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Gene Review

Klk1  -  kallikrein 1

Mus musculus

Synonyms: 0610007D04Rik, Glandular kallikrein K1, KAL-B, Kal, Kallikrein-1, ...
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Disease relevance of Klk1


High impact information on Klk1


Chemical compound and disease context of Klk1


Biological context of Klk1

  • Southern blotting and interspecific backcross analyses indicate that this murine locus represents a single copy sequence mapping to a novel locus 2.1 centimorgans from the Klk1 locus, in a region of homology between mouse chromosome 7 and the human FUT1 locus on the long arm of chromosome 19 [13].
  • Differential expression phenotypes were found between the renal kallikrein gene and other members of the kallikrein gene family [14].
  • Partial sequence analysis of the kallikrein genes has facilitated identification of those members of the family for which protein sequence data exist and assignment of those which are pseudogenes or encode proteins of unknown function [15].
  • We have cloned a type of cDNA for a functional glandular kallikrein, designated as mouse Klk21 (mKlk21), from the adult mouse testis cDNA library. mKlk21 was expressed in the kidney, submaxillary glands, and testis of the mouse [16].
  • SDS-PAGE and amino acid sequence analysis revealed that the cytocidal factor was mouse glandular kallikrein (mGK)-6. mGK-6 showed an optimal enzyme activity at pH 10 and a cytocidal activity against thymocytes in a dose-dependent manner [17].

Anatomical context of Klk1

  • In contrast, in the uterus or decidua, there was no expression of Klk1 until Day 7.5, when mRNA transcripts were abundant; transcripts then decreased in the Day 9.5 and Day 11 uterus [18].
  • Kallikrein transcripts in the mouse lactating mammary gland were detected by primer-directed enzyme amplification of complementary DNA (cDNA) [19].
  • Enhancement of lymphocyte proliferation by mouse glandular kallikrein [20].
  • This cell line, which is capable of processing other prohormones, only partially processed the proform of kallikrein to its active form, secreting it predominantly as the proform [21].
  • The results of immunohistochemistry and an autonomic therapy experiment showed that IL-1beta and kallikrein mK13 were co-localized in the secretory granules of granular convoluted tubular cells [22].

Associations of Klk1 with chemical compounds

  • Kallikrein treatment increased cardiac nitric oxide (NO) levels and reduced NAD(P)H oxidase activity and superoxide production [1].
  • Differential binding of thyroid hormone receptors to mouse glandular kallikrein gene promoters: evidence for multiple binding regions in the mGK-6 gene [23].
  • Amino-terminal sequence analysis has also revealed a marked degree of homology to mouse gamma-nerve growth factor (NGF) and the kallikrein family of serine proteases [24].
  • Decreased levels of kallikrein thus formed may be responsible for the inhibition of HK-dependent clotting activity and the decrease in rate and extent of HK cleavage in normal plasma on contact activation with dextran sulfate [25].
  • The inhibitor also liberated kinin upon treatment with trypsin or mouse glandular kallikrein, indicating that the inhibitor is a kininogen, and the kinin liberated upon trypsinization was identified as bradykinin [26].

Physical interactions of Klk1

  • These findings suggest that the alpha-NGF backbone can be corrected to a functional enzyme by the addition of a normal N-terminal structure and two catalytic site substitutions and that the 7S complex requires one kallikrein subunit in the zymogen form and one in an active conformation [27].
  • Three highly specific trypsin-like proteases from mouse submaxillary gland; nerve growth factor gamma subunit, beta nerve growth factor-endopeptidase, and epidermal growth factor-binding protein were tested for kallikrein activity [28].
  • The dysplasia-homing peptide is identical to a loop in kallikrein-9 and may bind a kallikrein inhibitor or substrate [29].

Enzymatic interactions of Klk1

  • Therefore, kallikrein mK13 would appear to hydrolyze pro-IL-1beta between its Leu113 and Leu114 residues [22].

Regulatory relationships of Klk1

  • The effects of the tetra benzamidine serine-proteinase inhibitor 1,3-di-(p-amidinophenoxy) -2,2- bis- (p-amidinophenoxymethyl)propane (TAPP-H) and related compounds, including halo-derivatives, were determined on the erythroid differentiation of murine erythroleukemic cells induced by trypsin and kallikrein [30].

Other interactions of Klk1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Klk1


  1. Tissue kallikrein protects against pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy through kinin B2 receptor and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta activation. Li, H.J., Yin, H., Yao, Y.Y., Shen, B., Bader, M., Chao, L., Chao, J. Cardiovasc. Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  2. The tissue kallikrein-kinin system protects against cardiovascular and renal diseases and ischemic stroke independently of blood pressure reduction. Chao, J., Bledsoe, G., Yin, H., Chao, L. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Overexpression of the human tissue kallikrein genes KLK4, 5, 6, and 7 increases the malignant phenotype of ovarian cancer cells. Prezas, P., Arlt, M.J., Viktorov, P., Soosaipillai, A., Holzscheiter, L., Schmitt, M., Talieri, M., Diamandis, E.P., Krüger, A., Magdolen, V. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Bradykinin B2 receptor knockout mice are protected from thrombosis by increased nitric oxide and prostacyclin. Shariat-Madar, Z., Mahdi, F., Warnock, M., Homeister, J.W., Srikanth, S., Krijanovski, Y., Murphey, L.J., Jaffa, A.A., Schmaier, A.H. Blood (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Early days of the nerve growth factor proteins. Shooter, E.M. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Structure of mouse kallikrein gene family suggests a role in specific processing of biologically active peptides. Mason, A.J., Evans, B.A., Cox, D.R., Shine, J., Richards, R.I. Nature (1983) [Pubmed]
  7. A plasma kallikrein-dependent plasminogen cascade required for adipocyte differentiation. Selvarajan, S., Lund, L.R., Takeuchi, T., Craik, C.S., Werb, Z. Nat. Cell Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Cellular basis for the differential response of mouse kallikrein genes to hormonal induction. van Leeuwen, B.H., Penschow, J.D., Coghlan, J.P., Richards, R.I. EMBO J. (1987) [Pubmed]
  9. Molecular phenotyping for analyzing subtle genetic effects in mice: application to an angiotensinogen gene titration. Kim, H.S., Lee, G., John, S.W., Maeda, N., Smithies, O. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Renal ischemia-induced increase in vascular permeability is limited by hypothermia. Carattino, M.D., Cueva, F., Zuccollo, A., Monti, J.L., Navarro, M., Catanzaro, O.L. Immunopharmacology (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Further immunological studies on components of the kallikrein-kinin system. Immunomodulatory effect in mice. Bratanov, K., Tornyov, A., Efremova, V., Somlev, B., Velev, B. Int. J. Fertil. (1984) [Pubmed]
  12. Antimetastatic activity of a synthetic serine protease inhibitor, FOY-305 (Foypan). Ohkoshi, M., Sasaki, Y. In Vivo (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Molecular cloning, chromosomal assignment and tissue-specific expression of a murine alpha(1,2)fucosyltransferase expressed in thymic and epididymal epithelial cells. Domino, S.E., Hiraiwa, N., Lowe, J.B. Biochem. J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Mouse glandular kallikrein genes. Identification, structure, and expression of the renal kallikrein gene. van Leeuwen, B.H., Evans, B.A., Tregear, G.W., Richards, R.I. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  15. Mouse glandular kallikrein genes. Structure and partial sequence analysis of the kallikrein gene locus. Evans, B.A., Drinkwater, C.C., Richards, R.I. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. Mouse testicular Leydig cells express Klk21, a tissue kallikrein that cleaves fibronectin and IGF-binding protein-3. Matsui, H., Takahashi, T. Endocrinology (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. A cytocidal tissue kallikrein isolated from mouse submandibular glands. Murakami, K., Ikigai, H., Nagumo, N., Tomita, M., Shimamura, T. FEBS Lett. (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. Temporal and tissue-specific expression of kallikrein (Klk) genes and identification of a novel Klk messenger ribonucleic acid transcript during early development in the mouse. Chan, C.S., Harvey, M.B., Clements, J.A. Biol. Reprod. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Detection of a kallikrein in the mouse lactating mammary gland: a possible processing enzyme for the epidermal growth factor precursor. Jahnke, G.D., Chao, J., Walker, M.P., Diaugustine, R.P. Endocrinology (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. Enhancement of lymphocyte proliferation by mouse glandular kallikrein. Hu, Z.Q., Murakami, K., Ikigai, H., Shimamura, T. Immunol. Lett. (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. mGK-6-derived true tissue kallikrein is synthesized, processed, and targeted through a regulated secretory pathway in mouse pituitary AtT-20 cells. Peters, J., Takahashi, S., Tada, M., Miyake, Y. J. Biochem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Tissue kallikrein mK13 is a candidate processing enzyme for the precursor of interleukin-1beta in the submandibular gland of mice. Yao, C., Karabasil, M.R., Purwanti, N., Li, X., Akamatsu, T., Kanamori, N., Hosoi, K. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Differential binding of thyroid hormone receptors to mouse glandular kallikrein gene promoters: evidence for multiple binding regions in the mGK-6 gene. Barlow, J.W., Raggatt, L.E., Drinkwater, C.C., Lyons, I.G., Richards, R.I. J. Mol. Endocrinol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  24. Nerve growth factor biosynthesis: isolation and characterization of a guinea pig prostate kallikrein. Dunbar, J.C., Bradshaw, R.A. J. Cell. Biochem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  25. Monoclonal antibody to human high-molecular-weight kininogen recognizes its prekallikrein binding site and inhibits its coagulant activity. Reddigari, S.R., Kaplan, A.P. Blood (1989) [Pubmed]
  26. Thiol proteinase inhibitor in the ascitic fluid of sarcoma 180 tumor-bearing mice. Itoh, N., Yokota, S., Takagishi, U., Hatta, A., Okamoto, H. Cancer Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  27. Nerve growth factor alpha subunit: effect of site-directed mutations on catalytic activity and 7S NGF complex formation. Yarski, M.A., Bax, B.D., Hogue-Angeletti, R.A., Bradshaw, R.A. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. The relationship between glandular kallikrein and growth factor-processing proteases of mouse submaxillary gland. Bothwell, M.A., Wilson, W.H., Shooter, E.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1979) [Pubmed]
  29. Progressive vascular changes in a transgenic mouse model of squamous cell carcinoma. Hoffman, J.A., Giraudo, E., Singh, M., Zhang, L., Inoue, M., Porkka, K., Hanahan, D., Ruoslahti, E. Cancer Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. Induction of murine erythroleukemia cell differentiation by proteinases is inhibited by aromatic poly-amidines. Nastruzzi, C., Feriotto, G., Barbieri, R., Ferroni, R., Guarneri, M., Gambari, R. Cell Biol. Int. Rep. (1989) [Pubmed]
  31. beta-NGF-endopeptidase: structure and activity of a kallikrein encoded by the gene mGK-22. Fahnestock, M., Woo, J.E., Lopez, G.A., Snow, J., Walz, D.A., Arici, M.J., Mobley, W.C. Biochemistry (1991) [Pubmed]
  32. Sequence of the mouse glandular kallikrein gene, mGK-5. Drinkwater, C.C., Richards, R.I. Nucleic Acids Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  33. Sequence of mGK-11, a mouse glandular kallikrein gene. Drinkwater, C.C., Richards, R.I. Nucleic Acids Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  34. Transcriptional Profiling of Androgen Receptor (AR) Mutants Suggests Instructive and Permissive Roles of AR Signaling in Germ Cell Development. Eacker, S.M., Shima, J.E., Connolly, C.M., Sharma, M., Holdcraft, R.W., Griswold, M.D., Braun, R.E. Mol. Endocrinol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  35. Characterization of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies to human tissue kallikrein. Chao, J., Chao, L., Tillman, D.M., Woodley, C.M., Margolius, H.S. Hypertension (1985) [Pubmed]
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