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Gene Review

Slc1a2  -  solute carrier family 1 (glial high...

Mus musculus

Synonyms: 1700091C19Rik, 2900019G14Rik, AI159670, Eaat2, Excitatory amino acid transporter 2, ...
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Disease relevance of Slc1a2


High impact information on Slc1a2

  • In knockout mice, for either glial glutamate transporters, GLAST or GLT-1, a classical metabolic response to synaptic activation (i.e., enhancement of glucose utilization) is decreased at an early functional stage in the somatosensory barrel cortex following activation of whiskers [7].
  • However, the possible functional role of EAAC1 in preventing neuron death has not been resolved as compared with glial glutamate transporters such as GLT-1 [8].
  • These results demonstrate that GLAST is required for normal signal transmission between photoreceptors and bipolar cells and that both GLAST and GLT-1 play a neuroprotective role during ischemia in the retina [3].
  • Glutamate transporter GLT-1 is transiently localized on growing axons of the mouse spinal cord before establishing astrocytic expression [9].
  • Aquaporin-4 deficiency down-regulates glutamate uptake and GLT-1 expression in astrocytes [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Slc1a2


Biological context of Slc1a2


Anatomical context of Slc1a2


Associations of Slc1a2 with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of Slc1a2

  • However when trains of stimuli were applied, even to a small number of parallel fibres, knocking out GLAST or blocking GLT-1 in the absence of GLAST greatly prolonged and enhanced the AMPA receptor-mediated current [25].

Other interactions of Slc1a2


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Slc1a2

  • Here we report an expression analysis of five known (mEAAT2/5UT1-5) and two novel (mEAAT2/5UT6, -7) 5' splice variants of EAAT2 using semiquantitative PCR [1].
  • By in situ hybridization, 35S-labeled antisense oligonucleotide probes for GLT-1 mRNA consistently labeled the mantle zone/gray matter from embryonic day 11 through the adult stage [9].
  • By electron microscopy, GLT-1 immunoreactivity was detected in axons forming frequent enlargements and was focally localized on a small portion of the axolemma, particularly that facing adjacent axons [9].
  • By P12, and despite an increased global expression as observed by immunoblotting, the barrel pattern of GLAST and GLT-1 staining is no longer evident [22].
  • Both of the two 3'-ends have been demonstrated by RT-PCR to be present not only in liver but also in brain, indicating both brain and liver GLT-1 possess two types of 3'-ends [29].


  1. Differential regulation of 5' splice variants of the glutamate transporter EAAT2 in an in vivo model of chemical hypoxia induced by 3-nitropropionic acid. Münch, C., Zhu, B.G., Leven, A., Stamm, S., Einkörn, H., Schwalenstöcker, B., Ludolph, A.C., Riepe, M.W., Meyer, T. J. Neurosci. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Epilepsy and exacerbation of brain injury in mice lacking the glutamate transporter GLT-1. Tanaka, K., Watase, K., Manabe, T., Yamada, K., Watanabe, M., Takahashi, K., Iwama, H., Nishikawa, T., Ichihara, N., Kikuchi, T., Okuyama, S., Kawashima, N., Hori, S., Takimoto, M., Wada, K. Science (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Functions of the two glutamate transporters GLAST and GLT-1 in the retina. Harada, T., Harada, C., Watanabe, M., Inoue, Y., Sakagawa, T., Nakayama, N., Sasaki, S., Okuyama, S., Watase, K., Wada, K., Tanaka, K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Alternative splicing of the 5'-sequences of the mouse EAAT2 glutamate transporter and expression in a transgenic model for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Münch, C., Ebstein, M., Seefried, U., Zhu, B., Stamm, S., Landwehrmeyer, G.B., Ludolph, A.C., Schwalenstöcker, B., Meyer, T. J. Neurochem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Neuronal soluble factors differentially regulate the expression of the GLT1 and GLAST glutamate transporters in cultured astroglia. Gegelashvili, G., Danbolt, N.C., Schousboe, A. J. Neurochem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Behavioral characterization of GLT1 (+/-) mice as a model of mild glutamatergic hyperfunction. Kiryk, A., Aida, T., Tanaka, K., Banerjee, P., Wilczynski, G.M., Meyza, K., Knapska, E., Filipkowski, R.K., Kaczmarek, L., Danysz, W. Neurotox. Res (2008) [Pubmed]
  7. Glial glutamate transporters mediate a functional metabolic crosstalk between neurons and astrocytes in the mouse developing cortex. Voutsinos-Porche, B., Bonvento, G., Tanaka, K., Steiner, P., Welker, E., Chatton, J.Y., Magistretti, P.J., Pellerin, L. Neuron (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Unique anti-apoptotic activity of EAAC1 in injured motor neurons. Kiryu-Seo, S., Gamo, K., Tachibana, T., Tanaka, K., Kiyama, H. EMBO J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Glutamate transporter GLT-1 is transiently localized on growing axons of the mouse spinal cord before establishing astrocytic expression. Yamada, K., Watanabe, M., Shibata, T., Nagashima, M., Tanaka, K., Inoue, Y. J. Neurosci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Aquaporin-4 deficiency down-regulates glutamate uptake and GLT-1 expression in astrocytes. Zeng, X.N., Sun, X.L., Gao, L., Fan, Y., Ding, J.H., Hu, G. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (2007) [Pubmed]
  11. Glutamate transporter cluster formation in astrocytic processes regulates glutamate uptake activity. Zhou, J., Sutherland, M.L. J. Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Inhibition of glial glutamate transporter GLT-1 augments brain edema after transient focal cerebral ischemia in mice. Namura, S., Maeno, H., Takami, S., Jiang, X.F., Kamichi, S., Wada, K., Nagata, I. Neurosci. Lett. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Molecular cloning of two glutamate transporter subtypes from mouse brain. Mukainaka, Y., Tanaka, K., Hagiwara, T., Wada, K. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Requirement of appropriate glutamate concentrations in the synaptic cleft for hippocampal LTP induction. Katagiri, H., Tanaka, K., Manabe, T. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Roles of glial glutamate transporters in shaping EPSCs at the climbing fiber-Purkinje cell synapses. Takatsuru, Y., Takayasu, Y., Iino, M., Nikkuni, O., Ueda, Y., Tanaka, K., Ozawa, S. Neurosci. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Evidence that amyloid beta-peptide-induced lipid peroxidation and its sequelae in Alzheimer's disease brain contribute to neuronal death. Butterfield, D.A., Castegna, A., Lauderback, C.M., Drake, J. Neurobiol. Aging (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. The 'glial' glutamate transporter, EAAT2 (Glt-1) accounts for high affinity glutamate uptake into adult rodent nerve endings. Suchak, S.K., Baloyianni, N.V., Perkinton, M.S., Williams, R.J., Meldrum, B.S., Rattray, M. J. Neurochem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Spinal cord GLT-1 glutamate transporter and blood glutamic acid alterations in motor neuron degeneration (Mnd) mice. Mennini, T., Bastone, A., Crespi, D., Comoletti, D., Manzoni, C. J. Neurol. Sci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Plasticity of astrocytic coverage and glutamate transporter expression in adult mouse cortex. Genoud, C., Quairiaux, C., Steiner, P., Hirling, H., Welker, E., Knott, G.W. PLoS Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Stimulation of excitatory amino acid release from adult mouse brain glia subcellular particles by high mobility group box 1 protein. Pedrazzi, M., Raiteri, L., Bonanno, G., Patrone, M., Ledda, S., Passalacqua, M., Milanese, M., Melloni, E., Raiteri, M., Pontremoli, S., Sparatore, B. J. Neurochem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Astrogliosis is delayed in type 1 interleukin-1 receptor-null mice following a penetrating brain injury. Lin, H.W., Basu, A., Druckman, C., Cicchese, M., Krady, J.K., Levison, S.W. Journal of neuroinflammation [electronic resource]. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Glial glutamate transporters and maturation of the mouse somatosensory cortex. Voutsinos-Porche, B., Knott, G., Tanaka, K., Quairiaux, C., Welker, E., Bonvento, G. Cereb. Cortex (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Regulation of glutamate transporter GLAST and GLT-1 expression in astrocytes by estrogen. Pawlak, J., Brito, V., Küppers, E., Beyer, C. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Functional analysis of glutamate transporters in excitatory synaptic transmission of GLAST1 and GLAST1/EAAC1 deficient mice. Stoffel, W., Körner, R., Wachtmann, D., Keller, B.U. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. The role of glial glutamate transporters in maintaining the independent operation of juvenile mouse cerebellar parallel fibre synapses. Marcaggi, P., Billups, D., Attwell, D. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Impaired glial glutamate transport in a mouse tuberous sclerosis epilepsy model. Wong, M., Ess, K.C., Uhlmann, E.J., Jansen, L.A., Li, W., Crino, P.B., Mennerick, S., Yamada, K.A., Gutmann, D.H. Ann. Neurol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Embryonic stem cell-derived astrocytes expressing drug-inducible transgenes: differentiation and transplantion into the mouse brain. Benveniste, R.J., Keller, G., Germano, I. J. Neurosurg. (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. Decrease in glial glutamate transporter variants and excitatory amino acid receptor down-regulation in a murine model of ALS-PDC. Wilson, J.M., Khabazian, I., Pow, D.V., Craig, U.K., Shaw, C.A. Neuromolecular Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Tissue specific variants of glutamate transporter GLT-1. Utsunomiya-Tate, N., Endou, H., Kanai, Y. FEBS Lett. (1997) [Pubmed]
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