The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

Cr2  -  complement receptor 2

Mus musculus

Synonyms: C3DR, CD21, CD35, Complement C3d receptor, Complement receptor type 2, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Cr2

  • These data demonstrate a functionally significant phenotype for the NZM2410 Cr2 allele and strongly support its role as a lupus susceptibility gene [1].
  • These phenotypes mapped to the same two loci identified with the chronic graft-vs-host disease model, excluding the Cr2 region [2].
  • Here, we report on the use of a mouse model of intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury to investigate the strategy of targeting complement inhibition to sites of complement activation by linking an iC3b/C3dg-binding fragment of mouse complement receptor 2 (CR2) to a mouse complement-inhibitory protein, Crry [3].
  • Furthermore, the minimum effective dose of Crry-Ig significantly enhanced susceptibility to infection in a mouse model of acute septic peritonitis, whereas the effect of CR2-Crry on susceptibility to infection was indistinguishable from that of PBS control [3].
  • A role for the Cr2 gene in modifying autoantibody production in systemic lupus erythematosus [4].

High impact information on Cr2

  • Covalent attachment of activated complement C3 (C3d) to antigen links innate and adaptive immunity by targeting antigen to follicular dendritic cells (FDC) and B cells via specific receptors CD21 and CD35 [5].
  • Priming of T-helper cells and cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) in lung-draining lymph nodes was reduced, and the recruitment into the lung of virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ effector T cells producing interferon-gamma was severely impaired in C3-/- but not in Cr2-/- mice [6].
  • The ligand for the subunit of the immune system, CD19, is not known, but the complement receptor subunit, CR2 (CD21), binds activation fragments of the C3 component of the complement system and may mediate immunopotentiating effects of complement [7].
  • B cells lacking TRAF2 expression in these mice possessed a selective survival advantage, accumulated in the lymph nodes and splenic marginal zone, were larger in size, and expressed increased levels of CD21/35 [8].
  • Thus, CD21/35 expression is critical for early protective antibody responses to lethal pathogens that rapidly multiply and quickly overwhelm the immune system [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Cr2

  • This hypothesis is supported by the finding that mice deficient in CD21 and CD35 have a reduced number of CD5+ B-1 cells and are missing specificities for certain antigens commonly found in wild-type mice, such as lipopolysaccharide, Escherichia coli surface antigens and neoepitopes expressed on hypoxic intestinal endothelium [10].
  • Monoclonal and anti-idiotypic anti-EBV/C3d receptor antibodies detect two binding sites, one for EBV and one for C3d on glycoprotein 140, the EBV/C3dR, expressed on human B lymphocytes [11].
  • When dithiothreitol extracts of clone P and H12 were compared by immunoblot, both quantitative and qualitative differences in reactivities were observed with antibodies specific for the Candida C3d receptor and with antiserum from a patient with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis [12].

Biological context of Cr2

  • NZM2410/NZW Cr2 exhibits a single nucleotide polymorphism that introduces a novel glycosylation site, resulting in higher molecular weight proteins [1].
  • Thus, compared with systemic inhibition, CR2-mediated targeting of a complement inhibitor of activation improved bioavailability, significantly enhanced efficacy, and maintained host resistance to infection [3].
  • Rapid up-regulation of B7-1 expression, a unique response to CD21/CD35 and CD19 cross-linking, may be a particularly important effect of C3-containing ligands [13].
  • Functional data revealed that no single region conferred cell-specific reporter gene expression, but rather the entire CD21 regulatory element was required to confer cell-specific gene expression [14].
  • An impaired removal of apoptotic bodies, a disturbed clearance of IgG immune complexes (ICs) and an insufficient B-cell regulation via complement receptors CD21/CD35 have been discussed as explanations for the induction of autoimmunity; however, a unifying hypothesis for the loss of B-cell tolerance in the absence of C1 or C4 is still lacking [15].

Anatomical context of Cr2

  • A chronic graft-vs-host disease model also showed that Sle1c produces significantly more autoreactive B cells than B6 controls, and that this phenotype maps to two regions excluding the Cr2 gene [2].
  • Overall, these results show that Sle1c results in the production of autoreactive B and T cells through the expression of three different genes, one of which is consistent with Cr2, based on the phenotypes of the Cr2-deficient mice, and the other two corresponding to as yet unidentified genes [2].
  • The murine complement receptor type 2 gene (Cr2/CD21) is expressed by murine B and follicular dendritic cells, but not murine T cells [14].
  • Thus, contrary to previously published data, murine macrophages do not possess the Cr2 gene products [16].
  • Moreover, Cr2-/- mice had a severe defect in their humoral response to T-dependent antigens that was characterized by a reduction in serum antibody titers and in the number and size of germinal centers within splenic follicles [17].

Associations of Cr2 with chemical compounds

  • Enhancement was significantly impaired in mice depleted of complement factor C3 and in mice lacking complement receptors 1 and 2 (Cr2-/-) [18].
  • We find that self-reactive B lymphocytes deficient in complement receptors CD21/CD35 or transferred into mice deficient in the complement protein C4 are not anergized by soluble self-antigen [19].
  • However, when LPS alone was added, only the Cr2 transcript levels were diminished [20].
  • To determine whether this reduction reflects a loss of certain specificities or simply a proportional decline in the repertoire, we examined peritoneal B cells isolated from Cr2(+) and Cr2(def) mice for recognition of a B-1 cell Ag, i.e., phosphatidylcholine, and assayed for injury in an IgM natural Ab-dependent model of reperfusion injury [21].
  • Tg B cell precursors grown on stroma and IL-7 expressed sIgM on >90% of the cells, and a large proportion of these cells coexpressed additional maturation markers such as IgD, CD23, CD21, and L-selectin, indicating that IL-7 does not inhibit maturation of Tg B cell precursors [22].

Regulatory relationships of Cr2

  • In the presence of LPS and anti-mu both Cr2 and Oct-2 transcripts were diminished while the control beta-actin transcript levels remained unchanged [20].
  • Embryonic cells express mRNA for Crry similarly to other cells but additionally express Cr2-transcripts not found in most adult cells [23].
  • SA-C3dg enhancement of BCR-induced [Ca2+]i responses required CD21 and CD19 expression and resulted in significantly enhanced CD19 and Lyn phosphorylation, with enhanced Lyn/CD19 associations [24].

Other interactions of Cr2

  • In the second model, deficiency in CD21/CD35 or C4 combined with CD95 deficiency results in high titers of anti-nuclear antibodies leading to severe lupus-like disease [19].
  • CR2-Crry has a significantly shorter serum half-life than Crry-Ig and, unlike Crry-Ig, had no significant effect on serum complement activity at minimum effective therapeutic doses [3].
  • Here, we show that RAG-2 expression in murine splenic B cells was abrogated by the coligation of BCR with complement receptors (CD21/CD35) much more efficiently than by the engagement of BCR alone [25].
  • The enhanced maturation of follicular B cells is accompanied by the absence of MZ B lymphocytes and the downregulation of CD21 expression in follicular B cells, all of which depend on the generation of signals via Btk, which is in epistasis to Aiolos [26].
  • The quantities of both Cr2 transcripts, as well as those encoding Oct-2, were substantially reduced in splenocytes and peripheral lymphatic tissues obtained from these infected mice while those encoding the mouse Crry protein, the B-cell marker CD19 and beta-actin remained unchanged [20].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Cr2


  1. Cr2, a candidate gene in the murine Sle1c lupus susceptibility locus, encodes a dysfunctional protein. Boackle, S.A., Holers, V.M., Chen, X., Szakonyi, G., Karp, D.R., Wakeland, E.K., Morel, L. Immunity (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Several genes contribute to the production of autoreactive B and T cells in the murine lupus susceptibility locus Sle1c. Chen, Y., Perry, D., Boackle, S.A., Sobel, E.S., Molina, H., Croker, B.P., Morel, L. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Targeted complement inhibition by C3d recognition ameliorates tissue injury without apparent increase in susceptibility to infection. Atkinson, C., Song, H., Lu, B., Qiao, F., Burns, T.A., Holers, V.M., Tsokos, G.C., Tomlinson, S. J. Clin. Invest. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. A role for the Cr2 gene in modifying autoantibody production in systemic lupus erythematosus. Wu, X., Jiang, N., Deppong, C., Singh, J., Dolecki, G., Mao, D., Morel, L., Molina, H.D. J. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. The role of complement and complement receptors in induction and regulation of immunity. Carroll, M.C. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Complement component C3 promotes T-cell priming and lung migration to control acute influenza virus infection. Kopf, M., Abel, B., Gallimore, A., Carroll, M., Bachmann, M.F. Nat. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Suppression of the immune response by a soluble complement receptor of B lymphocytes. Hebell, T., Ahearn, J.M., Fearon, D.T. Science (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. TRAF2 differentially regulates the canonical and noncanonical pathways of NF-kappaB activation in mature B cells. Grech, A.P., Amesbury, M., Chan, T., Gardam, S., Basten, A., Brink, R. Immunity (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Complement receptors CD21/35 link innate and protective immunity during Streptococcus pneumoniae infection by regulating IgG3 antibody responses. Haas, K.M., Hasegawa, M., Steeber, D.A., Poe, J.C., Zabel, M.D., Bock, C.B., Karp, D.R., Briles, D.E., Weis, J.H., Tedder, T.F. Immunity (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Linkages of innate and adaptive immunity. Carroll, M.C., Prodeus, A.P. Curr. Opin. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Monoclonal and anti-idiotypic anti-EBV/C3d receptor antibodies detect two binding sites, one for EBV and one for C3d on glycoprotein 140, the EBV/C3dR, expressed on human B lymphocytes. Barel, M., Fiandino, A., Delcayre, A.X., Lyamani, F., Frade, R. J. Immunol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  12. Isolation of avirulent clones of Candida albicans with reduced ability to recognize the CR2 ligand C3d. Franzke, S., Calderone, R.A., Schaller, K. Infect. Immun. (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Cross-linking CD21/CD35 or CD19 increases both B7-1 and B7-2 expression on murine splenic B cells. Kozono, Y., Abe, R., Kozono, H., Kelly, R.G., Azuma, T., Holers, V.M. J. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Yin Yang 1, Oct1, and NFAT-4 form repeating, cyclosporin-sensitive regulatory modules within the murine CD21 intronic control region. Zabel, M.D., Wheeler, W., Weis, J.J., Weis, J.H. J. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Antigen localization within the splenic marginal zone restores humoral immune response and IgG class switch in complement C4-deficient mice. Zachrau, B., Finke, D., Kropf, K., Gosink, H.J., Kirchner, H., Goerg, S. Int. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Murine macrophages lack expression of the Cr2-145 (CR2) and Cr2-190 (CR1) gene products. Martin, B.K., Weis, J.H. Eur. J. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Disruption of the Cr2 locus results in a reduction in B-1a cells and in an impaired B cell response to T-dependent antigen. Ahearn, J.M., Fischer, M.B., Croix, D., Goerg, S., Ma, M., Xia, J., Zhou, X., Howard, R.G., Rothstein, T.L., Carroll, M.C. Immunity (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. A role for complement in feedback enhancement of antibody responses by IgG3. Díaz de Ståhl, T., Dahlstrom, J., Carroll, M.C., Heyman, B. J. Exp. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. A critical role for complement in maintenance of self-tolerance. Prodeus, A.P., Goerg, S., Shen, L.M., Pozdnyakova, O.O., Chu, L., Alicot, E.M., Goodnow, C.C., Carroll, M.C. Immunity (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Murine complement receptor gene expression: Cr2 gene transcripts are depressed during a high dose microbial challenge. Tan, S.S., O'Toole, E.M., Kurtz, C.B., Weis, J.H. Immunology (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. Functional activity of natural antibody is altered in Cr2-deficient mice. Reid, R.R., Woodcock, S., Shimabukuro-Vornhagen, A., Austen, W.G., Kobzik, L., Zhang, M., Hechtman, H.B., Moore, F.D., Carroll, M.C. J. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. A functional B cell receptor transgene allows efficient IL-7-independent maturation of B cell precursors. Melamed, D., Kench, J.A., Grabstein, K., Rolink, A., Nemazee, D. J. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  23. Early embryonic cells activate the alternative complement system. Kircheis, R., Kircheis, L., Oshima, H., Kohchi, C., Soma, G., Mizuno, D. In Vivo (1995) [Pubmed]
  24. Complement component C3d-antigen complexes can either augment or inhibit B lymphocyte activation and humoral immunity in mice depending on the degree of CD21/CD19 complex engagement. Lee, Y., Haas, K.M., Gor, D.O., Ding, X., Karp, D.R., Greenspan, N.S., Poe, J.C., Tedder, T.F. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Role for complement receptors (CD21/CD35) in the regulation of recombination activating gene expression in murine peripheral B cells. Ohmori, H., Magari, M., Nakayama, Y., Kanayama, N., Hikida, M. Immunol. Lett. (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. The follicular versus marginal zone B lymphocyte cell fate decision is regulated by Aiolos, Btk, and CD21. Cariappa, A., Tang, M., Parng, C., Nebelitskiy, E., Carroll, M., Georgopoulos, K., Pillai, S. Immunity (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. Expression of the murine CD21 gene is regulated by promoter and intronic sequences. Hu, H., Martin, B.K., Weis, J.J., Weis, J.H. J. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  28. A role for CD21/CD35 and CD19 in responses to acute septic peritonitis: a potential mechanism for mast cell activation. Gommerman, J.L., Oh, D.Y., Zhou, X., Tedder, T.F., Maurer, M., Galli, S.J., Carroll, M.C. J. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  29. The role of complement receptors in production of antibodies specific for Galalpha1,3Gal. Kaye, J., Bagley, J., Malkowski, D., Iacomini, J. Transplantation (2004) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities