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Gene Review

Lgals3  -  lectin, galactose binding, soluble 3

Mus musculus

Synonyms: 35 kDa lectin, CBP 35, Carbohydrate-binding protein 35, GBP, Gal-3, ...
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Disease relevance of Lgals3


Psychiatry related information on Lgals3

  • Results suggest a significant interaction between laminin-like molecules and 110,000 mol.wt laminin-binding protein-like molecules in normal brain function, in response to CNS injury and possibly in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease [7].
  • Although the biological significance of this effect is not known, it is very interesting that a single episode of immobilization stress was sufficient to cause a significant decrease in galectin-3, implicating that this beta-galactoside-binding lectin might be involved in the physiological response to psychological stress [8].

High impact information on Lgals3


Chemical compound and disease context of Lgals3


Biological context of Lgals3


Anatomical context of Lgals3


Associations of Lgals3 with chemical compounds

  • Homogenates of uteroplacental tissue were incubated with immobilized recombinant galectin-3, and specifically bound proteins were eluted using lactose [22].
  • An alternatively spliced cDNA with the potential to encode a NH2 terminally extended Mac-2 protein with a stretch of hydrophobic amino acids at its NH2 terminus was also found, but it is not clear whether it is the source of the extracellular Mac-2 [11].
  • Treatment of these cells with 1 microM beta-all-trans-retinoic acid or 1 mM N6,O2'-dibutyryl cyclic AMP for 5 days induced morphological differentiation, inhibition of anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent growths, and a selective decrease in the L-34 lectin level [4].
  • NG2 proteoglycan promotes endothelial cell motility and angiogenesis via engagement of galectin-3 and alpha3beta1 integrin [24].
  • The dimeric form of CBP35 binds to laminin with higher affinity than does monomer and by a lactosamine-dependent mechanism [25].

Physical interactions of Lgals3


Regulatory relationships of Lgals3

  • Nucling was found to down-regulate the expression level of galectin-3 mRNA/protein [19].
  • Co-transfection of pPG3.5, a plasmid vector containing the rabbit galectin-3 promoter and the constructs pMCL-MKK1 N3 or pRC-RSV-MKK3Glu that constitutively express MKK1 and MKK3, raised the activity of galectin-3 promoter by 185% and 110%, respectively [20].
  • Antibodies to the galectin-3 N-terminal oligomerization domain stimulate alpha5beta1 activation and recruitment to fibrillar adhesions in Mgat5(+/+) cells, an effect that is blocked by disrupting galectin-glycan binding [29].
  • Moreover, B cells with restrained endogenous Gal-3 expression failed to down-regulate the Blimp-1 transcription factor after IL-4 stimulation [30].
  • Galectin-3 expression and proliferation were down-regulated by withdrawal of IL-2 and gamma irradiation [31].

Other interactions of Lgals3

  • The extent of acceleration of re-epithelialization of wounds with both galectin-3 and galectin-7 was greater than that observed in most of the published studies using growth factors [17].
  • Unexpectedly, cubilin was found only in perforin-containing granules of uterine natural killer (uNK) cells, although galectin-3 occurred throughout the cell cytoplasm [22].
  • Embryonic implantation in galectin 1/galectin 3 double mutant mice [32].
  • In the large intestine, galectin-4/6 predominated, and the upper half of crypts simultaneously contained transcripts of galectin-3 [33].
  • Galectin-2 was intensely expressed from crypts to the base of villi, whereas transcripts of galectin-3 gathered at villous tips [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Lgals3


  1. Galectins-1 and -3 and their ligands in tumor biology. Non-uniform properties in cell-surface presentation and modulation of adhesion to matrix glycoproteins for various tumor cell lines, in biodistribution of free and liposome-bound galectins and in their expression by breast and colorectal carcinomas with/without metastatic propensity. André, S., Kojima, S., Yamazaki, N., Fink, C., Kaltner, H., Kayser, K., Gabius, H.J. J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Galectin-3 regulates myofibroblast activation and hepatic fibrosis. Henderson, N.C., Mackinnon, A.C., Farnworth, S.L., Poirier, F., Russo, F.P., Iredale, J.P., Haslett, C., Simpson, K.J., Sethi, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Concomitant increases in galectin-1 and its glycoconjugate ligands (carcinoembryonic antigen, lamp-1, and lamp-2) in cultured human colon carcinoma cells by sodium butyrate. Ohannesian, D.W., Lotan, D., Lotan, R. Cancer Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Biochemical and immunological characterization of K-1735P melanoma galactoside-binding lectins and their modulation by differentiation inducers. Lotan, R., Carralero, D., Lotan, D., Raz, A. Cancer Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. Galectin-3 reduces the severity of pneumococcal pneumonia by augmenting neutrophil function. Farnworth, S.L., Henderson, N.C., Mackinnon, A.C., Atkinson, K.M., Wilkinson, T., Dhaliwal, K., Hayashi, K., Simpson, A.J., Rossi, A.G., Haslett, C., Sethi, T. Am. J. Pathol. (2008) [Pubmed]
  6. Galectin-3 gene inactivation reduces atherosclerotic lesions and adventitial inflammation in ApoE-deficient mice. Nachtigal, M., Ghaffar, A., Mayer, E.P. Am. J. Pathol. (2008) [Pubmed]
  7. Localization of a laminin-binding protein in brain. Jucker, M., Walker, L.C., Kibbey, M.C., Kleinman, H.K., Ingram, D.K. Neuroscience (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Galectin-3 decreases in mice exposed to immobilization stress. Dumić, J., Barisić, K., Flögel, M., Lauc, G. Stress (Amsterdam, Netherlands) (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Abolition of anaphylaxis by targeted disruption of the high affinity immunoglobulin E receptor alpha chain gene. Dombrowicz, D., Flamand, V., Brigman, K.K., Koller, B.H., Kinet, J.P. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Identification of the low affinity receptor for immunoglobulin E on mouse mast cells and macrophages as Fc gamma RII and Fc gamma RIII. Takizawa, F., Adamczewski, M., Kinet, J.P. J. Exp. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. The Mac-2 antigen is a galactose-specific lectin that binds IgE. Cherayil, B.J., Weiner, S.J., Pillai, S. J. Exp. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. Expression of two different endogenous galactoside-binding lectins sharing sequence homology. Raz, A., Carmi, P., Pazerini, G. Cancer Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  13. Role of galectin-3 as an adhesion molecule for neutrophil extravasation during streptococcal pneumonia. Sato, S., Ouellet, N., Pelletier, I., Simard, M., Rancourt, A., Bergeron, M.G. J. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Galectin-3 promotes neural cell adhesion and neurite growth. Pesheva, P., Kuklinski, S., Schmitz, B., Probstmeier, R. J. Neurosci. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. A parallel association between differentiation and induction of galectin-1, and inhibition of galectin-3 by retinoic acid in mouse embryonal carcinoma F9 cells. Lu, Y., Amos, B., Cruise, E., Lotan, D., Lotan, R. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Inhibition of human cancer cell growth and metastasis in nude mice by oral intake of modified citrus pectin. Nangia-Makker, P., Hogan, V., Honjo, Y., Baccarini, S., Tait, L., Bresalier, R., Raz, A. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Galectins-3 and -7, but not galectin-1, play a role in re-epithelialization of wounds. Cao, Z., Said, N., Amin, S., Wu, H.K., Bruce, A., Garate, M., Hsu, D.K., Kuwabara, I., Liu, F.T., Panjwani, N. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Differential expression of two beta-galactoside-binding lectins in the reproductive tracts of pregnant mice. Phillips, B., Knisley, K., Weitlauf, K.D., Dorsett, J., Lee, V., Weitlauf, H. Biol. Reprod. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Nucling mediates apoptosis by inhibiting expression of galectin-3 through interference with nuclear factor kappaB signalling. Liu, L., Sakai, T., Sano, N., Fukui, K. Biochem. J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Galectin-3 expression in macrophages is signaled by Ras/MAP kinase pathway and up-regulated by modified lipoproteins. Kim, K., Mayer, E.P., Nachtigal, M. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Galectin-3 augments K-Ras activation and triggers a Ras signal that attenuates ERK but not phosphoinositide 3-kinase activity. Elad-Sfadia, G., Haklai, R., Balan, E., Kloog, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Cubilin, a binding partner for galectin-3 in the murine utero-placental complex. Crider-Pirkle, S., Billingsley, P., Faust, C., Hardy, D.M., Lee, V., Weitlauf, H. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Human breast carcinoma cDNA encoding a galactoside-binding lectin homologous to mouse Mac-2 antigen. Oda, Y., Leffler, H., Sakakura, Y., Kasai, K., Barondes, S.H. Gene (1991) [Pubmed]
  24. NG2 proteoglycan promotes endothelial cell motility and angiogenesis via engagement of galectin-3 and alpha3beta1 integrin. Fukushi, J., Makagiansar, I.T., Stallcup, W.B. Mol. Biol. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Carbohydrate-binding protein 35 (Mac-2), a laminin-binding lectin, forms functional dimers using cysteine 186. Woo, H.J., Lotz, M.M., Jung, J.U., Mercurio, A.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  26. UDP-N-acetylglucosamine:alpha-6-D-mannoside beta1,6 N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V (Mgat5) deficient mice. Dennis, J.W., Pawling, J., Cheung, P., Partridge, E., Demetriou, M. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Specificity of interactions of galectin-3 with Chrp, a cysteine- and histidine-rich cytoplasmic protein. Bawumia, S., Barboni, E.A., Menon, R.P., Hughes, R.C. Biochimie (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. Midkine binds to 37-kDa laminin binding protein precursor, leading to nuclear transport of the complex. Salama, R.H., Muramatsu, H., Zou, K., Inui, T., Kimura, T., Muramatsu, T. Exp. Cell Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  29. Galectin binding to Mgat5-modified N-glycans regulates fibronectin matrix remodeling in tumor cells. Lagana, A., Goetz, J.G., Cheung, P., Raz, A., Dennis, J.W., Nabi, I.R. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  30. Galectin-3 mediates IL-4-induced survival and differentiation of B cells: functional cross-talk and implications during Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Acosta-Rodríguez, E.V., Montes, C.L., Motrán, C.C., Zuniga, E.I., Liu, F.T., Rabinovich, G.A., Gruppi, A. J. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  31. Expression and function of galectin-3, a beta-galactoside-binding protein in activated T lymphocytes. Joo, H.G., Goedegebuure, P.S., Sadanaga, N., Nagoshi, M., von Bernstorff, W., Eberlein, T.J. J. Leukoc. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  32. Embryonic implantation in galectin 1/galectin 3 double mutant mice. Colnot, C., Fowlis, D., Ripoche, M.A., Bouchaert, I., Poirier, F. Dev. Dyn. (1998) [Pubmed]
  33. Differential cellular expression of galectin family mRNAs in the epithelial cells of the mouse digestive tract. Nio, J., Kon, Y., Iwanaga, T. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. Immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization analysis of galectin-3, a beta-galactoside binding lectin, in the urinary system of adult mice. Nio, J., Takahashi-Iwanaga, H., Morimatsu, M., Kon, Y., Iwanaga, T. Histochem. Cell Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  35. Critical role of galectin-3 in phagocytosis by macrophages. Sano, H., Hsu, D.K., Apgar, J.R., Yu, L., Sharma, B.B., Kuwabara, I., Izui, S., Liu, F.T. J. Clin. Invest. (2003) [Pubmed]
  36. Galectin-3 precipitates as a pentamer with synthetic multivalent carbohydrates and forms heterogeneous cross-linked complexes. Ahmad, N., Gabius, H.J., André, S., Kaltner, H., Sabesan, S., Roy, R., Liu, B., Macaluso, F., Brewer, C.F. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
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