+ splenic B cells and peritoneal B-1 cells in response to IL-5 and CD38 ligation. Yasue, T., Baba, M., Mori, S., Mizoguchi, C., Uehara, S., Takatsu, K. Int. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Differential requirement for OBF-1 during antibody-secreting cell differentiation. Corcoran, L.M., Hasbold, J., Dietrich, W., Hawkins, E., Kallies, A., Nutt, S.L., Tarlinton, D.M., Matthias, P., Hodgkin, P.D. J. Exp. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. An interfering form of Blimp-1 increases IgM secreting plasma cells and blocks maturation of peripheral B cells. Angelin-Duclos, C., Johnson, K., Liao, J., Lin, K.I., Calame, K. Eur. J. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. CD38 ligation induces tyrosine phosphorylation of Bruton tyrosine kinase and enhanced expression of interleukin 5-receptor alpha chain: synergistic effects with interleukin 5. Kikuchi, Y., Yasue, T., Miyake, K., Kimoto, M., Takatsu, K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Galectin-3 mediates IL-4-induced survival and differentiation of B cells: functional cross-talk and implications during Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Acosta-Rodríguez, E.V., Montes, C.L., Motrán, C.C., Zuniga, E.I., Liu, F.T., Rabinovich, G.A., Gruppi, A. J. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Transcription factor IRF4 controls plasma cell differentiation and class-switch recombination. Klein, U., Casola, S., Cattoretti, G., Shen, Q., Lia, M., Mo, T., Ludwig, T., Rajewsky, K., Dalla-Favera, R. Nat. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Direct repression of prdm1 by Bcl-6 inhibits plasmacytic differentiation. Tunyaplin, C., Shaffer, A.L., Angelin-Duclos, C.D., Yu, X., Staudt, L.M., Calame, K.L. J. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Effect of age on the immunoglobulin class switch. Frasca, D., Riley, R.L., Blomberg, B.B. Crit. Rev. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Blimp-1 orchestrates plasma cell differentiation by extinguishing the mature B cell gene expression program. Shaffer, A.L., Lin, K.I., Kuo, T.C., Yu, X., Hurt, E.M., Rosenwald, A., Giltnane, J.M., Yang, L., Zhao, H., Calame, K., Staudt, L.M. Immunity (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Commitment of B lymphocytes to a plasma cell fate is associated with Blimp-1 expression in vivo. Angelin-Duclos, C., Cattoretti, G., Lin, K.I., Calame, K. J. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Suppression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3-dependent B lymphocyte terminal differentiation by BCL-6. Reljic, R., Wagner, S.D., Peakman, L.J., Fearon, D.T. J. Exp. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
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