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Gene Review

DSC3  -  desmocollin 3

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CDHF3, Cadherin family member 3, DSC, DSC1, DSC2, ...
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Disease relevance of DSC3


Psychiatry related information on DSC3

  • Association of DSC1, a gene modulated by adrenergic stimulation, with Alzheimer's disease [4].
  • Increasing chain length corresponds to a temperature effect, which was quantified for different lipids, depending on the head group structure using isotherm (two-dimensional systems) and DSC (three-dimensional systems) measurements [5].
  • This study used DSC fMRI to map cerebellar blood volume in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and healthy controls [6].
  • A number of qualitative and quantitative methods such as UV, IR, TLC, GLC, DSC, EPR as well as organoleptic and gravimetric analysis were used to determine and analyse any changes resulting from irradiation [7].
  • However, preliminary work suggests that DSC MRI may also provide clinically important information for the evaluation of patients with neuropsychiatric disorders, especially dementia and schizophrenia [8].

High impact information on DSC3

  • Morpholino knockdown in zebrafish embryos revealed a requirement for dsc2 in the establishment of the normal myocardial structure and function, with reduced desmosomal plaque area, loss of the desmosome extracellular electron-dense midlines, and associated myocardial contractility defects [9].
  • These data identify DSC2 mutations as a cause of ARVC in humans and demonstrate that physiologic levels of DSC2 are crucial for normal cardiac desmosome formation, early cardiac morphogenesis, and cardiac function [9].
  • Two examples include the antimetastatic, tumor suppressor genes, desmocollin 3 (DSC3) and MASPIN, which are frequently silenced in this manner in human breast cancer [10].
  • The resulting polymers were characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR, GPC, and DSC [11].
  • A series of rod-coil molecules (n-x, where n represents the number of repeating units in a PPO coil and x the number of phenyl groups in a rod segment) with variation in the molecular length, but an identical rod to coil volume ratio was synthesized, and their self-assembling behavior was investigated by using DSC and X-ray scatterings [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of DSC3


Biological context of DSC3

  • DSC3 was assigned to chromosome 18 by PCR analysis of rodent-human somatic cell hybrids, where it appears to be closely linked to all the other desmosomal cadherin genes [16].
  • The DSC1 gene comprises 17 exons spanning approximately 33 kb on 18q12.1, and the DSC3 gene comprises 17 exons spanning approximately 49 kb on 18q12 [17].
  • The whole DSC/DSG gene complex occupies no more than about 700 kb, and the genes are arranged in the order cen-3'-DSC3-DSC2-DSC1-5'-5'-DSG1-DSG3-D SG2-3'-tel, so that the two gene clusters are transcribed outward from the interlocus region [18].
  • The reactivity of IgG antibodies with Dsc3 was confirmed by COS-7 cell cDNA transfection method using cDNA of human Dsc1 to Dsc3 [1].
  • This reactivation is a result of wt p53 binding to its consensus DNA-binding sites within the MASPIN and DSC3 promoters, stimulating histone acetylation, and enhancing chromatin accessibility of their promoters [19].

Anatomical context of DSC3

  • This reactivity was confirmed by positive IgA immunofluorescence with Dsc2 and Dsc3 expressed on COS-7 cells [20].
  • INTRODUCTION: Desmocollin 3 (DSC3) is a member of the cadherin superfamily of calcium-dependent cell adhesion molecules and a principle component of desmosomes [2].
  • Furthermore, DSC3 expression is limited to cells of epithelial origin and its expression of mRNA and protein is lost in a high proportion of breast tumor cell lines (79%) [2].
  • We propose that the differentiation-specific desmocollin isoforms desmocollin-1 and desmocollin-3 are functionally equivalent in basal epidermal cells and suggest that their changing expression patterns are markers, but not regulators, of the initial steps in keratinocyte differentiation [21].
  • The desmocollins exhibit tissue-specific patterns of expression; only Dsc2 is expressed in normal colonic epithelium [3].

Associations of DSC3 with chemical compounds

  • Of the 23 specimens showing a loss of DSC3 expression, 13 (56%) were associated with cytosine hypermethylation of the promoter region [2].
  • By immunogold post embedding technique, we studied in anagen HFs the modulation of the synthesis of desmocollin 1 (Dsc1), a transmembrane glycoprotein specifically synthesized in the IRS and in the companion layer [22].
  • A variety of techniques including (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, (29)Si NMR, FTIR, XRD, DSC, and, especially, static and dynamic light scattering and viscosimetry were combined to confirm the presence of the ordered ladderlike structure of polymer A-LPMS [23].
  • Six ethylene/propylene model copolymers have been prepared via acyclic diene metathesis (ADMET) polymerization and characterized for primary and higher level structure using in-depth NMR, IR, DSC, WAXD, and GPC analysis [24].
  • Gradual addition of sodium didecyl phosphate (C(10)()C(10)()(-)()) leads to the formation of catanionic vesicles, which were characterized by cryo-electron microscopy, and their main phase transition temperatures (DSC) and zeta-potentials [25].

Other interactions of DSC3

  • Adhesion between desmosomal junctions is mediated by structural proteins of the cadherin family, viz. three desmocollins (DSC) and three desmogleins (DSG) [26].
  • Both surfactants exhibited single endotherms upon DSC, with peak temperatures Tm at 21.7 and 20.1 degrees C for DSP and MSP, respectively [27].
  • OTA induced proMMP-9 and alphaSMA overexpression, decreases of E-cadherin and N-cadherin, and DSC-2 up-regulation [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of DSC3


  1. Pemphigus herpetiformis with IgA and IgG antibodies to desmoglein 1 and IgG antibodies to desmocollin 3. Kozlowska, A., Hashimoto, T., Jarzabek-Chorzelska, M., Amagai, A., Nagata, Y., Strasz, Z., Jablonska, S. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Epigenetic silencing of DSC3 is a common event in human breast cancer. Oshiro, M.M., Kim, C.J., Wozniak, R.J., Junk, D.J., Muñoz-Rodríguez, J.L., Burr, J.A., Fitzgerald, M., Pawar, S.C., Cress, A.E., Domann, F.E., Futscher, B.W. Breast Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Desmocollin switching in colorectal cancer. Khan, K., Hardy, R., Haq, A., Ogunbiyi, O., Morton, D., Chidgey, M. Br. J. Cancer (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Association of DSC1, a gene modulated by adrenergic stimulation, with Alzheimer's disease. Ramos, M.C., Tenorio, R., Mart??nez-Garc??a, A., Sastre, I., Vilella-Cuadrada, E., Frank, A., Rosich-Estrag??, M., Valdivieso, F., Bullido, M.J. Neurosci. Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Generic phase behavior of branched-chain phospholipid monolayers. Bringezu, F., Dobner, B., Brezesinski, G. Chemistry (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany) (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Differences in cerebellar blood volume in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Loeber, R.T., Sherwood, A.R., Renshaw, P.F., Cohen, B.M., Yurgelun-Todd, D.A. Schizophr. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. The effect of ionizing radiation on some derivatives of 1,4-dihydropyridine in the solid state. Marciniec, B., Jaroszkiewicz, E., Ogrodowczyk, M. International journal of pharmaceutics. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging in neuropsychiatry: present utility and future promise. Renshaw, P.F., Levin, J.M., Kaufman, M.J., Ross, M.H., Lewis, R.F., Harris, G.J. European radiology. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Mutant desmocollin-2 causes arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Heuser, A., Plovie, E.R., Ellinor, P.T., Grossmann, K.S., Shin, J.T., Wichter, T., Basson, C.T., Lerman, B.B., Sasse-Klaassen, S., Thierfelder, L., MacRae, C.A., Gerull, B. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine-mediated reductions in G9A histone methyltransferase and histone H3 K9 di-methylation levels are linked to tumor suppressor gene reactivation. Wozniak, R.J., Klimecki, W.T., Lau, S.S., Feinstein, Y., Futscher, B.W. Oncogene (2007) [Pubmed]
  11. Alkenylsilane effects on organotitanium-catalyzed ethylene polymerization. Toward simultaneous polyolefin branch and functional group introduction. Amin, S.B., Marks, T.J. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Self-assembly of rod-coil molecules into molecular length-dependent organization. Ryu, J.H., Oh, N.K., Zin, W.C., Lee, M. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Evidence for two pools of cholesterol in the Acholeplasma laidlawii strain B membrane: a deuterium NMR and DSC study. Monck, M.A., Bloom, M., Lafleur, M., Lewis, R.N., McElhaney, R.N., Cullis, P.R. Biochemistry (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Structure in dehydrated trehalose dihydrate-evaluation of the concept of partial crystallinity. Rani, M., Govindarajan, R., Surana, R., Suryanarayanan, R. Pharm. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Changes in solid-state structure of cyclophosphamide monohydrate induced by mechanical treatment and storage. Ketolainen, J., Poso, A., Viitasaari, V., Gynther, J., Pirttimäki, J., Laine, E., Paronen, P. Pharm. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. The desmocollins of human foreskin epidermis: identification and chromosomal assignment of a third gene and expression patterns of the three isoforms. King, I.A., Sullivan, K.H., Bennett, R., Buxton, R.S. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Genomic organization and amplification of the human desmosomal cadherin genes DSC1 and DSC3, encoding desmocollin types 1 and 3. Whittock, N.V., Hunt, D.M., Rickman, L., Malhi, S., Vogazianou, A.P., Dawson, L.F., Eady, R.A., Buxton, R.S., McGrath, J.A. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. A YAC contig joining the desmocollin and desmoglein loci on human chromosome 18 and ordering of the desmocollin genes. Cowley, C.M., Simrak, D., Marsden, M.D., King, I.A., Arnemann, J., Buxton, R.S. Genomics (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Mutant p53 and aberrant cytosine methylation cooperate to silence gene expression. Oshiro, M.M., Watts, G.S., Wozniak, R.J., Junk, D.J., Munoz-Rodriguez, J.L., Domann, F.E., Futscher, B.W. Oncogene (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. The detection of IgG and IgA autoantibodies to desmocollins 1-3 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using baculovirus-expressed proteins, in atypical pemphigus but not in typical pemphigus. Hisamatsu, Y., Amagai, M., Garrod, D.R., Kanzaki, T., Hashimoto, T. Br. J. Dermatol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Trangenic misexpression of the differentiation-specific desmocollin isoform 1 in basal keratinocytes. Henkler, F., Strom, M., Mathers, K., Cordingley, H., Sullivan, K., King, I. J. Invest. Dermatol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Desmocollin 1 expression and desmosomal remodeling during terminal differentiation of human anagen hair follicle: an electron microscopic study. Donetti, E., Boschini, E., Cerini, A., Selleri, S., Rumio, C., Barajon, I. Exp. Dermatol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. A novel aryl amide-bridged ladderlike polymethylsiloxane synthesized by an amido H-bonding self-assembled template. Tang, H., Sun, J., Jiang, J., Zhou, X., Hu, T., Xie, P., Zhang, R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Modeling random methyl branching in ethylene/ propylene copolymers using metathesis chemistry: synthesis and thermal behavior. Sworen, J.C., Smith, J.A., Wagener, K.B., Baugh, L.S., Rucker, S.P. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Kemp elimination in membrane mimetic reaction media: probing catalytic properties of catanionic vesicles formed from double-tailed amphiphiles. Klijn, J.E., Engberts, J.B. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. The regulatory region of the human desmocollin 3 promoter forms a DNA four-way junction. Gadhavi, P.L., Greenwood, M.D., Strom, M., King, I.A., Buxton, R.S. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. Impact of reductive cleavage of an intramolecular disulfide bond containing cationic gemini surfactant in monolayers and bilayers. Säily, V.M., Ryhänen, S.J., Lankinen, H., Luciani, P., Mancini, G., Parry, M.J., Kinnunen, P.K. Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids. (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. Ochratoxin A-induced renal cortex fibrosis and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition: molecular mechanisms of ochratoxin A-injury and potential effects of red wine. Gagliano, N., Torri, C., Donetti, E., Grizzi, F., Costa, F., Bertelli, A.A., Migliori, M., Filippi, C., Bedoni, M., Panichi, V., Giovannini, L., Gioia, M. Mol. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  29. Patterns of desmocollin synthesis in human epithelia: immunolocalization of desmocollins 1 and 3 in special epithelia and in cultured cells. Nuber, U.A., Schäfer, S., Stehr, S., Rackwitz, H.R., Franke, W.W. Eur. J. Cell Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  30. Pemphigus vulgaris-IgG reduces the desmoglein 3/desmocollin 3 ratio on the cell surface in cultured keratinocytes as revealed by double-staining immunoelectron microscopy. Shu, E., Yamamoto, Y., Sato-Nagai, M., Aoyama, Y., Kitajima, Y. J. Dermatol. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. Mechanism of preferential enrichment, an unusual enantiomeric resolution phenomenon caused by polymorphic transition during crystallization of mixed crystals composed of two enantiomers. Tamura, R., Fujimoto, D., Lepp, Z., Misaki, K., Miura, H., Takahashi, H., Ushio, T., Nakai, T., Hirotsu, K. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2002) [Pubmed]
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