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Gene Review

Dpysl2  -  dihydropyrimidinase-like 2

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: CRMP-2, Collapsin response mediator protein 2, Crmp2, DRP-2, Dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 2, ...
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Disease relevance of Dpysl2


Psychiatry related information on Dpysl2

  • This is the first GSK3 substrate found to be regulated in this manner and may explain the hyperphosphorylation of CRMP2 observed in Alzheimer's disease [4].

High impact information on Dpysl2

  • In addition to enumerating these S-nitrosylation sites, the method revealed endogenous SNO-Cys modification sites on cerebellum proteins, including alpha-tubulin, beta-tubulin, GAPDH, and dihydropyrimidinase-related protein-2 [5].
  • Rat CRMP-2/TOAD-64 is most closely related to chick CRMP-62 and is the most widely expressed CRMP within the nervous system [6].
  • Three additional lines of evidence support this possibility: TOAD-64 is upregulated following neuronal induction of P19 and PC12 cells; the protein is found in lamellipodia and filopodia of growth cones; and axotomy of the sciatic nerve induces reexpression [7].
  • The expression of the TOAD-64 protein and gene coincident with initial neuronal differentiation and the downregulation when the majority of axon growth is complete suggests a role in axon elaboration [7].
  • The data presented here suggest that TOAD-64 could be a central element in the machinery underlying axonal outgrowth and pathfinding, perhaps playing a role in the signal transduction processes that permit growing axons to choose correct routes and targets [7].

Biological context of Dpysl2


Anatomical context of Dpysl2


Associations of Dpysl2 with chemical compounds


Other interactions of Dpysl2


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Dpysl2

  • Northern and in situ hybridization show that TOAD-64 mRNA is enriched in the nervous system and is developmentally regulated in parallel with the protein [7].
  • Detection of TOAD-64 in adult rat brain as revealed by two-dimensional protein gel electrophoresis followed by MALDI mass spectrometry possible modulatory effect of chronic haloperidol treatment [12].


  1. Collapsin response mediator protein-2 accelerates axon regeneration of nerve-injured motor neurons of rat. Suzuki, Y., Nakagomi, S., Namikawa, K., Kiryu-Seo, S., Inagaki, N., Kaibuchi, K., Aizawa, H., Kikuchi, K., Kiyama, H. J. Neurochem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Alteration of collapsin response mediator protein-2 expression in focal ischemic rat brain. Chung, M.A., Lee, J.E., Lee, J.Y., Ko, M.J., Lee, S.T., Kim, H.J. Neuroreport (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. GSK-3 phosphorylation of the Alzheimer epitope within collapsin response mediator proteins regulates axon elongation in primary neurons. Cole, A.R., Knebel, A., Morrice, N.A., Robertson, L.A., Irving, A.J., Connolly, C.N., Sutherland, C. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Distinct priming kinases contribute to differential regulation of collapsin response mediator proteins by glycogen synthase kinase-3 in vivo. Cole, A.R., Causeret, F., Yadirgi, G., Hastie, C.J., McLauchlan, H., McManus, E.J., Hernández, F., Eickholt, B.J., Nikolic, M., Sutherland, C. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. SNOSID, a proteomic method for identification of cysteine S-nitrosylation sites in complex protein mixtures. Hao, G., Derakhshan, B., Shi, L., Campagne, F., Gross, S.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. A family of rat CRMP genes is differentially expressed in the nervous system. Wang, L.H., Strittmatter, S.M. J. Neurosci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. TOAD-64, a gene expressed early in neuronal differentiation in the rat, is related to unc-33, a C. elegans gene involved in axon outgrowth. Minturn, J.E., Fryer, H.J., Geschwind, D.H., Hockfield, S. J. Neurosci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Ras regulates neuronal polarity via the PI3-kinase/Akt/GSK-3beta/CRMP-2 pathway. Yoshimura, T., Arimura, N., Kawano, Y., Kawabata, S., Wang, S., Kaibuchi, K. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Myelin-associated glycoprotein inhibits microtubule assembly by a Rho-kinase-dependent mechanism. Mimura, F., Yamagishi, S., Arimura, N., Fujitani, M., Kubo, T., Kaibuchi, K., Yamashita, T. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors reduce excitotoxic injury and may facilitate neurogenesis. Baskys, A., Bayazitov, I., Fang, L., Blaabjerg, M., Poulsen, F.R., Zimmer, J. Neuropharmacology (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Effects of neonatal hypothyroidism on the expressions of growth cone proteins and axon guidance molecules related genes in the hippocampus. Wong, C.C., Leung, M.S. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Detection of TOAD-64 in adult rat brain as revealed by two-dimensional protein gel electrophoresis followed by MALDI mass spectrometry possible modulatory effect of chronic haloperidol treatment. Dahmen, N., Jungblut, P.R., Fischer, V., Schrank, M., Reuss, S., Rujescu, D., Hiemke, C. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Maternal dietary choline availability alters mitosis, apoptosis and the localization of TOAD-64 protein in the developing fetal rat septum. Albright, C.D., Friedrich, C.B., Brown, E.C., Mar, M.H., Zeisel, S.H. Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Comparative proteome analysis of thalamus in MK-801-treated rats. Paulson, L., Martin, P., Nilsson, C.L., Ljung, E., Westman-Brinkmalm, A., Blennow, K., Davidsson, P. Proteomics (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Alpha2-chimaerin, cyclin-dependent Kinase 5/p35, and its target collapsin response mediator protein-2 are essential components in semaphorin 3A-induced growth-cone collapse. Brown, M., Jacobs, T., Eickholt, B., Ferrari, G., Teo, M., Monfries, C., Qi, R.Z., Leung, T., Lim, L., Hall, C. J. Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Differences in protein level between neonatal and adult brain. Fountoulakis, M., Hardmaier, R., Schuller, E., Lubec, G. Electrophoresis (2000) [Pubmed]
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